Presentation on theme: "Welcome to Week 2 of Functional Curriculum"— Presentation transcript:
1 Welcome to Week 2 of Functional Curriculum Updates to Wiki- Textbook available at the MISL on the 3rd FloorAll links should be working, please let me know if they are notArticle Review #1 Due April 13th Next Week, Articles posted Remember in Assignment Section
2 Article ReviewsLook at the rubric to ensure high probability of doing well.Make sure you complete each section with complete sentences.Do not include Yes or No in your answer.Write that “the author did or did not……”Be concise, but make sure that you answer the question well.If you feel like the author did not explain something well, tell me what would have been helpful to know.Remember that they usually have limited space which editors make even more limited!Most articles have an address for correspondence with the author, use this for topics/tools you are interested inPeople do the authors & authors do respond!
3 Treatment fidelity/integrity How the author(s) measured the degree to which the intervention was implemented the way it was designed.Examples: Checklist of steps conducted in an intervention, an observer recording the presence of the interventionNot to be confused with inter-rater reliability or agreement (IOA)- this is having 2 observers record the dependent variables (outcomes, behaviors)
4 APA format for citations of Journal Articles Author Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial., & 2nd Author Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Title of article with only the first word capitalized unless followed by colon: Then next word capitalized. Name of Journal Italicized & All Major Words Capitalized, Volume # Italicized, page #s. Loman, S.L., Rodriguez, B.J., & Horner, R.H. (2010). Sustainability of a targeted intervention package: First step to success in Oregon. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 18(3),
5 Assessing Students with Significant Disabilities
6 Guiding Principles for Designing Instruction Self-determination: honor students’ preferencesFamily- & culture-centered planningEducational accountability: all students can learn & deserve high quality instructionPersonalized curriculum: draw from both adaptations of academic curriculum & life skills the students need for current & future environmentsInclusion: enhance participation in inclusive settingsFunctional & age-appropriate skills: daily living and appropriate to students chronological ageChoice: encourage choice-makingResearch as a resource for practice: data-based intervention research provides resource for what & how to teach
7 Team Process Collaboration by a team of professionals is essential Must take into consideration the characteristics of the individual:strengths & needsConsider the environment in which student functions and will function in the near futureInclude objectives for the student that are tied to the general curriculum
9 Individual Student Planning Multi-disciplinary Team approach“One Voice”Involving GE, SPED, other servicesReview data, schedule and outline actions to better support student1 time per/ mon. until establish successNo longer than 45 minutesAgenda with action plan
10 Purpose of Assessment Capacity Building vs Deficit Finding Capacity Building (O’Brien & Mount, 1991)Focus on strengths and preferencesAvoid use of standardized assessments that are not appropriate to a student because of physical or sensory impairments or cultural differencesUse of observations & interviews
11 Deficit-finding Perspective “Rebecca Ferguson has an IQ of 21 and a mental age of 1 year, 18 mos. Her scores on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales were below basal levels. She has Down’s syndrome and severe mental retardation. R cannot use the toilet or eat independently and will require lifelong assistance for personal care. She is nonverbal except for some random vocalizations. R sometimes engages in aggressive behavior including spitting, and slapping
12 Capacity-building perspective “Rebecca is a 16-year old girl with brown eyes and black hair who has been medically classified with Down’s syndrome. Her scores below basal levels on the Vineland and the Weschler Intelligence Scale support her ongoing eligibility for special education services. R is highly social and greets others using eye contact, smiles, a wave, and an occasional hug. She makes her needs known by moving to an area or obtaining materials (e.g, her bathing suit to go swimming). She can sign “eat” to request food. She has strong preferences is assertive….
