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Ch 5 Towards Independence

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1 Ch 5 Towards Independence
Purpose: What: Rebellion By: understanding what led to the American Revolution So : we know how rebellion affects our lives.

2 Rebellion What is it? An act or show of defiance toward an authority or convention.

3 Geography Challenge What: Rebellion
Purpose: What: Rebellion By: interpreting maps to learn locations, physical features, and human geography of the regions of North America where important fighting occurred during the American Revolution. So : we know how rebellion affects our lives.

4 Thirteen Colonies


6 Preview Purpose: What: Rebellion
By: identifying the roots of the nation’s blend of civic republicanism, classical liberal principles, and English parliamentary traditions So : we know how rebellion affects our lives.

7 Vocabulary Development
Purpose: What: Rebellion By: using one of the vocabulary development strategies to define the key content So : we know how rebellion affects our lives. Students will locate the Key Content terms for the chapter.

8 5.1 /5.2 Purpose: What: Rebellion
By: understand what started the chain of events that led to Revolution So : we know how rebellion affects our lives.

9 Introduction: 5.1 When is it Necessary for citizens to rebel against their government? Introduction Revolution begins in MA. 1775 Patriots (Whigs) support rebellion Loyalist (Tories) do not. French and Indian War causes problems Large War debt More land to protect Must raise taxes. Colonist rebel against new laws.

10 Toward Independence 5.2 Before 1763
People came to the American colonies for: Cheap land, Religious freedom, economic opportunities. More importantly because they were left alone to govern themselves. Colonial powers: Elect assemblies Create, collect and spend taxes. Make laws

11 Toward Independence 5.2 Conflict in the Ohio Valley
The French built Fort on British lands Britain sent George Washington to deal fort Washington starts the French and Indian War The French and Indian War British vs. French and Indians Fought over land and power Britain wins gets French Land

12 Toward Independence 5.3 Early British Actions in the Colonies
New King George III is a stubborn, take charge king. The Proclamation of 1763 Problem: How to keep Native Americans and colonists from killing each other? Answer: separate them by drawing a line down the crest of the Appalachian Mountains. Colonist called it tyranny- unjust use of power. King didn’t care sent army to enforce.

13 Toward Independence 5.3 Stamp Act
Britain in debt because of war with France. British citizen already pay high taxes. Colonists very little taxes. George Greenville, of England, taxes colonists in America. Stamp Act: Law requiring all colonist to pay tax on all paper used. Colonists said it violated their rights and British citizens. Protested: Boycott, sending messages and violence. Stamp Act was repealed by Parliament.

14 Toward Independence 5.3 The Quartering Act
Americans noticed another law passed by Parliament in 1765. Called the Quartering Act, this law ordered colonial assemblies to provide British troops with quarters, or housing. The colonists were also told to furnish the soldiers with “candles, firing, bedding, cooking utensils, salt, vinegar, and beer or cider.” Providing for the soldiers cost money. Colonists asked why they should pay to keep troops in their colony. After all, they said, the soldiers just took up space and did nothing. In 1767, the New York assembly decided not to approve any funds for “salt, vinegar and liquor” for the troops. The British government reacted by refusing to let the assembly meet until it agreed to obey the Quartering Act. Once again, tempers began to rise on both sides of the Atlantic.

15 THE STAMP ACT STAMP ACT – tax on all paper items (newspapers, playing cards, etc) or JAIL

16 THE STAMP ACT Britain would use the money to pay of the large debt from the French and Indian War. Who started the French and Indian War? Who gained land from the French and Indian War? Who pays high taxes, Colonists or People in Great Britain?


18 NO TAXATION Committee of Correspondence –share ideas about ways to challenge Britain BOYCOTT British goods!!!! STOP buying them!!!!!

