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Welcome to Week 2 of Functional Curriculum

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1 Welcome to Week 2 of Functional Curriculum
Updates to Wiki- Textbook available at the MISL on the 3rd Floor All links should be working, please let me know if they are not Article Review #1 Due April 13th Next Week, Articles posted Remember in Assignment Section

2 Article Reviews Look at the rubric to ensure high probability of doing well. Make sure you complete each section with complete sentences. Do not include Yes or No in your answer. Write that “the author did or did not……” Be concise, but make sure that you answer the question well. If you feel like the author did not explain something well, tell me what would have been helpful to know. Remember that they usually have limited space which editors make even more limited! Most articles have an address for correspondence with the author, use this for topics/tools you are interested in People do the authors & authors do respond!

3 Treatment fidelity/integrity
How the author(s) measured the degree to which the intervention was implemented the way it was designed. Examples: Checklist of steps conducted in an intervention, an observer recording the presence of the intervention Not to be confused with inter-rater reliability or agreement (IOA)- this is having 2 observers record the dependent variables (outcomes, behaviors)

4 APA format for citations of Journal Articles
Author Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial., & 2nd Author Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Title of article with only the first word capitalized unless followed by colon: Then next word capitalized. Name of Journal Italicized & All Major Words Capitalized, Volume # Italicized, page #s. Loman, S.L., Rodriguez, B.J., & Horner, R.H. (2010). Sustainability of a targeted intervention package: First step to success in Oregon. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 18(3),

5 Assessing Students with Significant Disabilities

6 Guiding Principles for Designing Instruction
Self-determination: honor students’ preferences Family- & culture-centered planning Educational accountability: all students can learn & deserve high quality instruction Personalized curriculum: draw from both adaptations of academic curriculum & life skills the students need for current & future environments Inclusion: enhance participation in inclusive settings Functional & age-appropriate skills: daily living and appropriate to students chronological age Choice: encourage choice-making Research as a resource for practice: data-based intervention research provides resource for what & how to teach

7 Team Process Collaboration by a team of professionals is essential
Must take into consideration the characteristics of the individual: strengths & needs Consider the environment in which student functions and will function in the near future Include objectives for the student that are tied to the general curriculum

8 Monthly/ Quarterly

9 Individual Student Planning
Multi-disciplinary Team approach “One Voice” Involving GE, SPED, other services Review data, schedule and outline actions to better support student 1 time per/ mon. until establish success No longer than 45 minutes Agenda with action plan

10 Purpose of Assessment Capacity Building vs Deficit Finding
Capacity Building (O’Brien & Mount, 1991) Focus on strengths and preferences Avoid use of standardized assessments that are not appropriate to a student because of physical or sensory impairments or cultural differences Use of observations & interviews

11 Deficit-finding Perspective
“Rebecca Ferguson has an IQ of 21 and a mental age of 1 year, 18 mos. Her scores on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales were below basal levels. She has Down’s syndrome and severe mental retardation. R cannot use the toilet or eat independently and will require lifelong assistance for personal care. She is nonverbal except for some random vocalizations. R sometimes engages in aggressive behavior including spitting, and slapping

12 Capacity-building perspective
“Rebecca is a 16-year old girl with brown eyes and black hair who has been medically classified with Down’s syndrome. Her scores below basal levels on the Vineland and the Weschler Intelligence Scale support her ongoing eligibility for special education services. R is highly social and greets others using eye contact, smiles, a wave, and an occasional hug. She makes her needs known by moving to an area or obtaining materials (e.g, her bathing suit to go swimming). She can sign “eat” to request food. She has strong preferences is assertive….

