Sex is the only area of human life where some believe that ignorance is preferable to knowledge.
Who am I? Starting with an “S” and ending with a “Y” some people ignore me, but I can’t see why. Everyone should be comfortable with me, I think that’s sad that they’re not, they confuse me with “evil” and “bad”. “XXX” and things that they don’t’ want to see; for the sake of your health you should know about me! Until everyone can see through this mistake I’m stuck with being a topic that’s certain to make All kinds of people stop talking, lie about me or shun me. I think that something has got to be done. Life can be dangerous if, with me, you’re not wise. So be educated! Know your choices and your risks (like STIs) If you don’t understand me, you’re proof of this stuff that, when it comes to me, people don’t talk enough. That’s all I can do, except leave it to you To find out what’s false and what’s true. You’ll see who I am, and do just fine If you read the first letter of every odd-numbered line!
Sexuality In pairs, brainstorm and write down all the words that come to mind when thinking about sexuality.
Note Sexuality is: An integral part of entire being from the time of birth. It includes our physical, physiological, psychological, social, emotional, cultural, spiritual and ethical dimensions of sex and gender.
Human Sexuality SEXUALITY Body (Physical) Mind and Feelings (body image) Peers, society, enivronment Gender/Sexual Orientation (stereotypes, roles) culture Intimacy Faith, school Values and Beliefs Family, media
Note: Self Responsibility Making choice that will facilitate growth and learning. Taking responsibility for your own actions. Eg) choosing not to have sex, choosing to not smoke.
Cont’d I show self responsibility when I….. What roles can parents or guardians play to support me in developing self responsibility?
Brainstorm! What are some reasons teens might have to become sexually active? What are some reasons teens might have to delay having sex or be abstinent?
Influences teens might have to be abstinent or delay having sex Family Personal values Moral, cultural religious values Fear of being caught Fear of pregnancy and STIs Not feeling ready Too embarrassed High educational or career goals Knowledge about sexuality Well developed decision making skills
Reason’s Teens might become sexually active Increased sex hormones Curiosity about sex Consider sex as a sign of being grown up A way of showing loyalty Rebelling against parents Need for intimacy Peer pressure Pressure from partner Media History of sexual abuse
Dear Expert You are an expert in giving advice to others when making responsible decisions. Read the following questions and respond as if answering a newspaper advice column.
Contraceptives should be used on all conceivable occasions.
Note Conception = the moment of fertilization of an egg by the sperm Contraception = a device that prevents conception.
Note Reasons for use: Not ready for children Don’t ever want children Don’t want to pass on health problems Want to limit family size
Reasons not to use: Side effects Religion Trying to have children
Note: Factors to consider in choosing method of contraception Safety What are the health risks or side effects? Effectiveness Pregnancy prevention Reasons for ineffectiveness –defect in method of incorrect use Ease of use – self administered or by a doctor Acceptability – religious beliefs and personal feelings ReversibilityAffordabilityAvailability
Sexually Active women who use NO birth control have a 90% risk of becoming pregnant.
Abstinence Choosing not to have vaginal or anal intercourse or oral sex. This includes genital to genital contact. Side Effects- none Effectiveness-the only 100% effective method against unwanted pregnancy and STIs. Availability and Cost – Free!
Male Condom Description: A latex sheath places on an erect penis before penetration preventing pregnancy by blocking sperm. Can only be used once. Some have a chemical spermicide to kil lsperm. Side Effects: Allergies to latex – can purchase lambskin ones but these do not protect against STIs Effectiveness: 97% effective – most effective method protecting against STIs Availability and Cost: $6-10 for 12
Female Condom Description: Close end has a flexible ring and is inserted into the vagina while the open end remains outside partially covering the labia. Made of latex Side Effects: Latex allergies Effectiveness:95% Availability and Cost: One time use only $10-15 for 3
Diaphragm Description: dome shaped rubber disk that covers cervix so sperm can’t reach uterus. Spermicide is added to kill sperm before insertion. Can be left in up tp 6 hours after intercourse. Side Effects: Toxic Shock Syndrome if left in too long Reaction/mess of spermicide Effecttiveness: 97% against pregnancy but no STI protection Availabilty and Cost Must have a prescription and fitted by a doctor. $30-45. Reusable.
