Presentation on theme: "9.1 Introduction Purpose What- We are going to learn about compromise How- by taking a final law exam on the Constitution Why- so we understand how it."— Presentation transcript:
9.1 Introduction Purpose What- We are going to learn about compromise How- by taking a final law exam on the Constitution Why- so we understand how it affects my life.
Ch 9 The Constitution: A More Perfect Union Essential Question: How has the Constitution created “a more perfect Union”? Objectives: 1. Identify the main features of the Constitution and describe the basic lawmaking process. 2. Analyze how the Constitution divides powers among various levels and branches and preserves individual rights. 3. Explain how the guiding principles of the Constitution have created “a more perfect Union” and resulted in a government that can adapt to changing times.
9.1 Introduction A. Compromises 1.Constitution has many compromises. 2.The most important one is creating a strong central government that does not threaten individual freedoms. B. Structure 1.Framers wanted the Constitution to be easy to read. 2.The Constitution is divided into sections called Articles. 3.Each article is split into sections C. Framework 1.Strong framework with ability to add and change. 2.Thy Constitution is a living document with the ability to change and grow.
9.2 The Preamble tells the Goals of Government Purpose What- We are going to learn about compromise How- read and explain the parts of the Preamble of the Constitution Why- so we understand how it affects my life.
Ch 9.2 The Constitution: A More Perfect Union
9.2 The Preamble Tells the Goals of Government A. Preamble A.The Preamble explains the reasons for the new government. B.The Preamble to the United States Constitution is a brief introductory statement of the Constitution’s fundamental purposes and guiding principles. It states in general terms, and courts have referred to it as reliable evidence of, the Founding Fathers’ intentions regarding the Constitution's meaning and what they hoped the Constitution would achieve B. “We the People” A.States that the Constitution gets its power from the people. That is called popular sovereignty.
9.2 The Preamble Tells the Goals of Government A. Goals 1.“form a more perfect Union” a) States and national government to work together. 2.“establish Justice” a) To be ruled by laws. All people must follow. 3.“insure domestic Tranquility” a) Keep peace at home. 4.“provide for the common defense” a) Protect from foreign enemies 5.“promote the general Welfare” a) Support economy and help people prosper 6.“secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity” a) Protect freedoms now and in future.
9.3 The Legislative Branch Makes Laws Purpose What- We are going to learn about compromise How- by understanding how power is divided between the three branches of government Why- so we understand how it affects my life.
Vocabulary Terms separation of powers separation of powers Legislative branch Legislative branch bicameral bicameral Congress Congress House of Representatives House of Representatives Senate Senate census census apportionment apportionment popular vote popular vote bill bill veto veto override override appropriate appropriate elastic clause elastic clause
9.3 9.3 A. The Legislative Branch 1.Each of the government’s three branches has specific powers. 2.This separation of powers keeps any one branch from becoming too powerful. 3.Article I defines the Legislative Branch B. The Structure of Congress 1.Congress controls the Legislative Branch 2.Congress is bicameral or divided into two houses. 3.Senate(upper house) 2 per state (100), 6 year term (no limit), must be 30, citizen for 9 years and resident of state you serve. 4.House of Representatives (lower house) based on population (435), 2 year term (no limit), must be 25, citizen for 7 years and resident of state you serve. 5.Congress uses apportionment, or planned distribution, to determine how many of the 435 representatives each state receives in the House. A Census is taken every ten years to count the population
C. How Congress Works A.Congress makes the nation’s laws, B.Can propose laws called a bill C.President must sign to make it a law. He can veto or vote no to a bill. D.Congress can cancel or override a veto by voting with a 2/3 majority. D. The Powers of Congress A.Spend money or appropriate money. B.Raise an army, navy C.Declare war D.Pay debts E.Grant citizenship F.Carry out other power using elastic clause. (Article I section 8)
Vocabulary Terms Executive Branch Executive Branch President President Vice President Vice President Chief Executive Chief Executive candidate candidate 22 nd Amendment 22 nd Amendment native-born citizen native-born citizen commander in chief commander in chief Ambassadors Ambassadors Executive departments Executive departments veto veto executive order executive order pardon pardon cabinet cabinet impeach impeach
9.4 The Executive Branch Carries Out the Laws Purpose What- We are going to learn about compromise How- understand how power is divided between the three branches of government. Why- so we understand how it affects my life.
