Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Welcome to Week 2 of Functional Curriculum Updates to Wiki- Textbook available at the MISL on the 3 rd Floor – All links should be working, please let.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Welcome to Week 2 of Functional Curriculum Updates to Wiki- Textbook available at the MISL on the 3 rd Floor – All links should be working, please let."— Presentation transcript:

1

2 Welcome to Week 2 of Functional Curriculum Updates to Wiki- Textbook available at the MISL on the 3 rd Floor – All links should be working, please let me know if they are not – Article Review #1 Due April 13 th Next Week, Articles posted Remember in Assignment Section

3 Article Reviews Look at the rubric to ensure high probability of doing well. Make sure you complete each section with complete sentences. – Do not include Yes or No in your answer. – Write that “the author did or did not……” Be concise, but make sure that you answer the question well. If you feel like the author did not explain something well, tell me what would have been helpful to know. Remember that they usually have limited space which editors make even more limited! Most articles have an address for correspondence with the author, use this for topics/tools you are interested in – People do the authors & authors do respond!

4 Treatment fidelity/integrity How the author(s) measured the degree to which the intervention was implemented the way it was designed. Examples: Checklist of steps conducted in an intervention, an observer recording the presence of the intervention Not to be confused with inter-rater reliability or agreement (IOA)- this is having 2 observers record the dependent variables (outcomes, behaviors)

5 APA format for citations of Journal Articles Author Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial., & 2 nd Author Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Title of article with only the first word capitalized unless followed by colon: Then next word capitalized. Name of Journal Italicized & All Major Words Capitalized, Volume # Italicized, page #s. Loman, S.L., Rodriguez, B.J., & Horner, R.H. (2010). Sustainability of a targeted intervention package: First step to success in Oregon. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 18(3),

6 Assessing Students with Significant Disabilities

7 Guiding Principles for Designing Instruction Self-determination: honor students’ preferences Family- & culture-centered planning Educational accountability: all students can learn & deserve high quality instruction Personalized curriculum: draw from both adaptations of academic curriculum & life skills the students need for current & future environments Inclusion: enhance participation in inclusive settings Functional & age-appropriate skills: daily living and appropriate to students chronological age Choice: encourage choice-making Research as a resource for practice: data-based intervention research provides resource for what & how to teach

8 Team Process Collaboration by a team of professionals is essential Must take into consideration the characteristics of the individual: – strengths & needs Consider the environment in which student functions and will function in the near future Include objectives for the student that are tied to the general curriculum

9 Daily/ Weekly Yearly Monthly/ Quarterly

10 Individual Student Planning Multi-disciplinary Team approach “One Voice” Involving GE, SPED, other services Review data, schedule and outline actions to better support student 1 time per/ mon. until establish success No longer than 45 minutes Agenda with action plan

11 Purpose of Assessment Capacity Building vs Deficit Finding Capacity Building (O’Brien & Mount, 1991) Focus on strengths and preferences Avoid use of standardized assessments that are not appropriate to a student because of physical or sensory impairments or cultural differences Use of observations & interviews

12 Deficit-finding Perspective “ Rebecca Ferguson has an IQ of 21 and a mental age of 1 year, 18 mos. Her scores on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales were below basal levels. She has Down’s syndrome and severe mental retardation. R cannot use the toilet or eat independently and will require lifelong assistance for personal care. She is nonverbal except for some random vocalizations. R sometimes engages in aggressive behavior including spitting, and slapping

13 Capacity-building perspective “Rebecca is a 16-year old girl with brown eyes and black hair who has been medically classified with Down’s syndrome. Her scores below basal levels on the Vineland and the Weschler Intelligence Scale support her ongoing eligibility for special education services. R is highly social and greets others using eye contact, smiles, a wave, and an occasional hug. She makes her needs known by moving to an area or obtaining materials (e.g, her bathing suit to go swimming). She can sign “eat” to request food. She has strong preferences is assertive….