Cervical Cap Description: soft rubber cup that covers cervix so sperm can’t reach uterus. Can protect up to 48hours.Spermicide is added to kill sperm before insertion. Can be left in up to 6 hours after intercourse. Side Effects: Toxic Shock Syndrome if left in too long Reaction/mess of spermicide Effecttiveness: 97% against pregnancy but no STI protection Availability and Cost Must have a prescription and fitted by a doctor. $30-45. Reusable.
Sponge Description: Disk shaped polyurethane disk containing spermicide and inserted into vagina to cover cervix. Attached to a loop for removal. Must be moistened with water prior to inserting. Protects up to 24 hrs. It should be left in place for at least 6hrs after sex. Side Effects: Low risk of TSS Messy to insert Effectiveness: 75-95% against pregnancy. No STI protection. Availabilty and Cost $10-20 for 4
Spermicides Description: Chemicals in the shape of foams, creams, jelly, film or tablets that kill sperm. Some must be inserted 10 min prior to intercourse and usually effective for 1 hour. Must remain in place for 6-8 hr after sex to ensure sperm are killed. Side Effects: reaction to spermicides Very messy Effectiveness: Used alone only 74$ effective. No STI protection. Availability and Cost $15-20 per package
Birth Control Pill Description: Stops ovulating (the release of egg from ovary) by regulating hormones Side Effects: Lighter periods, blood clots, high blood pressure, nausea, head aches, weight gain Effectiveness: If taken the same time every day 99% effective against pregnancy. Effectiveness can be decreased by taking other medications. No STI protection. Availability and Cost: $12-35 + dispensing fee per month and must have a prescription. Covered by most health care plans.
Norplant Description: Hormonal implants made up of match stick sized rubber rods inserted under the skin of the upper arm. Is releases hormones to stop ovulation and works up to 5 years or until removed. Side Effects: Inflammation or infection at site of implant. Changes in period, weight gain, breast tenderness Effectiveness: 99% against pregnancy. No STI protection. Not prescribed to teens. Cost:$200-300
Plan B Description: Stops fertilized egg from implanting in wall of uterus. Used when contraceptives have failed, or unprotected sex. Must be used within 24-48hrs after sex. Side Effects: Nausea and vomiting Effectiveness: 75% terminating pregnancy. No STI protection. Cost and availablilty: $10-20
Depo-Provera Description: Hormonal imjection into the arm once every 3 months. It stops ovulation. Side Effects: Irregular periods, weight gain, headaches, nausea, breast tenderness Effectiveness: 99% against pregnancy. No STI protection Availability/Cost Must have a prescription. Not prescribed to teens as side effects are irreversible for 3 months. $26-30 per shot
The Patch Description: Beige square the size of a tea bag worn 1 week and replaced on the same day for 3 consecutive weeks. On the 4 th week it is removed. Releases hormones that stop ovulation. Side Effects: Nausea, headaches, spotting Effectiveness: No STI protection, 99% effective Cost: $14 + dispensing fee
Vaginal Ring Description: Hormones block the release of an egg. Unlike the pill the hormones are delivered through the vaginal wall. Use your fingers to insert like a tampon, left for 3 weeks and removed for 1 week. Side Effects: Vaginitis, headaches, sinusitis,nausea Effectiveness: No STI protection, 98% effective Cost: $18 + dispensing fee
Intrauterine Device (IUD) Description: Device inserted into the uterus by a doctor. Can be left in uterus for 1-10 yrs. Sperm and egg are prevented from meeting in fallopian tubes. Side Effects: PID, ectopic pregnancy, heavy bleeding during period Effectiveness: 95-98% against pregnancy, no STI protection Cost: Doctor, rarely prescribed to teens, $60-350
Vasectomy Description: Operation that involved cutting or tying a man’s vas deferens (tube that carries sperm) Side Effects: Only take 30 min, some minor post surgery complications such as bleeding or infection, considered permanent Effectiveness: 99.9% effective. No STI protection Cost: Covered by a health plan
Tubal Ligation Description: Operation that blocks the fallopian tubes so the egg can’t travel to uterus. Permanent. Side Effects: Complications rare, but could include infection, bleeding, problems from anesthesia Effectiveness: 99.9% effective, no STI protection Cost: Covered by health plan. Not available to teens
Withdrawal Description: Male pulls out penis from vagina prior to ejaculation Side Effects: Very high risk of pregnancy Effectiveness: Less than 60% effective. No STI protection. Cost: Not recommended
Douching Description: Rinsing out vagina after intercourse with water, solution or spermicide. Side Effects: Affects natural bacteria balance of vagina. Can push sperm or STIs further up into uterus. Effectiveness: Less than 60% against pregnancy and no STI protection. Cost: Not recommended
Calendar Method Description: Predicts ovulation based on assumption ovulation takes place on day 14 off cycle. A calendar is used to chart cycle for a few months so a woman can predict when she is ovulating. The most fertile days are about day 6- 20 of her 28 day cycle. Side Effects: Sperm can live up to 7 days in a woman’s body so her cycle must be accurate and not irregular. Effectiveness: Less than 60% effective. Not recommended to teens as their cycle is irregular.