9.4 The Executive Branch A. The Executive Branch Carries Out the Laws 1.Powers are specified in Article II of the Constitution. 2.Enforces the laws that Congress passes. 3.The head of this branch is called President or Chief Executive B. Electing the President 1.Elected by electors from Electoral College not directly by the people or popular vote. 2.Has a 4 year term, elections are held every four years. 3.22 nd Amendment limits them to 2 terms. 4.Swears an oath to defend the Constitution. 5.Must be at least 35 years old, a native-born citizen, and have lived in the U.S. for at least 14 years.
C. The Powers of the President A.President is also commander in chief of the U.S. armed forces. B.President can negotiate treaties with other countries, must be approved by Congress. C.President nominates ambassadors and Supreme Count justices, must be approved by Congress. D.President can veto, or cancel, laws that Congress passes E.In certain cases, presidents can issue an executive order, which has the force of law F.President has the power to pardon, or grant freedom from punishment, people accused or convicted of crimes. G.The cabinet advises the president and consists of the heads (Secretaries) of each executive department. Departments have smaller agencies in them. D. Removing the President A.House of Representative can impeach, bring charges against, a president. B.Senate tries all impeached cases and can remove the president from office.
9.5 The Judicial Branch Interprets the Laws Purpose What- We are going to learn about compromise How- understand how power is divided between the three branches of government. Why- so we understand how it affects my life.
9.5 The Judicial Branch A. The Judicial Branch Interprets the Law A.“The Supreme Law of the Land” – No other law or action by the government or by any state can conflict with the Constitution. B.Article III of the Constitution outlines the courts’ duties. C.Protecting the Constitution is principal job. D.The highest court is called the Supreme Court E.It also resolves disputes that involve national laws, the federal government, or the states. F.People accused of a federal crime can be tried in federal court. B. Federal Court System A.Congress has power to create inferior(lower) courts. They created district courts and appellate courts. B.Most case start in the district court. Those cases can be appealed or revived by the appellate court and even the Supreme Court.
C. The Powers of the Supreme Court A.Final say in any case. B.Today the Supreme Court has 9 justices or judges. C.Only cases that go directly to the Supreme Court are case involving a state or ambassador from another country. D.They review thousands of cases a year but only hear about a 100. E.The power to decide if laws or acts by the legislative and executive branches conflict with the Constitution is called Judicial Review. F.Appointed by President but approved by Senate: no special requirements, term is for “life” G.The federal court can strike down state or federal laws it finds to be unconstitutional. H.Has 94 district courts and 13 courts of appeals, which review lower- court decisions.
Important Questions What are the responsibilities of the Supreme Court? Hear appeals from court appeals Hear all cases involving international diplomats and disputes between the states
9.6 Checks and Balances Purpose What- We are going to learn about compromise How- by understanding how the framers of the Constitution try to check and balance federal powers Why- so we understand how it affects my life.
Vocabulary Terms checks and balances checks and balances checks checks balances balances amendments amendments
9.6 Checks and Balances A. Checks and Balances Between the Branches 1.To keep any one branch from dominating another the framers developed checks and balances. This limits the power of the other two branches B. Checking the Power of the Other Branches 1.Checks allow one branch to block the actions of another. 2.Congress can pass laws, president can veto, congress can override, supreme court has power of judicial review and can call the law unconstitutional. C. Balancing the Power of the Other Branches 1.Balances allow each branch of the government to have some role in the action and power of the branches. 2.President can appoint judges but congress must approve.
9.7 The Amendement Process Purpose What- We are going to learn about compromise How- by understanding how did the framers of the Constitution try to check and balance federal powers Why- so we understand how it affects my life.
9.7 The Amendment Process A. The Amendment Process 1.In order to grow with the country the Constitution can be changed by adding an amendment. 2.To give the Constitution stability or strong framework the framers made it very difficult. B. Changing the Constitution 1.Article V describes the amendment process. 2.Amendments can be proposed two ways. A. Congress may propose an amendment with a 2/3 vote in both houses. B. Congress can call a national convention where state legislatures may propose an amendment. 3.There are two ways to ratify amendments A. ¾ of state legislatures may ratify or approve B. A special convention can be held where ¾ of the states ratify or approve. 4.Once it is ratified it becomes part of the Constitution. C. Amendments so Far 1.10,000 amendments have been proposed, only 27 have been ratified. 2.First 10 were added immediately, called the Bill of Rights
9.8 The Federal System Purpose What- We are going to learn about compromise How- by understanding how the framers of the Constitution try to balance state and federal powers Why- so we understand how it affects my life.