13 Ecological Assessment: A process
Method to identify instructional priorities based on a student’s current and future environments and the student’s and family’s preferences (Browder, 2001) AKA: “Functional assessment (Linehan & Brady, 1985)” “Life skills assessment (Browder, 1991)”

14 Research on Ecological Assessment
Arose out of dissatisfaction with failures in adapting standardized assessments for students with significant disabilities Information obtained had minimal impact on educational planning (Sigafoos et al., 1987; Blankenship, 1985; Cole et al., 1985) Ecological reports result in: Higher ratings of expected educational outcomes (Linehan & Brady, 1985) Educators more likely to recommend related services and less restrictive placements

15 Steps in Ecological Assessment Process
Step 1: Plan with Student & Family Step 2: Summarize what is known about the student Step 3: Encourage Self-Determination/ Assess Student Preferences Step 4: Assess student’s instructional program Step 5: Develop ecological assessment report

16 Step 1: Plan with Student & Family
Use a person-centered process Encourage student & family involvement in planning assessment & instructional goals

17 Step 2: Summarize What is Known About the Student
Summarize student’s strengths & positive attributes Use Capacity building statements (vs deficit building statements) Notes from educational records Summary of progress on IEP Goal: Describe the purpose of assessment

18 Step 3: Encourage Student Self-Determination/ Assess Preference
Strengthen the student’s influence on their education Student may need to try new options through systematic preference assessment (Lohrmann-O’Rourke & Browder, 1998) Note student’s typical choices, talking with others who know the student, & new options Student preference enhanced by offering & honoring choices (Kern et al., 1998)

19 Planning for Self-Determination & Quality of Life Outcomes
Self-determination and Quality of Life are critical learning outcomes (Schalock, 1994; Wehmeyer, 1996). Take a look at the Arc’s Self-Determination Scale (1995). Quality of Life Planning: Home and community functioning, employment, & health and safety

20 Step 4: Assess Student’s Instructional Program
Student’s instructional program should be individualized, but should not prevent a student from participating in general education. Rather it should define how to make this participation meaningful for a student whose reading & math skills are far below grade level

21 Developing an instructional program
Begin with broad assessments, then move to specific assessments Conduct: 1. Ecological Inventory of different domains that a student experiences OR will experience 2. Conduct an activity analysis (discrepancy analysis) 3. Conduct a situational analysis/task analysis 4.Functional behavioral assessment (FBA; if needed)

22 Start with looking at the student’s school environment
In defining the LRE, start with general education…. Look at a student’s goals/objectives defined by the team and take an inventory of where in the student’s schedule those skills can be taught. Infused Skills Grid

23 Infused Skills Grid Focus on Goals. Increase Participation


25 Case Study : Isaac Objectives for Isaac:
Use picture schedule to follow class routine. Use sign language, PECS to communicate (make requests, label objects) Write words from left to right Correctly identify letters/sounds/words by pointing Engage in reciprocal play (taking turns, sharing objects with others) Count & add numbers up to 30 Use a calculator to perform multiplication, division Isaac is one of your students in your 4th grade class. He loves music- especially reggae He is a visual learner, likes puzzles, blocks, and riding bike Isaac has very limited verbal language and is learning to use picture exchange communication (PECS) and sign language to communicate with others as well as picture schedules to participate in his general education classes/ activities.



28 After you have determined where those skills can be met, conduct an ecological inventory of:
Environments: (e.g., High school classes) Sub-environment: (e.g., Consumer math) Activities: (e.g., work problems in text, lecture, computer simulations, group projects, etc.) Natural supports available: (e.g., computer for each student, teacher gives 1:1 feedback Target Skills: (e.g., number recognition, use of calculator)

29 Group Activity: Think about your current placement and outline the:
Environments: (e.g., High School, Job) Sub-environments: (Classes, Locations) Activities within sub-environments: Natural supports within sub-environments: Do this for all of the sub-environments (e.g., classes, locations) a student may access in a day within your school

30 Next, Conduct an Activity Analysis

31 Skills in Need of Instruction
Activity Analysis Name: _______________________________ Page: Date: _______________________________ Sub-environment/Class: _________________________ Time Classroom Activity Steps/ Natural Cues What Other Students Are Doing Target Student Performance (+/-) Comments Skills in Need of Instruction