19 THE STAMP ACT Colonists ANGRY again!!


21 THE STAMP ACT The Sons of Liberty – secret societies that used VIOLENCE to frighten tax collectors

22 The Declatory Act England is ANGRY – how dare colonists challenge authority The Declatory Act – only England makes the rules NOT the colonists

23 Toward Independence 5.4 The Townshend Act
Charles Townshend take Charge He believed that the colonists’ bad behavior made it even more important to retain an army in the British colonies. In 1767 Parliament to pass the Townshend Acts. The new laws placed a duty, or tax, on certain goods the colonies imported from Great Britain. These goods included such popular items as glass, paint, paper, and tea.

24 Toward Independence 5.4 A Boycott of British Goods
Colonists said that the Townshend Act was unacceptable. Sam Adams was a gifted at stirring up protest through his speeches and writings. He help lead the boycott of British goods. Women were very important to the success of the boycott.

25 Toward Independence 5.4 Repeal of the Townshend Acts
A new leader named Lord North became head of the British government. British merchants were losing because of the boycott. Early in 1770, North persuaded Parliament to repeal all of the Townshend duties. Except for one—the tax on tea.

26 Toward Independence 5.5 The Boston Massacre The massacre
The killing of defenseless people. Patriots called this incident the Boston Massacre. What really happened was a small riot. Boston Patriots were the worst troublemakers in the colonies. Trouble had been brewing in Boston for months before the riot. Bostonians resented the British soldiers. Called them “lobsterbacks” Troops were forbidden to fire on citizens. Knowing this only made Bostonians bolder in their attacks.

27 Toward Independence 5.5 Mob Violence Breaks Out
On March 5, 1770, a noisy mob began throwing rocks and ice balls at troops guarding the Boston Customs House. As the mob pressed forward, someone knocked a soldier to the ground. The troops panicked and opened fire. Two bullets struck Crispus Attucks, a black man was the first to die, but not the last.

28 Toward Independence 5.5 Massacre or Self Defense
Samuel Adams saw this event as a perfect opportunity to whip up anti-British feeling. Prints of Revere’s engraving were distributed throughout the colonies. Patriots saw the Boston Massacre as proof that the British should remove all of their troops from the colonies. Loyalists saw the tragedy as proof that troops were needed more than ever, if only to control Patriot hotheads. John Adams was a Patriot. But he also believed that every person, even the British soldiers, had the right to a fair trial. Adams agreed to defend the soldiers. At the murder trial, Adams argued that the troops had acted in self-defense. The jury found six of the soldiers not guilty. Two of them were found guilty only of manslaughter, or causing death without meaning to.

29 The Boston Massacre propaganda –info giving only on one side of an argument How could Americans use this event as Propaganda?

30 The Boston Massacre

31 The Boston Massacre British troops put on trial
Troops acted out of self defense 2 soldiers convicted of killing and were branded on hand

32 The Boston Tea Party 5.6 The Boston Tea Party The Tea
Boston Massacre did not spark new protests against British rule. Patriots drink Dutch tea that had been smuggled into the colonies without paying duties. In 1773, Tea Act prompted more protests. One of them was the incident that became known as the Boston Tea Party.

33 The Boston Tea Party 5.6 The Tea Act
The Tea Act was Lord North’s attempt to rescue the British East India Company. It lowered the cost of tea sold by the British East India Company . Taxed British tea became cheaper than smuggled Dutch tea. Gives British East India Company a monopoly, or complete control, over tea sales in the colonies Nervous merchants wondered what would happen to their businesses if other goods were also restricted.

34 The Tea Act Tea Act - England ends all taxes except tax on tea because it is in such high demand

35 The Tea Act Colonists do not like this act because they fear that British tea companies will put us out of business

36 The Boston Tea Party 5.6 Tea Ships Arrive
Angry protesters kept them from unloading their cargoes. The royal governor blocks the exit from Boston Harbor until the three tea ships are unloaded. On December 16, 1773, the Sons of Liberty decided to unload the tea, but not in the way the governor had in mind. 50 men dressed as Mohawk Indians boarded the three ships. About 90,000 pounds of tea were dumped into the sea that night. News of the Boston Tea Party excited Patriots throughout the colonies.

