Presentation on theme: "9.1 Introduction Purpose What- We are going to learn about compromise"— Presentation transcript:
1 9.1 Introduction Purpose What- We are going to learn about compromise How- by taking a final law exam on the ConstitutionWhy- so we understand how it affects my life.
2 Ch 9 The Constitution: A More Perfect Union Essential Question:How has the Constitution created “a more perfect Union”?Objectives:Identify the main features of the Constitution and describe the basic lawmaking process.Analyze how the Constitution divides powers among various levels and branches and preserves individual rights.Explain how the guiding principles of the Constitution have created “a more perfect Union” and resulted in a government that can adapt to changing times.
3 9.1 Introduction Compromises Structure Framework Constitution has many compromises.The most important one is creating a strong central government that does not threaten individual freedoms.StructureFramers wanted the Constitution to be easy to read.The Constitution is divided into sections called Articles.Each article is split into sectionsFrameworkStrong framework with ability to add and change.Thy Constitution is a living document with the ability to change and grow.
4 9.2 The Preamble tells the Goals of Government PurposeWhat- We are going to learn about compromiseHow- read and explain the parts of the Preamble of the ConstitutionWhy- so we understand how it affects my life.
6 9.2 The Preamble Tells the Goals of Government The Preamble explains the reasons for the new government.The Preamble to the United States Constitution is a brief introductory statement of the Constitution’s fundamental purposes and guiding principles. It states in general terms, and courts have referred to it as reliable evidence of, the Founding Fathers’ intentions regarding the Constitution's meaning and what they hoped the Constitution would achieve“We the People”States that the Constitution gets its power from the people. That is called popular sovereignty.
7 9.2 The Preamble Tells the Goals of Government “form a more perfect Union”States and national government to work together.“establish Justice”To be ruled by laws. All people must follow.“insure domestic Tranquility”Keep peace at home.“provide for the common defense”Protect from foreign enemies“promote the general Welfare”Support economy and help people prosper“secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity”Protect freedoms now and in future.
8 9.3 The Legislative Branch Makes Laws PurposeWhat- We are going to learn about compromiseHow- by understanding how power is divided between the three branches of governmentWhy- so we understand how it affects my life.
9 Vocabulary Terms separation of powers Legislative branch bicameral CongressHouse of RepresentativesSenatecensusapportionmentpopular votebillvetooverrideappropriateelastic clause
10 9.3 The Legislative Branch The Structure of Congress Each of the government’s three branches has specific powers.This separation of powers keeps any one branch from becoming too powerful.Article I defines the Legislative BranchThe Structure of CongressCongress controls the Legislative BranchCongress is bicameral or divided into two houses.Senate(upper house) 2 per state (100), 6 year term (no limit), must be 30, citizen for 9 years and resident of state you serve.House of Representatives (lower house) based on population (435), 2 year term (no limit), must be 25, citizen for 7 years and resident of state you serve.Congress uses apportionment, or planned distribution, to determine how many of the 435 representatives each state receives in the House. A Census is taken every ten years to count the population
11 How Congress Works The Powers of Congress Congress makes the nation’s laws,Can propose laws called a billPresident must sign to make it a law. He can veto or vote no to a bill.Congress can cancel or override a veto by voting with a 2/3 majority.The Powers of CongressSpend money or appropriate money.Raise an army, navyDeclare warPay debtsGrant citizenshipCarry out other power using elastic clause. (Article I section 8)
13 Vocabulary Terms Executive Branch President Vice President Chief Executivecandidate22nd Amendmentnative-born citizencommander in chiefAmbassadorsExecutive departmentsvetoexecutive orderpardoncabinetimpeach
14 9.4 The Executive Branch Carries Out the Laws PurposeWhat- We are going to learn about compromiseHow- understand how power is divided between the three branches of government.Why- so we understand how it affects my life.