Basal Body Temperature Description: Predicts ovulation based on increase of body temperature during ovulation. Often used with the calendar method. The most fertile days are just prior to and up to 3 days after elevated temperature. Side Effects: NoneEffectiveness: Less than 60% effective. Not recommended to teens
Condom Use Staircase 4)Squeeze air from condom 3)Open package 2)Arousal and Erection 1)Discuss condom use
STIs How do you know if you have an STI? Get tested People can have STIs without any symptoms! People may also have symptoms, such as: o Burning during urination o Clear, white or yellowish discharge from the male’s urethra o A change in the usual vaginal discharge that a woman experiences (different colour, increased amount, unusual odour) o Pain in testicles o Lower abdominal pain (for women), pain during intercourse o Sores or bumps on the genitals o Unexpected bleeding from the vagina
Can all STIs be treated? Some STIs can be cured with antibiotics (chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphillis) STIs caused by viruses cannot be cured, although there is often medication that can slow the virus down and improve symptoms. A vaccine has been developed to prevent Hepatitis B.
How can you protect yourself? Choosing not to have sex (this is the only choice that is 100% effective in preventing STIs) Limiting the number of sexual partners you have in your lifetime (the earlier people start having sex, usually the more partners they end up having throughout their lifetime) Girls should wait until they are 18-20 years of age before they have intercourse. Before then, the cervix is not fully mature, and is susceptible to infection. Certain strains of Human Papilloma Virus could lead to cancer of the cervix, especially if a woman becomes infected with the virus in her teens. Smoking also increases this risk!
Get tested for STIs if you’ve ever had sex without using a condom, or if you or your partner has ever used injection drugs. Use condoms EVERYTIME you have sex (condoms should be used with water based lubricants and must be used CORRECTLY!)
Through sexual contact: penis/vagina sex, rectal sex, oral sex Blood to blood contact (needle sharing, piercing or tatooing equipment that is not properly sterilized) Many can be passed from a pregnant woman to her unborn baby (before or during birth). HIV can also be passed from an infected mother to her baby through breast milk. How can you get an STI?
Note:Healthy Relationships Each partner feels complete Each partner feels complete Both partners accept the other Both partners accept the other Both partners recognize and appreciate change Both partners recognize and appreciate change Each partner establishes limits based on personal standards Each partner establishes limits based on personal standards There is a balance between togetherness (we) and seperateness. There is a balance between togetherness (we) and seperateness.
Note: Unhealthy Relationships Dependency Dependency Jealousy Jealousy Control Control Selfishness Selfishness Abuse Abuse
Note: Ending Relationships The first step in ending a relationship is making the decision This decision is based on a decision making process The time and place or ending a relationship should be chosen carefully Messages help you focus on what you think and feel, rather than blaming.
A Decision Making Model Identify – Define the problem Describe – Generate 3 options Evaluate – Analyze the consequences Act – Make the choice Learn – Reflect on the decision
Read the description of this relationship. Then answer the questions about the relationship.