14 Ecological Assessment: A process Method to identify instructional priorities based on a student’s current and future environments and the student’s and family’s preferences (Browder, 2001) AKA: “Functional assessment (Linehan & Brady, 1985)” “Life skills assessment (Browder, 1991)”

15 Research on Ecological Assessment Arose out of dissatisfaction with failures in adapting standardized assessments for students with significant disabilities Information obtained had minimal impact on educational planning (Sigafoos et al., 1987; Blankenship, 1985; Cole et al., 1985) Ecological reports result in: Higher ratings of expected educational outcomes (Linehan & Brady, 1985) Educators more likely to recommend related services and less restrictive placements

16 Steps in Ecological Assessment Process Step 1: Plan with Student & Family Step 2: Summarize what is known about the student Step 3: Encourage Self-Determination/ Assess Student Preferences Step 4: Assess student’s instructional program Step 5: Develop ecological assessment report

17 Step 1: Plan with Student & Family Use a person-centered process Encourage student & family involvement in planning assessment & instructional goals

18 Step 2: Summarize What is Known About the Student Summarize student’s strengths & positive attributes Use Capacity building statements (vs deficit building statements) Notes from educational records Summary of progress on IEP Goal: Describe the purpose of assessment

19 Step 3: Encourage Student Self- Determination/ Assess Preference Strengthen the student’s influence on their education Student may need to try new options through systematic preference assessment (Lohrmann-O’Rourke & Browder, 1998) Note student’s typical choices, talking with others who know the student, & new options Student preference enhanced by offering & honoring choices (Kern et al., 1998)

20 Planning for Self-Determination & Quality of Life Outcomes Self-determination and Quality of Life are critical learning outcomes (Schalock, 1994; Wehmeyer, 1996). Take a look at the Arc’s Self-Determination Scale (1995). Quality of Life Planning: Home and community functioning, employment, & health and safety

21 Step 4: Assess Student’s Instructional Program Student’s instructional program should be individualized, but should not prevent a student from participating in general education. Rather it should define how to make this participation meaningful for a student whose reading & math skills are far below grade level

22 Developing an instructional program Begin with broad assessments, then move to specific assessments Conduct: 1. Ecological Inventory of different domains that a student experiences OR will experience 2. Conduct an activity analysis (discrepancy analysis) 3. Conduct a situational analysis/task analysis 4.Functional behavioral assessment (FBA; if needed)

23 Start with looking at the student’s school environment In defining the LRE, start with general education…. Look at a student’s goals/objectives defined by the team and take an inventory of where in the student’s schedule those skills can be taught. Infused Skills Grid

24 Focus on Goals. Increase Participation

25

26 Case Study :Isaac Isaac is one of your students in your 4th grade class. Isaac is one of your students in your 4th grade class. He loves music- especially reggae He loves music- especially reggae He is a visual learner, likes puzzles, blocks, and riding bike He is a visual learner, likes puzzles, blocks, and riding bike Isaac has very limited verbal language and is learning to use picture exchange communication (PECS) and sign language to communicate with others as well as picture schedules to participate in his general education classes/ activities. Isaac has very limited verbal language and is learning to use picture exchange communication (PECS) and sign language to communicate with others as well as picture schedules to participate in his general education classes/ activities. Objectives for Isaac: Objectives for Isaac: 1. Use picture schedule to follow class routine. 2. Use sign language, PECS to communicate (make requests, label objects) 3. Write words from left to right 4. Correctly identify letters/sounds/words by pointing 5. Engage in reciprocal play (taking turns, sharing objects with others) 6. Count & add numbers up to Use a calculator to perform multiplication, division

27

28

29 After you have determined where those skills can be met, conduct an ecological inventory of: Environments: (e.g., High school classes) Sub-environment: (e.g., Consumer math) Activities: (e.g., work problems in text, lecture, computer simulations, group projects, etc.) Natural supports available: (e.g., computer for each student, teacher gives 1:1 feedback Target Skills: (e.g., number recognition, use of calculator)

30 Group Activity: Think about your current placement and outline the: Environments: (e.g., High School, Job) Sub-environments: (Classes, Locations) Activities within sub-environments: Natural supports within sub-environments: Do this for all of the sub-environments (e.g., classes, locations) a student may access in a day within your school

31 Next, Conduct an Activity Analysis

32 Activity Analysis Name: _______________________________Page: Date: _______________________________ Sub-environment/Class: _________________________ TimeClassroom Activity Steps/ Natural Cues What Other Students Are DoingTarget Student Performance (+/-) Comments Skills in Need of Instruction