32 ASK: What am I requiring students to do?
Bryant, D.P., Smith, D. D., & Bryant, B. R. (2008). Teaching students with special needs in inclusive classrooms. Boston: Allyn & Bacon. A ASK: What am I requiring students to do? D DETERMINE the prerequisite skills of the task. ANALYZE the student’s strengths and needs. P PROPOSE and implement adaptations T TEST to determine if adaptations helped the student Standards/ Lesson Plan Observe steps ALL students are doing to achieve the standard Observe what TARGET student is doing—what steps can do. Identify TARGET STUDENT outcomes and adaptations needed based on observation Create a DATA collection plan. Bryant, D.P., Smith, D. D., & Bryant, B. R. (2008). Teaching students with special needs in inclusive classrooms. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

33 ADAPT Framework/ An Instructional Planning Framework
Ask: What am I requiring the student to do? (Lesson Plans, Co-Planning) Determine the prerequisite skills (Task analyze-What all students are doing) Analyze the student’s strengths and needs (Task analyze-What is the target student doing) Propose and implement adaptations (Identify objectives and adaptations) Test to determine if the adaptation helped the student accomplish the task (Data collection plan)

34 A- Ask what am I requiring?
In general education settings, “What are the standards for all students?” Collaborate with GE teacher to obtain schedule, activities, homework, etc. Lesson Plan to ensure participation and success towards objectives Multi-Disciplinary Team- Individual student planning

35 Curriculum Co-Planning
Curriculum Co-Planning Teacher(s): _______________________ The class/unit/project/activity…… Time and Dates: At the end of this class/unit/ project/activity the learner should be able to….. Planning Materials: What major instructional strategies will be used to engage the learners? Projects Hands-on Activities/ Activity-based Instruction Writing/Illustrating Computers Games Demonstrations/Simulations/Role-playing Partners/Cooperative Groups Presentations/Lectures Reading/ Partner Reading Large/Small group Discussions Guest Lecturers/Instructors Independent Practice/Exercises/ “Seat Work” Community Instruction Students Presentations Homework Other__________________________________________________________________________________________

36 What a FEW of my students will know.
What MOST of students will know. What ALL my students will know. Further modifications

37 Determine the prerequisite skills
Directly observe what ALL students are doing. Activity Analysis- steps they take to achieve the standard During observation: Are students successful Are they good models Can the provide support to others

38 Analyze target students strengths and needs
Directly observe the target student’s performance (compared to the task analysis of what typical students are doing) Look for natural supports Ask: are there things within the room that would provide natural adaptations for the student (i.e. class schedule, organizers, peers)

39 Next, conduct Situational/Task Analysis for Skills in Need of Instruction

40 Skills in Need of Instruction
Activity Analysis Name: _______________________________ Page: Date: _______________________________ Sub-environment/Class: _________________________ Time Classroom Activity Steps/ Natural Cues What Other Students Are Doing Target Student Performance (+/-) Comments Skills in Need of Instruction

41 Task Analysis/ Routines Monitoring
Guides the sequence of steps for completing a specific routine/task Guides student progress on specific routines/tasks Guides instruction to include generalization & maintenance of all skills used within the routine Review of student progress at-a-glance for instructional decisions


43 Step 5- Develop an ecological assessment report
Recommendations can be developed for the student’s instructional plan Outline goals/objectives Proposed Adaptations Instructional Plan Includes Participation Plan for School Day Data-Plan: how you will assess student progress

44 Participation Plan

45 Participation Plan

46 Propose Adaptations Based on observations:
Define the outcomes for the student during each activity. Are there natural supports available? Are there adaptations/modifications to the curriculum that can be made in order for the student to achieve the outcomes? Is explicit instruction on specific skills or supports needed?

47 Plan how you will test to determine if plan is working
Data collection plan What will you collect? How are you going to use the data? When do you make decisions using the data?

48 Steps in Ecological Assessment Process
Step 1: Plan with Student & Family Step 2: Summarize what is known about the student Step 3: Encourage Self-Determination/ Assess Student Preferences Step 4: Assess student’s instructional program Step 5: Develop ecological assessment report

49 Activity #2 Take the time to complete an ecological inventory of 3 sub-environments (subjects/classes) in your current placement.