13 Ecological Assessment: A process Method to identify instructional priorities based on a student’s current and future environments and the student’s and family’s preferences (Browder, 2001)AKA:“Functional assessment (Linehan & Brady, 1985)”“Life skills assessment (Browder, 1991)”
14 Research on Ecological Assessment Arose out of dissatisfaction with failures in adapting standardized assessments for students with significant disabilitiesInformation obtained had minimal impact on educational planning(Sigafoos et al., 1987; Blankenship, 1985; Cole et al., 1985)Ecological reports result in:Higher ratings of expected educational outcomes (Linehan & Brady, 1985)Educators more likely to recommend related services and less restrictive placements
15 Steps in Ecological Assessment Process Step 1: Plan with Student & FamilyStep 2: Summarize what is known about the studentStep 3: Encourage Self-Determination/ Assess Student PreferencesStep 4: Assess student’s instructional programStep 5: Develop ecological assessment report
16 Step 1: Plan with Student & Family Use a person-centered processEncourage student & family involvement in planning assessment & instructional goals
17 Step 2: Summarize What is Known About the Student Summarize student’s strengths & positive attributesUse Capacity building statements (vs deficit building statements)Notes from educational recordsSummary of progress on IEPGoal: Describe the purpose of assessment
18 Step 3: Encourage Student Self-Determination/ Assess Preference Strengthen the student’s influence on their educationStudent may need to try new options through systematic preference assessment (Lohrmann-O’Rourke & Browder, 1998)Note student’s typical choices, talking with others who know the student, & new optionsStudent preference enhanced by offering & honoring choices (Kern et al., 1998)
19 Planning for Self-Determination & Quality of Life Outcomes Self-determination and Quality of Life are critical learning outcomes (Schalock, 1994; Wehmeyer, 1996).Take a look at the Arc’s Self-Determination Scale (1995).Quality of Life Planning: Home and community functioning, employment, & health and safety
20 Step 4: Assess Student’s Instructional Program Student’s instructional program should be individualized, but should not prevent a student from participating in general education.Rather it should define how to make this participation meaningful for a student whose reading & math skills are far below grade level
21 Developing an instructional program Begin with broad assessments, then move to specific assessmentsConduct:1. Ecological Inventory of different domains that a student experiences OR will experience2. Conduct an activity analysis (discrepancy analysis)3. Conduct a situational analysis/task analysis4.Functional behavioral assessment (FBA; if needed)
22 Start with looking at the student’s school environment In defining the LRE, start with general education….Look at a student’s goals/objectives defined by the team and take an inventory of where in the student’s schedule those skills can be taught.Infused Skills Grid
23 Infused Skills GridFocus on Goals.Increase Participation
25 Case Study : Isaac Objectives for Isaac: Use picture schedule to follow class routine.Use sign language, PECS to communicate (make requests, label objects)Write words from left to rightCorrectly identify letters/sounds/words by pointingEngage in reciprocal play (taking turns, sharing objects with others)Count & add numbers up to 30Use a calculator to perform multiplication, divisionIsaac is one of your students in your 4th grade class.He loves music- especially reggaeHe is a visual learner, likes puzzles, blocks, and riding bikeIsaac has very limited verbal language and is learning to use picture exchange communication (PECS) and sign language to communicate with others as well as picture schedules to participate in his general education classes/ activities.
28 After you have determined where those skills can be met, conduct an ecological inventory of: Environments: (e.g., High school classes)Sub-environment: (e.g., Consumer math)Activities: (e.g., work problems in text, lecture, computer simulations, group projects, etc.)Natural supports available: (e.g., computer for each student, teacher gives 1:1 feedbackTarget Skills: (e.g., number recognition, use of calculator)
29 Group Activity: Think about your current placement and outline the: Environments: (e.g., High School, Job)Sub-environments: (Classes, Locations)Activities within sub-environments:Natural supports within sub-environments:Do this for all of the sub-environments (e.g., classes, locations) a student may access in a day within your school
31 Skills in Need of Instruction Activity AnalysisName: _______________________________ Page:Date: _______________________________Sub-environment/Class: _________________________TimeClassroom Activity Steps/ Natural CuesWhat Other Students Are DoingTarget Student Performance(+/-)CommentsSkills in Need of Instruction