33 A ASK: What am I requiring students to do? D DETERMINE the prerequisite skills of the task. A ANALYZE the student’s strengths and needs. P PROPOSE and implement adaptations T TEST to determine if adaptations helped the student Standards/ Lesson Plan Observe steps ALL students are doing to achieve the standard Observe what TARGET student is doing— what steps can do. Identify TARGET STUDENT outcomes and adaptations needed based on observation Create a DATA collection plan. Bryant, D.P., Smith, D. D., & Bryant, B. R. (2008). Teaching students with special needs in inclusive classrooms. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

34 ADAPT Framework/ An Instructional Planning Framework Ask: What am I requiring the student to do? (Lesson Plans, Co-Planning) Determine the prerequisite skills (Task analyze-What all students are doing) Analyze the student’s strengths and needs (Task analyze-What is the target student doing) Propose and implement adaptations (Identify objectives and adaptations) Test to determine if the adaptation helped the student accomplish the task (Data collection plan)

35 A- Ask what am I requiring? In general education settings, “What are the standards for all students?” Collaborate with GE teacher to obtain schedule, activities, homework, etc. Lesson Plan to ensure participation and success towards objectives Multi-Disciplinary Team- Individual student planning

36 Curriculum Co-Planning Teacher(s): _______________________ The class/unit/project/activity…… Time and Dates: At the end of this class/unit/ project/activity the learner should be able to….. Planning Materials: What major instructional strategies will be used to engage the learners?  Projects  Hands-on Activities/ Activity-based Instruction  Writing/Illustrating  Computers  Games  Demonstrations/Simulations/Role-playing  Partners/Cooperative Groups  Presentations/Lectures  Reading/ Partner Reading  Large/Small group Discussions  Guest Lecturers/Instructors  Independent Practice/Exercises/ “Seat Work”  Community Instruction  Students Presentations  Homework  Other____________________________________________________________________________________ ______ Curriculum Co-Planning

37 What a FEW of my students will know. What a FEW of my students will know. What MOST of students will know. What MOST of students will know. What ALL my students will know. What ALL my students will know. Further modifications Further modifications

38 Determine the prerequisite skills Directly observe what ALL students are doing. Activity Analysis- steps they take to achieve the standard During observation: Are students successful Are they good models Can the provide support to others

39 Analyze target students strengths and needs Directly observe the target student’s performance (compared to the task analysis of what typical students are doing) Look for natural supports Ask: are there things within the room that would provide natural adaptations for the student (i.e. class schedule, organizers, peers)

40 Next, conduct Situational/Task Analysis for Skills in Need of Instruction

41 Activity Analysis Name: _______________________________Page: Date: _______________________________ Sub-environment/Class: _________________________ TimeClassroom Activity Steps/ Natural Cues What Other Students Are DoingTarget Student Performance (+/-) Comments Skills in Need of Instruction

42 Task Analysis/ Routines Monitoring 4 Guides the sequence of steps for completing a specific routine/task 4 Guides student progress on specific routines/tasks 4 Guides instruction to include generalization & maintenance of all skills used within the routine 4 Review of student progress at-a-glance for instructional decisions

43

44 Step 5- Develop an ecological assessment report Recommendations can be developed for the student’s instructional plan Outline goals/objectives Proposed Adaptations Instructional Plan Includes Participation Plan for School Day Data-Plan: how you will assess student progress

45 Participation Plan

46

47 Propose Adaptations Based on observations: Define the outcomes for the student during each activity. Are there natural supports available? Are there adaptations/modifications to the curriculum that can be made in order for the student to achieve the outcomes? Is explicit instruction on specific skills or supports needed?

48 Plan how you will test to determine if plan is working Data collection plan What will you collect? How are you going to use the data? When do you make decisions using the data?

49 Steps in Ecological Assessment Process Step 1: Plan with Student & Family Step 2: Summarize what is known about the student Step 3: Encourage Self-Determination/ Assess Student Preferences Step 4: Assess student’s instructional program Step 5: Develop ecological assessment report

50 Activity #2 Take the time to complete an ecological inventory of 3 sub-environments (subjects/classes) in your current placement.