9.8 The Federal System A. The Federal System Connects the Nation and the States A.The United States is a representative democracy – a government led by officials chosen by the people. B.The U.S. is a federal system- government which power is shared between the national and state government. B. Powers Belonging the National Government. 1.Powers granted in the Constitution to the federal government are delegated powers. 1. Declaring war, coining money, making treaties C. Powers Belonging the State Government. 1.Powers kept by the state government or by the citizens are reserved powers. 2.The Constitution does not specificity list the powers of the states, but it does states that powers not given to the national government belong to the states. 1. Schools, marriage, establishing local governments, owning property, licensing doctors and lawyers, or most crimes. 3.States must work with other states by accepting other state laws. 1. Driver’s license, legal contracts, help track down criminals.
D. Shared Powers A.Concurrent powers are powers shared by the federal and state governments. Shared Powers. A. Collect taxes, build roads, borrow money, and regulate education. B.Federalism is sharing of power. It is complicated and continues to evolve. E. The Law of the Land A.The Constitution is “Supreme Law of the Land.” This means all state constitutions, laws and judicial decisions must agree with the Constitution. B.Everyone who hold office must promise to protect the Constitution.
Important Questions Which section of the Constitution provides flexibility so that the federal government can respond to unexpected issues and situations? Article I, section 8; also know as the elastic clause
Vocabulary Terms native born citizen native born citizen naturalized citizen or naturalization naturalized citizen or naturalization immigrant immigrant majority rule majority rule interest group interest group community service groups community service groups political action committees political action committees draft draft subpoena subpoena
Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship
Citizenship I. Becoming a U.S. Citizen A.Native Born- anyone born in U.S. or a territory it controls is a citizen. 1. People born in Puerto Rico are U.S. Citizens because it is a territory of the U.S. 2. person of foreign birth is granted full citizenship if parent is U.S. citizen. B.Naturalized citizen- If parent is NOT U.S. citizen people born in foreign countries can become citizens. 1. person must move to U.S. and complete long application process. C.Immigrant – person who permanently moves to new country. 1. legal immigrants have many of same rights/responsibilities as U.S. citizens. 2. Cannot vote or hold public office 3. Immigrants who break law can be deported, or returned to country of origin 4. Legal immigrants over 18 can petition for naturalization a.Must live in US for 5 yrs b.Must be able to financially support self. If not, must find sponsor D.Two differences between naturalized and native-born citizens: 1. Naturalized citizen can lose citizenship 2. Naturalized citizen cannot become president or vice president 3. U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) oversees process of becoming citizen and sets hearing to test the person’s qualifications tests in reading, writing, speaking English
Responsibilities of Citizen B. Duties of Citizens – to other citizens, the government and to ourselves 1.Know and obey the laws 2.Respect people in authority and to respect rights of others a. parents, police and teachers b. government protects children whose parents who don’t take proper care of them 3.Paying taxes a. used for public roads, police and fire departs b. property taxes, sales taxes, tariffs c. Income taxes – pay certain percentage of income to federal government d. progressive – increases as you make more money e. Regressive – same for all people regardless of income 1.sales and city taxes
Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship 4.Protect and defend the nation from harm a. help in war effort b. Draft – helps raise the needed number of soldiers 1.men must register at 18 2.gives govern list of people in case war breaks out 3.women do not have to register 5.Citizens can be called to serve on a jury a. help fulfill 6 th Amend right to trial by jury 6.Testify in court a. you witness a crime
Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship A. Citizens and Elections 1.Elections are the basis of representative democracy 2.Must be 18 yrs to vote B. Citizens and Government 1.Interest groups can be formed to influence politicians on certain issues a. Million Mom March 2.Can write letters or attend meetings C. Community Service 1.Civic Virtue – commitment to helping others a. community volunteers,neighborhood watch, during Revolution, women made cloth and other goods for colonists D. Government volunteers 1.Red Cross, Habitat for Humanity