15 9.4 The Executive Branch The Executive Branch Carries Out the Laws Powers are specified in Article II of the Constitution.Enforces the laws that Congress passes.The head of this branch is called President or Chief ExecutiveElecting the PresidentElected by electors from Electoral College not directly by the people or popular vote.Has a 4 year term, elections are held every four years.22nd Amendment limits them to 2 terms.Swears an oath to defend the Constitution.Must be at least 35 years old, a native-born citizen, and have lived in the U.S. for at least 14 years.
16 The Powers of the President President is also commander in chief of the U.S. armed forces.President can negotiate treaties with other countries, must be approved by Congress.President nominates ambassadors and Supreme Count justices, must be approved by Congress.President can veto, or cancel, laws that Congress passesIn certain cases, presidents can issue an executive order, which has the force of lawPresident has the power to pardon, or grant freedom from punishment, people accused or convicted of crimes.The cabinet advises the president and consists of the heads (Secretaries) of each executive department. Departments have smaller agencies in them.Removing the PresidentHouse of Representative can impeach, bring charges against, a president.Senate tries all impeached cases and can remove the president from office.
18 9.5 The Judicial Branch Interprets the Laws PurposeWhat- We are going to learn about compromiseHow- understand how power is divided between the three branches of government.Why- so we understand how it affects my life.
20 9.5 The Judicial Branch The Judicial Branch Interprets the Law “The Supreme Law of the Land” – No other law or action by the government or by any state can conflict with the Constitution.Article III of the Constitution outlines the courts’ duties.Protecting the Constitution is principal job.The highest court is called the Supreme CourtIt also resolves disputes that involve national laws, the federal government, or the states.People accused of a federal crime can be tried in federal court.Federal Court SystemCongress has power to create inferior(lower) courts. They created district courts and appellate courts.Most case start in the district court. Those cases can be appealed or revived by the appellate court and even the Supreme Court.
21 The Powers of the Supreme Court Final say in any case.Today the Supreme Court has 9 justices or judges.Only cases that go directly to the Supreme Court are case involving a state or ambassador from another country.They review thousands of cases a year but only hear about a 100.The power to decide if laws or acts by the legislative and executive branches conflict with the Constitution is called Judicial Review.Appointed by President but approved by Senate: no special requirements, term is for “life”The federal court can strike down state or federal laws it finds to be unconstitutional.Has 94 district courts and 13 courts of appeals, which review lower-court decisions.
22 Important QuestionsWhat are the responsibilities of the Supreme Court?Hear appeals from court appealsHear all cases involving international diplomats and disputes between the states
24 9.6 Checks and Balances Purpose What- We are going to learn about compromiseHow- by understanding how the framers of the Constitution try to check and balance federal powersWhy- so we understand how it affects my life.
25 Vocabulary Termschecks and balanceschecksbalancesamendments
26 9.6 Checks and Balances Checks and Balances Between the Branches To keep any one branch from dominating another the framers developed checks and balances. This limits the power of the other two branchesChecking the Power of the Other BranchesChecks allow one branch to block the actions of another.Congress can pass laws, president can veto, congress can override, supreme court has power of judicial review and can call the law unconstitutional.Balancing the Power of the Other BranchesBalances allow each branch of the government to have some role in the action and power of the branches.President can appoint judges but congress must approve.
29 9.7 The Amendement Process PurposeWhat- We are going to learn about compromiseHow- by understanding how did the framers of the Constitution try to check and balance federal powersWhy- so we understand how it affects my life.
30 9.7 The Amendment Process The Amendment Process In order to grow with the country the Constitution can be changed by adding an amendment.To give the Constitution stability or strong framework the framers made it very difficult.Changing the ConstitutionArticle V describes the amendment process.Amendments can be proposed two ways.Congress may propose an amendment with a 2/3 vote in both houses.Congress can call a national convention where state legislatures may propose an amendment.There are two ways to ratify amendments¾ of state legislatures may ratify or approveA special convention can be held where ¾ of the states ratify or approve.Once it is ratified it becomes part of the Constitution.Amendments so Far10,000 amendments have been proposed, only 27 have been ratified.First 10 were added immediately, called the Bill of Rights
32 9.8 The Federal System Purpose What- We are going to learn about compromiseHow- by understanding how the framers of the Constitution try to balance state and federal powersWhy- so we understand how it affects my life.