51

52 Systematic Instruction Behavioral Principles & Teaching Applications

53 Systematic Instruction: Guiding Principles These principles guide educators in developing instructional plans that have the greatest likelihood of student learning: 1.Teaching meaningful and functional skills, 2.Facilitating attention to relevant stimuli, 3.Providing frequent opportunities to respond 4.Providing a positive learning environment Halle et al., 2004

54 Teaching Applications Stimulus Control Prompting Fading Shaping Chaining

55 Teaching  Teaching is the process of arranging instructional stimuli that result in behavior change for the learner. Teaching requires the establishment of a learning context. Teaching requires behavior change on the part of the learner. Teaching students to respond to specific stimuli is a teacher’s basic job.

56 Basic elements of behavior analysis  Behavior (response)  Antecedent (antecedent stimuli)  Consequence  Setting event  These describe the behavior within an environmental context Summary statement or testable hypothesis

57 Basic elements of behavior analysis Setting eventAntecedent/ Stimulus Response/ Behavior Consequence

58 The Technical Arts of Teaching and Behavior Support  5 basic elements of behavior Response, Antecedent stimulus, Consequence, Contingency, Setting Event  9 principles of behavior Stimulus control, positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, positive punishment, negative punishment, extinction, transfer, generalization, maintenance,  Applications to teaching and behavior support

59 Five Elements of Behavior  (1) Response, (2) Antecedent Stimulus, (3) Consequence, (4) Contingency, (5) Setting Event.   Setting Event --> Stimulus--> Response--->Consequence  (Contingency)  4  Illness --> Demand --> Whine --> Escape Demand  (3 out of 5 times)

60 Nine Principles of Human Behavior  Stimulus Control  Positive Reinforcement  Negative Reinforcement  Positive Punishment  Negative Punishment  Extinction  Transfer  Generalization  Maintenance

61 Stimulus Control  Stimulus control refers to change in the likelihood of a response when a stimulus is presented. The stimulus is a signal that if the response is performed, a predictable outcome (consequence) is likely. If a person responds one way in the presence of a stimulus and another in its absence, than that stimulus is said to “control” behavior.  A traffic light is an example

62 Stimulus Control Terms  Stimulus: Any event, action or object perceptible to the senses.  Discriminative Stimulus (Sd):  Any stimulus that signals that a specific response is more likely to be followed by a reinforcer (S+) or punisher (S-).  Delta Stimulus (S ):  Any stimulus that signals that a specific response is unlikely to be followed by a reinforcer.

63 Sd or (S-delta): ??  A baby learns that saying “mama” is: (a) reinforced in the presence of the adult with glasses and curly hair & (b) usually results in the disappearance of the adult with a beard.  For the Response, “Mama” Sd= __? S-delta= ___?

64 Identify the Discriminative Stimulus (Sd)  1 st grader says “went” in the presence of a flashcard with the letters W-E-N-T, which results in teacher praise.  1 st grader says “went” in the presence of the letters C-A-M-E, which does not result in teacher praise.

65 Why is stimulus control important? For each example define a response and its controlling stimulus  Reading  Math  Social initiations  Joining a playground game  Getting help from an adult  Getting a cookie at snack  Following the instruction to “line up”

66 Discrimination Learning  Discrimination based on relatively informal or imprecise patterns of reinforcement usually develops slowly and is often imperfect. Ex. Babies calling all men with beard “daddy”  Student says went when sees “w-a-n-t” or “w-e-t”  Stipulation Importance of teaching range of positive and negative examples.  Salient features of stimulus should be emphasized Often times students learn based on some other feature than what wanting them to focus on  Ex. Student says the word “went” because that flashcard has a smudge on it, or the word “came” because it starts with a C.

67 How to develop stimulus control (Note what you ADD to the natural context)  Begin by pretest, then defining (a) the new response[R], (b) the stimulus that should control the response[S1], and (c) the natural reward [Sr+].  Pretest to document absence of Sd  R  Present the stimulus (S1)  Prompt the new response (R)  Deliver a reward (Sr+) + extra reward  Withhold the reward when either  R1 occurs when S1 has not be presented, or  R1 does not occur when S1 is presented.