51 Systematic Instruction Behavioral Principles & Teaching Applications

52 Systematic Instruction: Guiding Principles
These principles guide educators in developing instructional plans that have the greatest likelihood of student learning: Teaching meaningful and functional skills, Facilitating attention to relevant stimuli, Providing frequent opportunities to respond Providing a positive learning environment Halle et al., 2004

53 Teaching Applications
Stimulus Control Prompting Fading Shaping Chaining

54 Teaching Teaching is the process of arranging instructional stimuli that result in behavior change for the learner. Teaching requires the establishment of a learning context. Teaching requires behavior change on the part of the learner. Teaching students to respond to specific stimuli is a teacher’s basic job.

55 Basic elements of behavior analysis
Behavior (response) Antecedent (antecedent stimuli) Consequence Setting event These describe the behavior within an environmental context Summary statement or testable hypothesis

56 Basic elements of behavior analysis
Setting event Antecedent/ Stimulus Response/ Behavior Consequence

57 The Technical Arts of Teaching and Behavior Support
5 basic elements of behavior Response, Antecedent stimulus, Consequence, Contingency, Setting Event 9 principles of behavior Stimulus control, positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, positive punishment, negative punishment, extinction, transfer, generalization, maintenance, Applications to teaching and behavior support

58 Five Elements of Behavior
(1) Response, (2) Antecedent Stimulus, (3) Consequence, (4) Contingency, (5) Setting Event. Setting Event --> Stimulus--> Response--->Consequence (Contingency) 4 Illness --> Demand --> Whine --> Escape Demand (3 out of 5 times)

59 Nine Principles of Human Behavior
Stimulus Control Positive Reinforcement Negative Reinforcement Positive Punishment Negative Punishment Extinction Transfer Generalization Maintenance

60 Stimulus Control Stimulus control refers to change in the likelihood of a response when a stimulus is presented. The stimulus is a signal that if the response is performed, a predictable outcome (consequence) is likely. If a person responds one way in the presence of a stimulus and another in its absence, than that stimulus is said to “control” behavior. A traffic light is an example

61 Stimulus Control Terms
Stimulus: Any event, action or object perceptible to the senses. Discriminative Stimulus (Sd): Any stimulus that signals that a specific response is more likely to be followed by a reinforcer (S+) or punisher (S-). Delta Stimulus (S ): Any stimulus that signals that a specific response is unlikely to be followed by a reinforcer.

62 Sd or (S-delta): ?? A baby learns that saying “mama” is:
(a) reinforced in the presence of the adult with glasses and curly hair & (b) usually results in the disappearance of the adult with a beard. For the Response, “Mama” Sd= __? S-delta= ___?

63 Identify the Discriminative Stimulus (Sd)
1st grader says “went” in the presence of a flashcard with the letters W-E-N-T, which results in teacher praise. 1st grader says “went” in the presence of the letters C-A-M-E, which does not result in teacher praise.

64 Why is stimulus control important
Why is stimulus control important? For each example define a response and its controlling stimulus Reading Math Social initiations Joining a playground game Getting help from an adult Getting a cookie at snack Following the instruction to “line up”

65 Discrimination Learning
Discrimination based on relatively informal or imprecise patterns of reinforcement usually develops slowly and is often imperfect. Ex. Babies calling all men with beard “daddy” Student says went when sees “w-a-n-t” or “w-e-t” Stipulation Importance of teaching range of positive and negative examples. Salient features of stimulus should be emphasized Often times students learn based on some other feature than what wanting them to focus on Ex. Student says the word “went” because that flashcard has a smudge on it, or the word “came” because it starts with a C.

66 How to develop stimulus control (Note what you ADD to the natural context)
Begin by pretest, then defining (a) the new response[R], (b) the stimulus that should control the response[S1], and (c) the natural reward [Sr+]. Pretest to document absence of Sd  R Present the stimulus (S1) Prompt the new response (R) Deliver a reward (Sr+) + extra reward Withhold the reward when either R1 occurs when S1 has not be presented, or R1 does not occur when S1 is presented.