34 9.8 The Federal SystemThe Federal System Connects the Nation and the StatesThe United States is a representative democracy – a government led by officials chosen by the people.The U.S. is a federal system- government which power is shared between the national and state government.Powers Belonging the National Government.Powers granted in the Constitution to the federal government are delegated powers.Declaring war, coining money, making treatiesPowers Belonging the State Government.Powers kept by the state government or by the citizens are reserved powers.The Constitution does not specificity list the powers of the states, but it does states that powers not given to the national government belong to the states.Schools, marriage, establishing local governments, owning property, licensing doctors and lawyers, or most crimes.States must work with other states by accepting other state laws.Driver’s license, legal contracts, help track down criminals.
35 Shared Powers The Law of the Land Concurrent powers are powers shared by the federal and state governments. Shared Powers.Collect taxes, build roads, borrow money, and regulate education.Federalism is sharing of power. It is complicated and continues to evolve.The Law of the LandThe Constitution is “Supreme Law of the Land.” This means all state constitutions, laws and judicial decisions must agree with the Constitution.Everyone who hold office must promise to protect the Constitution.
39 Important QuestionsWhich section of the Constitution provides flexibility so that the federal government can respond to unexpected issues and situations?Article I, section 8; also know as the elastic clause
40 Vocabulary Terms native born citizen naturalized citizen or naturalizationimmigrantmajority ruleinterest groupcommunity service groupspolitical action committeesdraftsubpoena
42 Citizenship Becoming a U.S. Citizen Native Born- anyone born in U.S. or a territory it controls is a citizen.People born in Puerto Rico are U.S. Citizens because it is a territory of the U.S.person of foreign birth is granted full citizenship if parent is U.S. citizen.Naturalized citizen- If parent is NOT U.S. citizen people born in foreign countries can become citizens.person must move to U.S. and complete long application process.Immigrant – person who permanently moves to new country.legal immigrants have many of same rights/responsibilities as U.S. citizens.Cannot vote or hold public officeImmigrants who break law can be deported, or returned to country of originLegal immigrants over 18 can petition for naturalizationMust live in US for 5 yrsMust be able to financially support self. If not, must find sponsorTwo differences between naturalized and native-born citizens:Naturalized citizen can lose citizenshipNaturalized citizen cannot become president or vice presidentU.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) oversees process of becoming citizen and sets hearing to test the person’s qualifications tests in reading, writing, speaking English
43 Responsibilities of Citizen Duties of Citizens – to other citizens, the government and to ourselvesKnow and obey the lawsRespect people in authority and to respect rights of othersparents, police and teachersgovernment protects children whose parents who don’t take proper care of themPaying taxesused for public roads, police and fire departsproperty taxes, sales taxes, tariffsIncome taxes – pay certain percentage of income to federal governmentprogressive – increases as you make more moneyRegressive – same for all people regardless of incomesales and city taxes
44 Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship Protect and defend the nation from harmhelp in war effortDraft – helps raise the needed number of soldiersmen must register at 18gives govern list of people in case war breaks outwomen do not have to registerCitizens can be called to serve on a juryhelp fulfill 6th Amend right to trial by juryTestify in courtyou witness a crime
45 Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship Citizens and ElectionsElections are the basis of representative democracyMust be 18 yrs to voteCitizens and GovernmentInterest groups can be formed to influence politicians on certain issuesMillion Mom MarchCan write letters or attend meetingsCommunity ServiceCivic Virtue – commitment to helping otherscommunity volunteers ,neighborhood watch, during Revolution, women made cloth and other goods for colonistsGovernment volunteersRed Cross, Habitat for Humanity