68 Stimulus control and teaching  For any skill, teach a) what, b) when, c) why.  What = the new response (skill)  When = the stimulus that signals when to perform the new response  Why = what is the likely consequence (reward)

69 Examples: Target Response/Discriminative Stimulus  T ---> /t/ ( b --> /b/, /d/ )  ---> “triangle” ( )  Child cries --> parent picks up and comforts  Smile --> social initiation  Student raises hand -> teacher calls on student

70 Building Stimulus Control  Teach saying “thank you” when someone gives you something. Test to determine if skill exists Identify “pre-requisites” Define “natural” behavioral elements  receive --> “thank you” --> “you’re welcome” What do you add to teach  Add prompt (“say thank you”)  Add reward (“excellent job saying thank you”) Multiple opportunities to practice (fade extras) Test to determine if skill is learned

71 Teaching and Stimulus Control  Define the naturally occurring pattern  Setting Event -> Stimulus -> Response -> Consequence  Define what you will “add” to assist learning.  Setting Event -> Stimulus -> Response -> Consequence Prompt Extra Reward or Correction

72 Teaching and Stimulus Control: Examples  Setting Event -> Stimulus -> Response-> Consequence  None -> “car” -> /car/ -> info from  reading  What do you add?

73 Consequences Setting Event -> Stimulus -> Response -> Consequence (Contingency)  Consequences follow a target response  Contingent consequences are delivered only after the target response occurs.  Consequences affect the future likelihood of the response. Rewarding consequences increase the likelihood of the target response. Aversive consequences decrease the likelihood of the target response.

74 Consequences  There are 5 major classes of consequences  Positive reinforcement  Negative reinforcement  Positive punishment  Negative punishment  Extinction  To determine the type/class of consequence: Examine the effect on future occurrence of the behavior (increase or decrease?) Examine the action involved in the consequence (give/remove/withhold)

75 Consequences

76 Consequences Examples Define the target response Define the consequence Define the effect on future occurrence of the behavior. Define the type of action involved in the consequence (give, remove). Define the behavioral principle demonstrated

77 Consequences Examples (target response is underlined) Over time, Darin (age 5) has become more likely to line up when given the instruction “time to line up” as a result of contingent praise from Ms. Dawson when he lines up. Darin screamed, and Ms. Dawson said “Darin you be quiet.” He immediately stopped screaming and smiled. Over time, however, his rate of screaming in class has increased.

78 Consequences Examples (target response is underlined) Over time Ellen’s talking out in class decreased during instructional presentations as a result of everyone ignoring her talk- outs (previously she received a lot of peer attention). Over time Ellen has become more on task during independent seat work periods since Mr. Evan’s started giving out “Worker Rewards” for students who were on-task.

79 Consequences Examples (target response is underlined) Over time Jim (age 9) has become less likely to push his way to the front of the line during recess since the teachers took away recess time for each instance of pushing. Elaine volunteered answers in class when the teacher asked for volunteers, but about 25% of the time she would be wrong, and the teacher would scowl and tell her she was wrong. She now volunteers less often.

80 Consequences Examples (target response is underlined) Over time Elaine was more likely to scream when given a math assignment as a result of the assignment being removed as soon as she screamed. Tyron became more likely to become quiet, look down and whimper when other children would talk to him as a result of other children leaving him alone when he engaged in these behaviors.

81 Consequences Examples (target response is underlined) Gwen’s attendance at choir has decreased as a result of Ms. Emerson’s repeated congratulations on Gwen’s “wonderful voice.” Eric (age 8) has become more likely to tease and taunt Angelissa even though Angelissa consistently hits or yells at Eric when he teases her.

82 Teaching New Behaviors can be Thought of as Developing Stimulus Control  Errorless Learning  Prompts and Cues  Response Shaping  Chaining Effective Instruction of New Behaviors

83 Effective Instruction: We Must Determine the Nature of the Problem 1 Behavior not in repertoire of student -SKILL DEFICIT Teach HOW 2 Student can do behavior but does not -PERFORANCE DEFICIT teach WHEN & WHY Does the student not know how or do they know how but choose not to? Focus

84 Discrimination Learning  Discrimination based on relatively informal or imprecise patterns of reinforcement usually develops slowly and is often imperfect. Ex. Babies calling all men with beard “daddy”  Student says went when sees “w-a-n-t” or “w-e-t”  Stipulation Importance of teaching range of positive and negative examples.  Salient features of stimulus should be emphasized Often times students learn based on some other feature than what wanting them to focus on  Ex. Student says the word “went” because that flashcard has a smudge on it, or the word “came” because it starts with a C.