37 The Tea Act Sons of Liberty : “Tea ships in Boston harbor to leave ASAP” BOSTON TEA PARTY - Colonists dressed as American Indians attack ships and dump 342 chests of tea in harbor

38 Tax on Tea

39 The Tea Act The Boston Tea Party

40 The Intolerable Acts 5.7 The Intolerable Acts
King George believes the issue was no longer about taxes. It was about Great Britain’s control over the colonies. “We must master them totally or leave them to themselves.” King George III Parliament to pass a new series of laws so harsh that many colonists called them intolerable, or unacceptable. Throughout the colonies, they became known as the Intolerable Acts.

41 The Intolerable Acts 5.7 Parliament Punishes Massachusetts
Designed to punish for the Boston Tea Party. Closed the Boston Harbor until tea was paid for. Massachusetts is now under British control and colonist can not meeting in town meetings. British soldiers accused of murder would be tried in England. More troops are sent over.

42 The Intolerable Acts 5.7 The Colonies Begin to Unite

43 The Intolerable Acts Britain outraged!!!! They pass the Intolerable Acts: Boston Harbor CLOSED until pay for tea Massachusetts firmly under the British control. Dismissed the colonial assembly and put General Thomas Gage in charge.

44 The Intolerable Acts 3. British officials accused of crimes sent to Britain for trial. Why??? 4. QUARTERING ACT – colonists must house and feed British soldiers.

45 The Intolerable Acts British hoped that this would teach the colonies a lesson It only made colonists angrier Colonists come together to create a solution

46 The Intolerable Acts 5.7 The First Continental Congress
In September 1774, 56 delegates from 12 colonies met in Philadelphia’s Pennsylvania State House They decided they would: Continue to boycott Colonial militias needed to prepare to fight Created and sent the Declaration of Rights Agreed to meet in May 1775 The Colonies Form Militias Colonies continued to boycott but if it didn’t work each city and town prepared to fight by forming militias. In New England the volunteer militia men called themselves minutemen.

47 “Shot Heard round the World”

48 Lexington and Concord 5.8 Lexington and Concord
King George III ignores colonies decides and wants to strike a blow to the colonist. Orders General Gage to be ready to strike that blow. The First Blow at Lexington In April 1775 British general Thomas Gage decided to take away the minutemen’s weapons and ammunition. On the evening of April 18, 1775, spies brought serious news to Paul Revere and William Dawes. British troops were heading toward Concord On the morning of April 19, fewer than 70 minutemen gathered at the Lexington village green, near Concord. “Shot Heard Round the World”

49 Lexington and Concord 5.8 The Second Blow at Concord
The British continued towards Concord where they searched for gunpowder and weapons. None were found! Minutemen from all around came to help. As the British marched back to Boston the minutemen fired from behind trees and walls. British were surprised because they expected the colonists to break and run. By the time the British reached Boston, they had suffered 74 dead and more than 200 casualties. Colonists suffered 49 dead and 41 wounded.


51 II. The “Shot Heard round the World”
High Tensions Boston militias called themselves minutemen because they could fight on a minute’s notice. British general Thomas Gage decided to take the militia’s weapons, which were stored in the town of Concord. On April 18, 1775, Paul Revere and another man raced on horses to warn minutemen of the British troop movements Bloodshed Minutemen gathered at Lexington, near Concord. Shots were exchange, and the British continued march to Concord. Colonists had hidden the weapons, so few were found. As the British returned to Boston, colonists killed many Redcoats, the colonists’ name for the soldiers.

52 Important Questions What events led to the beginning of the fighting between colonists and British soldiers? -Gage wanted to seize militia weapons at Concord: Paul Revere warned minutemen who assembled in Lexington: Shot were exchanged.

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