32 ASK: What am I requiring students to do? Bryant, D.P., Smith, D. D., & Bryant, B. R. (2008). Teaching students with special needs in inclusive classrooms. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.AASK: What am I requiring students to do?DDETERMINE the prerequisite skills of the task.ANALYZE the student’s strengths and needs.PPROPOSE and implement adaptationsTTEST to determine if adaptations helped the studentStandards/ Lesson PlanObserve steps ALL students are doing to achieve the standardObserve what TARGET student is doing—what steps can do.Identify TARGET STUDENT outcomes and adaptations needed based on observationCreate a DATA collection plan.Bryant, D.P., Smith, D. D., & Bryant, B. R. (2008). Teaching students with special needs in inclusive classrooms. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
33 ADAPT Framework/ An Instructional Planning Framework Ask: What am I requiring the student to do? (Lesson Plans, Co-Planning)Determine the prerequisite skills (Task analyze-What all students are doing)Analyze the student’s strengths and needs (Task analyze-What is the target student doing)Propose and implement adaptations (Identify objectives and adaptations)Test to determine if the adaptation helped the student accomplish the task (Data collection plan)
34 A- Ask what am I requiring? In general education settings, “What are the standards for all students?”Collaborate with GE teacher to obtain schedule, activities, homework, etc.Lesson Plan to ensure participation and success towards objectivesMulti-Disciplinary Team- Individual student planning
35 Curriculum Co-Planning Curriculum Co-Planning Teacher(s): _______________________The class/unit/project/activity……Time and Dates:At the end of this class/unit/ project/activity the learner should be able to…..Planning Materials:What major instructional strategies will be used to engage the learners?ProjectsHands-on Activities/ Activity-based InstructionWriting/IllustratingComputersGamesDemonstrations/Simulations/Role-playingPartners/Cooperative GroupsPresentations/LecturesReading/ Partner ReadingLarge/Small group DiscussionsGuest Lecturers/InstructorsIndependent Practice/Exercises/ “Seat Work”Community InstructionStudents PresentationsHomeworkOther__________________________________________________________________________________________
36 What a FEW of my students will know. What MOST of students will know.What ALL my students will know.Further modifications
37 Determine the prerequisite skills Directly observe what ALL students are doing.Activity Analysis- steps they take to achieve the standardDuring observation:Are students successfulAre they good modelsCan the provide support to others
38 Analyze target students strengths and needs Directly observe the target student’s performance (compared to the task analysis of what typical students are doing)Look for natural supportsAsk: are there things within the room that would provide natural adaptations for the student (i.e. class schedule, organizers, peers)
39 Next, conduct Situational/Task Analysis for Skills in Need of Instruction
40 Skills in Need of Instruction Activity AnalysisName: _______________________________ Page:Date: _______________________________Sub-environment/Class: _________________________TimeClassroom Activity Steps/ Natural CuesWhat Other Students Are DoingTarget Student Performance(+/-)CommentsSkills in Need of Instruction
41 Task Analysis/ Routines Monitoring Guides the sequence of steps for completing a specific routine/taskGuides student progress on specific routines/tasksGuides instruction to include generalization & maintenance of all skills used within the routineReview of student progress at-a-glance for instructional decisions
43 Step 5- Develop an ecological assessment report Recommendations can be developed for the student’s instructional planOutline goals/objectivesProposed AdaptationsInstructional PlanIncludes Participation Plan for School DayData-Plan: how you will assess student progress
46 Propose Adaptations Based on observations: Define the outcomes for the student during each activity.Are there natural supports available?Are there adaptations/modifications to the curriculum that can be made in order for the student to achieve the outcomes?Is explicit instruction on specific skills or supports needed?
47 Plan how you will test to determine if plan is working Data collection planWhat will you collect?How are you going to use the data?When do you make decisions using the data?
48 Steps in Ecological Assessment Process Step 1: Plan with Student & FamilyStep 2: Summarize what is known about the studentStep 3: Encourage Self-Determination/ Assess Student PreferencesStep 4: Assess student’s instructional programStep 5: Develop ecological assessment report
49 Activity #2Take the time to complete an ecological inventory of 3 sub-environments (subjects/classes) in your current placement.
52 Systematic Instruction: Guiding Principles These principles guide educators in developing instructional plans that have the greatest likelihood of student learning:Teaching meaningful and functional skills,Facilitating attention to relevant stimuli,Providing frequent opportunities to respondProviding a positive learning environmentHalle et al., 2004
54 TeachingTeaching is the process of arranging instructional stimuli that result in behavior change for the learner.Teaching requires the establishment of a learning context.Teaching requires behavior change on the part of the learner.Teaching students to respond to specific stimuli is a teacher’s basic job.