85  Using prompts to preclude a student from making an incorrect response  when students are not learning effectively and efficiently with other procedures 1 effective 2 positive teacher/student interaction 3 fewer inappropriate social behaviors 4 students learn little from repeated errors SUCCESS BEGETS SUCCESS AND FAILURE BEGETS FAILURE Use Rationale Definition Errorless learning

86  Train discrimination without errors (shaping stimulus control)  Refined form of decreasing prompts Alterations of features of the stimulus (Sd) OR Stimulus property Student’s name on white card other student’s name on black card. Card gradually darkened. No incorrect choices and discriminated on relevant stimulus properties.

87 Error Correction  When errors occur, correct immediately with minimal feedback  Provide a second opportunity to respond correctly  Reinforce (reward) immediately!  Must be explicit / specific.

88 Teaching Applications: Prompts  Defined: Any antecedent stimulus ADDED to the presentation that increases the likelihood of correct responding.  Examples: Verbal, gesture, physical, embedded (visual, auditory) Modeling Precorrection

89 Types of Prompts  Verbal Prompts Rules: “Nouns are a person, place, or thing” Instructions—when specific Hints  Visual Pictures, examples of correct answers, number lines, multiplication charts, visual schedules, diagram of steps, scripts  Modeling  Physical Prompting/ Guidance Partial, Full

90 Prompts increase teaching efficiency  Use extra cues to increase number of correct responses  Increased Responses=  Increased Reinforcement=  Increased Speed of Learning Behavior

91 What makes a good prompt?  Increases likelihood of correct responding  Focuses attention on relevant features of task (Sd)  Ease of delivery  Ease of removal across trials  Good prompts are determined by the demands of the task AND the presenting skills of the learner.  As weak as possible (least intrusive)  Should be faded as rapidly as possible

92 1) select the least intrusive, effective prompt 2) combine prompts if necessary 3) select natural prompts and those related to the behavior 4) provide only after students are attending 5) provide in a supportive, instructive manner before response 6) fade as soon as possible 7) plan fading procedures beforehand Guidelines for Selecting Prompts

93 Prompt Examples: What prompts might be useful?  Natural Sd  Target Behavior  Consequence  (Prompt)  Teaching cursive writing  Teaching swallowing  Teaching Carl how to ask to enter a wall ball game.  Teaching Emily to move from one task to another without help.  Teaching Phil to wait at snack without grabbing food.

94 Fading  Defined: Stimulus Fading The gradual reduction or removal of a prompt. Fading is a process for transferring stimulus control.  As soon as you decide to use reinforcement you need to begin planning how to get rid of it -- fading  Examples: Change in physical features (dashed lines) Change in specificity of verbal prompts (“pick up the screwdriver”…to… “what’s next”) Time delay (“Prompt+Sd”….to… “Prompt….Sd”)

95 Establishing Stimulus Control  Time delay: begin with a prompt that works and then increase the DELAY between presentation of the target stimulus and the added prompt  fixed  Progressive  Sd +Prompt  response  Sd ….Prompt  response  Sd ….response

96 Fading Prompts  Increasing Assistance (Least-to-Most Prompts)—start with least intrusive and add more intrusive if necessary.  Graduated Guidance (Hand-over-hand, physical guidance)—reducing full guidance to “shadowing”.  Time Delay—wait several seconds before prompting to allow student to respond.  Decreasing Assistance (Most-to-Least Prompts)—move to less intrusive prompt when behavior occurs reliably

97 How would you fade these prompts?  Verbal prompt “move it to the tens” during two digit addition to prompt carrying.  Verbal prompt “ask nicely” when prompting Elsie to ask for toys/food, etc.  Physical prompt “touch on arm” as student points to communication board.  Gesture prompt, pointing to the correct color when asked to touch “yellow, etc”  Embedded prompt, dashed lines for writing

98 Teaching Applications: Shaping  Defined Teaching new behaviors through differential reinforcement of successive approximations of correct responding. Differential reinforcement for shaping means that responses that meet a certain criterion are reinforced, while those that do not meet the criterion are not.  The Sd and reward are constant. What changes is the rule for delivering the reward. The goal is to improve the precision of the new skill.