67 Stimulus control and teaching
For any skill, teach a) what, b) when, c) why. What = the new response (skill) When = the stimulus that signals when to perform the new response Why = what is the likely consequence (reward)

68 Examples: Target Response/Discriminative Stimulus
T ---> /t/ ( b --> /b/, /d/ ) ---> “triangle” ( ) Child cries --> parent picks up and comforts Smile --> social initiation Student raises hand -> teacher calls on student

69 Building Stimulus Control
Teach saying “thank you” when someone gives you something. Test to determine if skill exists Identify “pre-requisites” Define “natural” behavioral elements receive --> “thank you” --> “you’re welcome” What do you add to teach Add prompt (“say thank you”) Add reward (“excellent job saying thank you”) Multiple opportunities to practice (fade extras) Test to determine if skill is learned

70 Teaching and Stimulus Control
Define the naturally occurring pattern Setting Event -> Stimulus -> Response -> Consequence Define what you will “add” to assist learning. Prompt Extra Reward or Correction

71 Teaching and Stimulus Control: Examples
Setting Event -> Stimulus -> Response-> Consequence None > “car” > /car/ -> info from reading What do you add?

72 Consequences Setting Event -> Stimulus -> Response -> Consequence (Contingency)
Consequences follow a target response Contingent consequences are delivered only after the target response occurs. Consequences affect the future likelihood of the response. Rewarding consequences increase the likelihood of the target response. Aversive consequences decrease the likelihood of the target response.

73 Consequences There are 5 major classes of consequences
Positive reinforcement Negative reinforcement Positive punishment Negative punishment Extinction To determine the type/class of consequence: Examine the effect on future occurrence of the behavior (increase or decrease?) Examine the action involved in the consequence (give/remove/withhold)

74 Consequences

75 Consequences Examples
Define the target response Define the consequence Define the effect on future occurrence of the behavior. Define the type of action involved in the consequence (give, remove). Define the behavioral principle demonstrated

76 Consequences Examples (target response is underlined)
Over time, Darin (age 5) has become more likely to line up when given the instruction “time to line up” as a result of contingent praise from Ms. Dawson when he lines up. Darin screamed, and Ms. Dawson said “Darin you be quiet.” He immediately stopped screaming and smiled. Over time, however, his rate of screaming in class has increased.

77 Consequences Examples (target response is underlined)
Over time Ellen’s talking out in class decreased during instructional presentations as a result of everyone ignoring her talk-outs (previously she received a lot of peer attention). Over time Ellen has become more on task during independent seat work periods since Mr. Evan’s started giving out “Worker Rewards” for students who were on-task.

78 Consequences Examples (target response is underlined)
Over time Jim (age 9) has become less likely to push his way to the front of the line during recess since the teachers took away recess time for each instance of pushing. Elaine volunteered answers in class when the teacher asked for volunteers, but about 25% of the time she would be wrong, and the teacher would scowl and tell her she was wrong. She now volunteers less often.

79 Consequences Examples (target response is underlined)
Over time Elaine was more likely to scream when given a math assignment as a result of the assignment being removed as soon as she screamed. Tyron became more likely to become quiet, look down and whimper when other children would talk to him as a result of other children leaving him alone when he engaged in these behaviors.

80 Consequences Examples (target response is underlined)
Gwen’s attendance at choir has decreased as a result of Ms. Emerson’s repeated congratulations on Gwen’s “wonderful voice.” Eric (age 8) has become more likely to tease and taunt Angelissa even though Angelissa consistently hits or yells at Eric when he teases her.

81 Effective Instruction of New Behaviors
Teaching New Behaviors can be Thought of as Developing Stimulus Control Errorless Learning Prompts and Cues Response Shaping Chaining

82 Effective Instruction: We Must Determine the Nature of the Problem
Focus Behavior not in repertoire of student -SKILL DEFICIT Teach HOW Student can do behavior but does not -PERFORANCE DEFICIT teach WHEN & WHY Does the student not know how or do they know how but choose not to?

83 Discrimination Learning
Discrimination based on relatively informal or imprecise patterns of reinforcement usually develops slowly and is often imperfect. Ex. Babies calling all men with beard “daddy” Student says went when sees “w-a-n-t” or “w-e-t” Stipulation Importance of teaching range of positive and negative examples. Salient features of stimulus should be emphasized Often times students learn based on some other feature than what wanting them to focus on Ex. Student says the word “went” because that flashcard has a smudge on it, or the word “came” because it starts with a C.

