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Responsiveness to Instruction (RtI) The Problem-Solving Model & Analyzing the Core North Carolina Department of Public Instruction 2013 1.

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Presentation on theme: "Responsiveness to Instruction (RtI) The Problem-Solving Model & Analyzing the Core North Carolina Department of Public Instruction 2013 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Responsiveness to Instruction (RtI) The Problem-Solving Model & Analyzing the Core North Carolina Department of Public Instruction

2 2 7 Step 7 Analysis of the Intervention Plan make a team decision on the effectiveness of the intervention 1 Step 1 Define the Problem Develop a behavioral (observable) definition of problem 2 Step 2 Develop an Assessment Plan Generate a hypothesis and assessment questions related to the problem 3 Step 3 Analysis of the Assessment Plan Determine if problem is correctly defined 4 Step 4 Generate a Goal Statement Specific Description of the changes expected in student behavior 5 Step 5 Develop an Intervention Plan Base interventions on best practices and research- proven strategies 6 Step 6 Implement the Intervention Plan Provide strategies, materials, and resources: include progress monitoring Data

3 Universal Screening Core Analysis FormativeSummative 3

4 Introduction to Assessment Assessment within RtI is equally as important as the intervention provided No one intervention works for all students so it must be “tested” for effectiveness Assessment is part of problem-solving 4

5 Introduction to Assessment Assessment within RtI should be: Easily understood by teacher, parents, students Provides early intervention Solution driven: Not aimed at diagnosing a problem but the assessments conducted should drive solutions! Provide a road map towards what strategies are effective for students 5

6 6 Tier I Tier II Tier III Tier IV Student Needs Assessment 6

7 Analyzing the Core 7 Core instruction (your teachers’ “P” & “D”) should meet the needs of 80% of all your students. ALL

8 Universal Screening Core Analysis FormativeSummative 8

9 Universal Screening Quick, low cost, repeatable examination of grade appropriate and basic skills of all students Purpose(s): 1)Assess your Core’s effectiveness 2)Who needs more intervention/enrichment? 3)“Temperature check” 9

10 Universal Screening Conducted three times a year: Fall, Winter, Spring Allows problem-solving of whole school/group/grade level skill gaps Triangulate school data 10

11 Why Conduct Universal Screening? Determine how well your core instructional programs are working for all students Identify specific skill deficits/strengths of all students Add to summative assessments (EOG/benchmarks) to give specific enough data Provide timely data to make decisions 11

12 Oral Reading Fluency Oral reading analyzing accuracy and speed Measures words read correctly per minute Highly correlated with overall reading achievement.91 –Correlation between weight and blood pressure –Correlation between glucose level and weight –Correlation between SAT and college grades (Fuchs, Fuchs, and Hosp, 2001) 12

13 Summative Assessment Mastery Measure/Culmination Measure Asks the question “Did they learn it?” Useful for summary information Evaluates if learning has taken place Examples of Summative Assessment: EOG testing, benchmark testing, GRE testing, SAT testing, Driver’s License tests, EOC tests, Unit Tests/Quizzes, Report Card Grades 13

14 Formative Assessment Collected over time, rather than just at the end of a unit, semester, year Not a mastery measure Examples of Formative Assessment: Curriculum-Based Measurement, Common Assessments, Descriptive Feedback 14

15 Formative Assessment Although summative assessments have a place….we need a way to measure performance over time with frequency Formative assessment is a key to good Instruction! 15

16 Analyzing the Core 16 Core instruction (your teachers’ “P” & “D”) should meet the needs of 80% of all your students. ALL

17 Analyzing Your Core Are at least 80% of your students proficient in each subgroup? What is working? Why? How do you know? What’s not working? Why? How do you know? Do teachers have needed skills & content knowledge? 17

18 What is your Data showing? Or? 18

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21 Is your curriculum aligned with standards and assessment? Are teachers using research-based strategies? Is your schedule working? Analyzing Your Core Program 21

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23 Develop an Assessment Plan Instruction Curriculum Environment Learner Strategies Materials Pacing Order Schedule Size of Groups 23

24 Develop an Assessment Plan 97% of all first grade students did not meet expectations in one area of phonemic awareness because the curriculum delivered between fall and winter was lacking content in this area. InstructionCurriculumEnvironmentLeaner 24

