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GIS IN GEOLOGY Miloš Marjanović Lesson 3 14.10.2010.

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Presentation on theme: "GIS IN GEOLOGY Miloš Marjanović Lesson 3 14.10.2010."— Presentation transcript:

1 GIS IN GEOLOGY Miloš Marjanović Lesson

2 GIS in Geological Mapping  Case study: Geological map 1:50 000, Sheet Prijepolje, SW Serbia by Marko Krstić and Uroš Stojadinović  Methodology: − Geological Mapping − GIS - using extensions to manage the database  Data resources: − Existing geological map (OGK-Basic Geological Map) 1: − Field work data (tectonic analysis)  Accent on multidisciplinary organizational aspects of using GIS (DBMS) trough GeolISS (Geological Informational System of Serbia)

3 GIS in Geological Mapping Contouring and surface modeling General statistics Spread- sheets Geostatistics Image Processing (IP) Artificial Intelligence(AI) Desktop and Web publishing Desktop mapping Database Management Systems (DBMS) Computer Aided Drawing (CAD) Geographic Information System (GIS)

4 GIS in Geological Mapping  Methodology  Standard geological mapping  Geological mapping and tectonic analysis coupled with GIS

5 GIS in Geological Mapping  Mapping procedure (general + aided by desktop/mobile GIS hw/sw) 1. Preliminary phase  Previous geological interpretations (existing geological maps of the area at different scales)  Literature: published (preferably the recent articles and monographs) and archived within different surveys (geological, cartographic/geodetic, hydrological and so forth  sometimes a special permission is required)  Remote Sensing interpretations (airborne or satellite images and related products), if applicable in the area (vegetation, scale of the research and so on)

6 GIS in Geological Mapping  Mapping procedure (aided by desktop and mobile GIS hw/sw solutions) 2. Field work  Assembling the equipment and planning the investigation  On the site:  Locating the outcrop(GPS)  Sketching the geometry (assessing or using measuring devices, e.g. distancemeters)  Geological setting (lithological composition, age and structural features of the rock mass)  General appearance of the mass (morphology, vegetation, texture) and physical properties (thickness, color, moisture content, weathering)  Lithological composition – determination of rock genesis, type, species if possible + sampling  Relative age assessment (stratification, fossil samples)  Structural elements (measuring and statistics of strike/dip)  Secondary processes  Photo-documenting (scaled-scientific Photography)  Keeping the written records (measurements, observations, sample charts, comments) in the diary

7 GIS in Geological Mapping  Technical equipment:  Geological hammer  Geological compass  Distancemeter  GPS  PDA

8 GIS in Geological Mapping  Walking the planned route (commonly down the streams or cliffs)  Locating the site  Recognition  Measuring  Sampling  Filling in the diary  Repeating…

9 GIS in Geological Mapping  Mapping procedure (aided by desktop and mobile GIS hw/sw solutions) 3. Feeding the database  Assembling the data after the route (not necessary in PDA scenario) and performing preliminary analysis with temporary version of result 4. Interpreting the geological setting of the area  Graphically  Geological map with equipment (column, cross-section, standardized legend)  Diagrams (of structural, paleontological, stratigraphic or other analysis)  Thematic maps (tectonic, structural, stratigraphic, palinspastic, paleogeographic and so forth)  Textually  Textual interpretation of the map

10 GIS in Geological Mapping  GeolISS conceptual model  5 entities (concept, observations, description, spatial entities, metadata) related trough ontology of their semantics (OWL)  UML  Emphasizes multidisciplinarity  Shortcoming is a single-lingual solution (so far)

11 GIS in Geological Mapping  GeolISS conceptual model  Geological unit  Litological composition  Geological structure  Geological age

12 GIS in Geological Mapping  Smaller storage capacity is needed  More suitable for symbolization (Layout-friendly)  Easier for DBMS registration  Easily updated and maintained  Easier to transfer projection  Convertible to rasters when needed Pros for vector data type  Overlaying of multiple vector layers and performing simultaneous analysis over single points not easily feasible Cons for vector data type

13 GIS in Geological Mapping  Vector data types 1. Points: boreholes, wells, observation/sampling points 2. Lines: geological structures (boundaries, layers, faults…) 3. Polygons: geological (or related) units

14 GIS in Geological Mapping  GeolISS toolbars  Editing (expanding and maintaining)  Quering (also available as standalone version)  Exporting (Personal DB and SQL)  Web Apploications 

15 GIS in Geological Mapping  Location of the study area

16 GIS in Geological Mapping  Local geological column task!?  Geological evolution of the area: Altered bedrock, uplift – regression (C), gradient subsidence or transgression (P-T), deepening and intermediate submarine volcanism (T), closing of oceanic basin and obduction (J), subsidence and then uplift (K), subsidence or transgression followed by acidic magmatism (Pg), basaltic volcanism (Ng), end of the shallow basin succession in (Ng-Q)

17 GIS in Geological Mapping  Field investigation  Mesosoic platform: radial tectonisation of meta-sediments overlain by limestone succession  Ultra-maffic plate: faulted and disjointed parties of serpentinites and associated species  Sub-ophyolitic complex: chaotic and heavily tectonized parties of different associations (clastic, igneous and metamorphic)  Neogenic basins: limestone deposits, slightly affected

18 GIS in Geological Mapping  Field investigation  Mesosoic platform: radial tectonisation of meta-sediments overlain by limestone succession  Ultra-maffic plate: faulted and disjointed parties of serpentinites and associated species  Sub-ophyolitic complex: chaotic and heavily tectonized parties of different associations (clastic, igneous and metamorphic)  Neogenic basins: limestone deposits, slightly affected N Dss 1 AxialΣ = 32 E +6S +18S +28S N Dss 5 AxialΣ = 32 E +6S +18S +28S N DSf 1 AxialΣ = 20 E +6S +18S +28S

19  Embedding in GIS  Recognizing the pattern of tectonic behavior  Tectonic classification (as alternative classification within GeolISS)  Launching alternative classification tool  Starting of editing and selecting polygons  Classifying by unifying GIS in Geological Mapping

20  Final outputs - Map of tectonic units (an example of feasibility) 1. Neogenic basins 2. Durmitor zone 3. Ophyolitic complex 4. Zlatibor zone

21 GIS in Geological Mapping  Final outputs - Geological map (+ column, section and legend) Legend (formational): unitssymbols

22 GIS IN GEOLOGY Miloš Marjanović Exercise

23 Exercise 2 – Field work  Perform the geological field work:  Posit the outcrop on a GPS device  Orientate and sketch the outcrop  Basic observations – define the geological setting  Take a sample of a rock mass  Measure geological structures  Complete the log

24 Exercise 2 – Field work

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