84 Errorless learning Definition Use Rationale
Using prompts to preclude a student from making an incorrect response when students are not learning effectively and efficiently with other procedures 1 effective positive teacher/student interaction 3 fewer inappropriate social behaviors 4 students learn little from repeated errors SUCCESS BEGETS SUCCESS AND FAILURE BEGETS FAILURE Use Rationale

85 Errorless learning Train discrimination without errors (shaping stimulus control) Refined form of decreasing prompts Alterations of features of the stimulus (Sd) OR Stimulus property Student’s name on white card other student’s name on black card. Card gradually darkened. No incorrect choices and discriminated on relevant stimulus properties.

86 Error Correction When errors occur, correct immediately with minimal feedback Provide a second opportunity to respond correctly Reinforce (reward) immediately! Must be explicit / specific.

87 Teaching Applications: Prompts
Defined: Any antecedent stimulus ADDED to the presentation that increases the likelihood of correct responding. Examples: Verbal, gesture, physical, embedded (visual, auditory) Modeling Precorrection

88 Types of Prompts Verbal Prompts Visual Modeling
Rules: “Nouns are a person, place, or thing” Instructions—when specific Hints Visual Pictures, examples of correct answers, number lines, multiplication charts, visual schedules, diagram of steps, scripts Modeling Physical Prompting/ Guidance Partial, Full

89 Prompts increase teaching efficiency
Use extra cues to increase number of correct responses Increased Responses= Increased Reinforcement= Increased Speed of Learning Behavior

90 What makes a good prompt?
Increases likelihood of correct responding Focuses attention on relevant features of task (Sd) Ease of delivery Ease of removal across trials Good prompts are determined by the demands of the task AND the presenting skills of the learner. As weak as possible (least intrusive) Should be faded as rapidly as possible

91 Guidelines for Selecting Prompts
1) select the least intrusive, effective prompt 2) combine prompts if necessary 3) select natural prompts and those related to the behavior 4) provide only after students are attending 5) provide in a supportive, instructive manner before response 6) fade as soon as possible 7) plan fading procedures beforehand

92 Prompt Examples: What prompts might be useful?
Natural Sd  Target Behavior  Consequence (Prompt) Teaching cursive writing Teaching swallowing Teaching Carl how to ask to enter a wall ball game. Teaching Emily to move from one task to another without help. Teaching Phil to wait at snack without grabbing food.

93 Fading Defined: Stimulus Fading
The gradual reduction or removal of a prompt. Fading is a process for transferring stimulus control. As soon as you decide to use reinforcement you need to begin planning how to get rid of it -- fading Examples: Change in physical features (dashed lines) Change in specificity of verbal prompts (“pick up the screwdriver”…to… “what’s next”) Time delay (“Prompt+Sd”….to… “Prompt….Sd”)

94 Establishing Stimulus Control
Time delay: begin with a prompt that works and then increase the DELAY between presentation of the target stimulus and the added prompt fixed Progressive Sd +Prompt  response Sd ….Prompt  response Sd ….response

95 Fading Prompts Increasing Assistance (Least-to-Most Prompts)—start with least intrusive and add more intrusive if necessary. Graduated Guidance (Hand-over-hand, physical guidance)—reducing full guidance to “shadowing”. Time Delay—wait several seconds before prompting to allow student to respond. Decreasing Assistance (Most-to-Least Prompts)—move to less intrusive prompt when behavior occurs reliably

96 How would you fade these prompts?
Verbal prompt “move it to the tens” during two digit addition to prompt carrying. Verbal prompt “ask nicely” when prompting Elsie to ask for toys/food, etc. Physical prompt “touch on arm” as student points to communication board. Gesture prompt, pointing to the correct color when asked to touch “yellow, etc” Embedded prompt, dashed lines for writing

97 Teaching Applications: Shaping
Defined Teaching new behaviors through differential reinforcement of successive approximations of correct responding. Differential reinforcement for shaping means that responses that meet a certain criterion are reinforced, while those that do not meet the criterion are not. The Sd and reward are constant. What changes is the rule for delivering the reward. The goal is to improve the precision of the new skill.