25 25 7 Step 7 Analysis of the Intervention Plan make a team decision on the effectiveness of the intervention 1 Step 1 Define the Problem Develop a behavioral (observable) definition of problem 2 Step 2 Develop an Assessment Plan Generate a hypothesis and assessment questions related to the problem 3 Step 3 Analysis of the Assessment Plan Determine if problem is correctly defined 4 Step 4 Generate a Goal Statement Specific Description of the changes expected in student behavior 5 Step 5 Develop an Intervention Plan Base interventions on best practices and research-proven strategies 6 Step 6 Implement the Intervention Plan Provide strategies, materials, and resources: include progress monitoring Data

26 Scheduling: Considerations Create master schedule based on student needs Do students receive core instruction? Typically we rely on students to make the connection to core –How do we connect the varying programs/interventions for children? 26

27 Universal Screening Core Analysis: Learner Curriculum Based Measurement (CBM) FormativeSummative 27

28 Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM) Assessment approach emphasizing repeated direct measurement of student performance High levels of validity and reliability Multiple forms at the same grade level allow for comparison across time Over 25 years of educational research indicating it promotes positive student outcomes 28

29 Curriculum-Based Measurement "any set of measurement procedures that use direct observation and recording of a student’s performance in a local curriculum as a basis for gathering information to make instructional decisions” Deno (1987) Method of monitoring student educational progress through direct assessment of academic skills 29

30 Curriculum-Based Measurement Characteristics: Simple Accurate Efficient Generalizable Reliable and Valid Predictive Sensitive Flexible 30

31 Curriculum Based Measurement Purposes Survey Level Assessment –Determine student’s instructional level Specific Level Assessment Types General Outcome Measures Skill based measures Mastery measures 31

32 Curriculum Based Measurement: Types General Outcome Measures Skills –Based Measures Mastery Measures Screening Diagnostic Evaluation Survey-level assessment Specific-level assessment Progress Monitoring To target content areas of concern 32

33 CBM as a General Outcome Measure This is a general thermometer of academic health It is complimentary to any curriculum- not curriculum-specific Examples of GOM measures outside of education Height Weight Blood pressure Stock Market McDonald’s measuring number of hamburgers sold 33

34 Curriculum Based Measurement: Examples Early Literacy Oral Reading Fluency Comprehension-MAZE Multiple Choice Reading Comprehension Written Expression Early Numeracy Math Computation Math Applications 34

35 Finding Curriculum Based Measurements ls 35

36 Oral Reading Fluency Oral reading analyzing accuracy and speed Measures words read correctly per minute Highly correlated with overall reading achievement.91 –Correlation between weight and blood pressure –Correlation between glucose level and weight –Correlation between SAT and college grades (Fuchs, Fuchs, and Hosp, 2001) 36

37 Oral Reading Fluency Students read aloud for one minute Words read correctly per minute are computed What is correct? –Self-corrects (within 3 seconds), correctly read words, incorrectly read words that are dialectical in nature 37

38 Read connected text accurately and fluently Passages available from first to ninth grade levels Oral Reading Fluency 38

39 Fluency Rubrics Smoothness Pacing Confidence Accuracy Expression Gives more robust assessment of fluency ubricfluencyTimothy_Rasinski_A02D8D54358FF. pdf 39

40 Student reads passage silently for 3 minutes Every 7 th word is replaced with three choices Student circles correct choice Can be group administered Reading Comprehension: MAZE 40

41 Reading Comprehension: Multiple Choice For screening for grades 6-8 Students can take online or pencil/paper No set time limit (estimate 45 minutes)- questionable reliability/validity at this point (Natl. Center on RtI) 41

42 Administered for two to eight minutes Single Skill or Multi Skill Math Computation 42

43 Concepts and Problem Solving Measures the application of math concepts Administration times vary- typically 8-10 minutes Math Applications 43

44 Written Expression Spelling –Correct Spelling Sequences Writing (typically 4 minutes total) –Correct Writing Sequences or Correct Words Written scoring 44

45 Letter Naming Phoneme Segmentation Decoding Letter Sounds Types of Assessment: Early Literacy 45

46 Oral Counting Number Identification Quantity Discrimination Missing Number Types of Assessment: Early Numeracy 46

47 Types of Assessment: Curriculum Based Measurement Reflection: Why would you want to use CBM? What are the benefits of CBM in the classroom? What are the benefits of CBM for a school? Turn and Talk!!! 47


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