55 Basic elements of behavior analysis Behavior (response)Antecedent (antecedent stimuli)ConsequenceSetting eventThese describe the behavior within an environmental contextSummary statement or testable hypothesis
56 Basic elements of behavior analysis Setting eventAntecedent/StimulusResponse/BehaviorConsequence
57 The Technical Arts of Teaching and Behavior Support 5 basic elements of behaviorResponse, Antecedent stimulus, Consequence, Contingency, Setting Event9 principles of behaviorStimulus control, positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, positive punishment, negative punishment, extinction, transfer, generalization, maintenance,Applications to teaching and behavior support
58 Five Elements of Behavior (1) Response, (2) Antecedent Stimulus, (3) Consequence, (4) Contingency, (5) Setting Event.Setting Event --> Stimulus--> Response--->Consequence(Contingency)4Illness --> Demand --> Whine --> Escape Demand(3 out of 5 times)
59 Nine Principles of Human Behavior Stimulus ControlPositive ReinforcementNegative ReinforcementPositive PunishmentNegative PunishmentExtinctionTransferGeneralizationMaintenance
60 Stimulus ControlStimulus control refers to change in the likelihood of a response when a stimulus is presented.The stimulus is a signal that if the response is performed, a predictable outcome (consequence) is likely.If a person responds one way in the presence of a stimulus and another in its absence, than that stimulus is said to “control” behavior.A traffic light is an example
61 Stimulus Control Terms Stimulus: Any event, action or object perceptible to the senses.Discriminative Stimulus (Sd):Any stimulus that signals that a specific response is more likely to be followed by a reinforcer (S+) or punisher (S-).Delta Stimulus (S ):Any stimulus that signals that a specific response is unlikely to be followed by a reinforcer.
62 Sd or (S-delta): ?? A baby learns that saying “mama” is: (a) reinforced in the presence of the adult with glasses and curly hair &(b) usually results in the disappearance of the adult with a beard.For the Response, “Mama”Sd= __?S-delta= ___?
63 Identify the Discriminative Stimulus (Sd) 1st grader says “went” in the presence of a flashcard with the letters W-E-N-T, which results in teacher praise.1st grader says “went” in the presence of the letters C-A-M-E, which does not result in teacher praise.
64 Why is stimulus control important Why is stimulus control important? For each example define a response and its controlling stimulusReadingMathSocial initiationsJoining a playground gameGetting help from an adultGetting a cookie at snackFollowing the instruction to “line up”
65 Discrimination Learning Discrimination based on relatively informal or imprecise patterns of reinforcement usually develops slowly and is often imperfect.Ex. Babies calling all men with beard “daddy”Student says went when sees “w-a-n-t” or “w-e-t”StipulationImportance of teaching range of positive and negative examples.Salient features of stimulus should be emphasizedOften times students learn based on some other feature than what wanting them to focus onEx. Student says the word “went” because that flashcard has a smudge on it, or the word “came” because it starts with a C.
66 How to develop stimulus control (Note what you ADD to the natural context) Begin by pretest, then defining (a) the new response[R], (b) the stimulus that should control the response[S1], and (c) the natural reward [Sr+].Pretest to document absence of Sd RPresent the stimulus (S1)Prompt the new response (R)Deliver a reward (Sr+) + extra rewardWithhold the reward when eitherR1 occurs when S1 has not be presented, orR1 does not occur when S1 is presented.
67 Stimulus control and teaching For any skill, teach a) what, b) when, c) why.What = the new response (skill)When = the stimulus that signals when to perform the new responseWhy = what is the likely consequence (reward)
68 Examples: Target Response/Discriminative Stimulus T ---> /t/ ( b --> /b/, /d/ )---> “triangle” ( )Child cries --> parent picks up and comfortsSmile --> social initiationStudent raises hand -> teacher calls on student
69 Building Stimulus Control Teach saying “thank you” when someone gives you something.Test to determine if skill existsIdentify “pre-requisites”Define “natural” behavioral elementsreceive --> “thank you” --> “you’re welcome”What do you add to teachAdd prompt (“say thank you”)Add reward (“excellent job saying thank you”)Multiple opportunities to practice (fade extras)Test to determine if skill is learned
70 Teaching and Stimulus Control Define the naturally occurring patternSetting Event -> Stimulus -> Response -> ConsequenceDefine what you will “add” to assist learning.Prompt Extra Rewardor Correction
71 Teaching and Stimulus Control: Examples Setting Event -> Stimulus -> Response-> ConsequenceNone > “car” > /car/ -> info fromreadingWhat do you add?
72 Consequences Setting Event -> Stimulus -> Response -> Consequence (Contingency) Consequences follow a target responseContingent consequences are delivered only after the target response occurs.Consequences affect the future likelihood of the response.Rewarding consequences increase the likelihood of the target response.Aversive consequences decrease the likelihood of the target response.