99 Response Shaping 1. Behavior is present, but not fluent in the presence of the “signal” 2. Focus on CONSEQUENCES -requires powerful reinforcers -use differential reinforcement 3. Systematic reinforcement of successive approximations toward the target behavior -specify dimensions of the target/goal behavior -reinforce slight improvements/changes -takes time -avoid practicing errors

100 Establishing Stimulus Control: Teaching New Behaviors Shaping: Students learn new things when a teacher “shapes” an existing response into the desired behavior. Advantages of shaping: faster than waiting for a correct response learner succeeds at a high rate still kind of slow because you are waiting for the learner

101 Designing Successful Shaping Programs  Identify the terminal behavior (end result)  Identify the initial behavior  Identify intermediate behaviors  Determine the size of steps toward the goal  Reinforce successive approximations of the behavior  Monitor progress Example student accessing a switch

102 Shaping Example  Problem behavior: Students are off-task about 80% of the time when working with a partner. Off-topic conversation occurs and work is not completed.  Define the terminal behavior.  Define the initial behavior.  What will our “successive approximations” be?

103 Shaping: How would you use shaping to..  Develop skill of saying “thank you” (in different ways) to peers.  Develop skill of reading third grade material at 150 words correct per minute.  Develop ability of a pre-schooler to stay in morning circle for 10 min without screaming

104 Chaining  A procedure to teach complex skills. Reinforce combinations of simple behaviors so they become an integrated, whole. Based on “task analysis” logic Requires a “task” that is organized into a sequence of “responses.” Each of the responses serves as a “link” in “chain of behavior”  Main idea The reward at the end of a chain will maintain all the other responses in the chain. The goal is to teach that each step has an Sd-> R. Each R generates a new Sd until the final step which ends with a Sr+ (reward).  Two approaches Forward chaining Backward chaining

105 Forward Chaining 1. Student does FIRST STEP, teacher does the rest of chain. 2. Keep adding steps until student completes entire chain. 3. Reinforce student for completing the desired number of steps requested by the teacher. 4. Useful when prompting is difficult.

106 Backward Chaining 1. Teacher does all but last step, student completes LAST STEP. 2. Keep adding steps until student completes entire chain 3. Reinforce student for completing the desired number steps requested bythe teacher. 4. Often used with functional skills 5. Student can perform steps with prompts.

107 Functional Communication Training  Carr, E.G., & Durand, V.M. (1985). Reducing behavior problems through functional communication training. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 18(2),

108 Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS)  Frost, L. A. & Bondy, A.S. (1994). The Picture exchange communication system: Training manual. Cherry Hill, NJ: Pyramid Educational Consultants.

109 TEACCH Treatment and Education of Autistic and Communication related handicapped CHildren -http://www.teacch.com/ -Established in the early 1970s by Eric SchoplerEric Schopler -Structured Teaching Model -Physical organization, scheduling, visual (picture and color) approach, use of reinforcement strategies

110 Discrete Trial Training (DTT) Strategy based on ABA principles Breaking skills down into smaller components and teaching those smaller sub-skills individually Mass Trials and Repeated Practice Use of prompting when necessary Leaf, R., & McEachin, J. (1999). A Work In Progress. New York, New York: DRL Books Green, G., Luce, S., & Maurice, C. (1996). Behavioral Intervention for Young Children with Autism: A Manual for Parents and Professionals. Austin, Texas: Pro-Ed. Smith, T. (2001). Discrete Trial Training in the Treatment of Autism. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 16(2),

111 “Discrete Trial” 1.Initial Instruction (“Touch your nose”) 2.A prompt or cue given by the teacher to help the child respond correctly (Teacher points to child’s nose) 3.A response given by the child (Child touches nose) 4.An appropriate consequence (“Nice job touching your nose” + sticker) 5.Pause between consecutive trials (1-5 seconds before next trial)

112 Pivotal Response Training & Verbal Behavior Approach “How to Teach Pivotal Behaviors to Children with Autism: A Training Manual” – Barbera, M. & Rasmussen, T. (2007). The Verbal Behavior Approach: How to Teach Children with Autism and Related Disorders. Philadelphia, PA: Kingsley Publishing.


Download ppt "Welcome to Week 2 of Functional Curriculum Updates to Wiki- Textbook available at the MISL on the 3 rd Floor – All links should be working, please let."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google