98 Response Shaping 1. Behavior is present, but not fluent in the presence of the “signal” 2. Focus on CONSEQUENCES -requires powerful reinforcers -use differential reinforcement 3. Systematic reinforcement of successive approximations toward the target behavior -specify dimensions of the target/goal behavior -reinforce slight improvements/changes -takes time -avoid practicing errors

99 Establishing Stimulus Control: Teaching New Behaviors
Shaping: Students learn new things when a teacher “shapes” an existing response into the desired behavior. Advantages of shaping: faster than waiting for a correct response learner succeeds at a high rate still kind of slow because you are waiting for the learner

100 Designing Successful Shaping Programs
Identify the terminal behavior (end result) Identify the initial behavior Identify intermediate behaviors Determine the size of steps toward the goal Reinforce successive approximations of the behavior Monitor progress Example student accessing a switch

101 Shaping Example Problem behavior: Students are off-task about 80% of the time when working with a partner. Off-topic conversation occurs and work is not completed. Define the terminal behavior. Define the initial behavior. What will our “successive approximations” be?

102 Shaping: How would you use shaping to..
Develop skill of saying “thank you” (in different ways) to peers. Develop skill of reading third grade material at 150 words correct per minute. Develop ability of a pre-schooler to stay in morning circle for 10 min without screaming

103 Chaining A procedure to teach complex skills. Main idea Two approaches
Reinforce combinations of simple behaviors so they become an integrated, whole. Based on “task analysis” logic Requires a “task” that is organized into a sequence of “responses.” Each of the responses serves as a “link” in “chain of behavior” Main idea The reward at the end of a chain will maintain all the other responses in the chain. The goal is to teach that each step has an Sd-> R. Each R generates a new Sd until the final step which ends with a Sr+ (reward). Two approaches Forward chaining Backward chaining

104 Forward Chaining Student does FIRST STEP, teacher does the rest of chain. Keep adding steps until student completes entire chain. Reinforce student for completing the desired number of steps requested by the teacher. Useful when prompting is difficult.

105 Backward Chaining Teacher does all but last step, student completes LAST STEP. Keep adding steps until student completes entire chain Reinforce student for completing the desired number steps requested bythe teacher. Often used with functional skills Student can perform steps with prompts.

106 Functional Communication Training
Carr, E.G., & Durand, V.M. (1985). Reducing behavior problems through functional communication training. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 18(2),

107 Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS)
Frost, L. A. & Bondy, A.S. (1994). The Picture exchange communication system: Training manual. Cherry Hill, NJ: Pyramid Educational Consultants.

108 TEACCH Treatment and Education of Autistic and Communication related handicapped CHildren - -Established in the early 1970s by Eric Schopler -Structured Teaching Model -Physical organization, scheduling, visual (picture and color) approach, use of reinforcement strategies

109 Discrete Trial Training (DTT)
Strategy based on ABA principles Breaking skills down into smaller components and teaching those smaller sub-skills individually Mass Trials and Repeated Practice Use of prompting when necessary Leaf, R., & McEachin, J. (1999). A Work In Progress. New York, New York: DRL Books Green, G., Luce, S., & Maurice, C. (1996). Behavioral Intervention for Young Children with Autism: A Manual for Parents and Professionals. Austin, Texas: Pro-Ed. Smith, T. (2001). Discrete Trial Training in the Treatment of Autism. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 16(2),

110 “Discrete Trial” Initial Instruction (“Touch your nose”)
A prompt or cue given by the teacher to help the child respond correctly (Teacher points to child’s nose) A response given by the child (Child touches nose) An appropriate consequence (“Nice job touching your nose” + sticker) Pause between consecutive trials (1-5 seconds before next trial)

111 Pivotal Response Training & Verbal Behavior Approach
“How to Teach Pivotal Behaviors to Children with Autism: A Training Manual” Barbera, M. & Rasmussen, T. (2007). The Verbal Behavior Approach: How to Teach Children with Autism and Related Disorders. Philadelphia, PA: Kingsley Publishing.

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