73 Consequences There are 5 major classes of consequences Positive reinforcementNegative reinforcementPositive punishmentNegative punishmentExtinctionTo determine the type/class of consequence:Examine the effect on future occurrence of the behavior (increase or decrease?)Examine the action involved in the consequence (give/remove/withhold)
75 Consequences Examples Define the target responseDefine the consequenceDefine the effect on future occurrence of the behavior.Define the type of action involved in the consequence (give, remove).Define the behavioral principle demonstrated
76 Consequences Examples (target response is underlined) Over time, Darin (age 5) has become more likely to line up when given the instruction “time to line up” as a result of contingent praise from Ms. Dawson when he lines up.Darin screamed, and Ms. Dawson said “Darin you be quiet.” He immediately stopped screaming and smiled. Over time, however, his rate of screaming in class has increased.
77 Consequences Examples (target response is underlined) Over time Ellen’s talking out in class decreased during instructional presentations as a result of everyone ignoring her talk-outs (previously she received a lot of peer attention).Over time Ellen has become more on task during independent seat work periods since Mr. Evan’s started giving out “Worker Rewards” for students who were on-task.
78 Consequences Examples (target response is underlined) Over time Jim (age 9) has become less likely to push his way to the front of the line during recess since the teachers took away recess time for each instance of pushing.Elaine volunteered answers in class when the teacher asked for volunteers, but about 25% of the time she would be wrong, and the teacher would scowl and tell her she was wrong. She now volunteers less often.
79 Consequences Examples (target response is underlined) Over time Elaine was more likely to scream when given a math assignment as a result of the assignment being removed as soon as she screamed.Tyron became more likely to become quiet, look down and whimper when other children would talk to him as a result of other children leaving him alone when he engaged in these behaviors.
80 Consequences Examples (target response is underlined) Gwen’s attendance at choir has decreased as a result of Ms. Emerson’s repeated congratulations on Gwen’s “wonderful voice.”Eric (age 8) has become more likely to tease and taunt Angelissa even though Angelissa consistently hits or yells at Eric when he teases her.
81 Effective Instruction of New Behaviors Teaching New Behaviors can be Thought of asDeveloping Stimulus ControlErrorless LearningPrompts and CuesResponse ShapingChaining
82 Effective Instruction: We Must Determine the Nature of the Problem FocusBehavior not in repertoire of student-SKILL DEFICITTeach HOWStudent can do behavior but does not -PERFORANCE DEFICITteach WHEN & WHYDoes the student not know how or do they know how but choose not to?
83 Discrimination Learning Discrimination based on relatively informal or imprecise patterns of reinforcement usually develops slowly and is often imperfect.Ex. Babies calling all men with beard “daddy”Student says went when sees “w-a-n-t” or “w-e-t”StipulationImportance of teaching range of positive and negative examples.Salient features of stimulus should be emphasizedOften times students learn based on some other feature than what wanting them to focus onEx. Student says the word “went” because that flashcard has a smudge on it, or the word “came” because it starts with a C.
84 Errorless learning Definition Use Rationale Using prompts to preclude a student from making an incorrect responsewhen students are not learning effectively and efficiently with other procedures1 effective positive teacher/student interaction 3 fewer inappropriate social behaviors 4 students learn little from repeated errorsSUCCESS BEGETS SUCCESS AND FAILURE BEGETS FAILUREUseRationale
85 Errorless learningTrain discrimination without errors (shaping stimulus control)Refined form of decreasing promptsAlterations of features of the stimulus (Sd) OR Stimulus propertyStudent’s name on white card other student’s name on black card.Card gradually darkened.No incorrect choices and discriminated on relevant stimulus properties.
86 Error CorrectionWhen errors occur, correct immediately with minimal feedbackProvide a second opportunity to respond correctlyReinforce (reward) immediately!Must be explicit / specific.
87 Teaching Applications: Prompts Defined:Any antecedent stimulus ADDED to the presentation that increases the likelihood of correct responding.Examples:Verbal, gesture, physical, embedded (visual, auditory)ModelingPrecorrection
88 Types of Prompts Verbal Prompts Visual Modeling Rules: “Nouns are a person, place, or thing”Instructions—when specificHintsVisualPictures, examples of correct answers, number lines, multiplication charts, visual schedules, diagram of steps, scriptsModelingPhysical Prompting/ GuidancePartial, Full
89 Prompts increase teaching efficiency Use extra cues to increase number of correct responsesIncreased Responses=Increased Reinforcement=Increased Speed of Learning Behavior
90 What makes a good prompt? Increases likelihood of correct respondingFocuses attention on relevant features of task (Sd)Ease of deliveryEase of removal across trialsGood prompts are determined by the demands of the task AND the presenting skills of the learner.As weak as possible (least intrusive)Should be faded as rapidly as possible
91 Guidelines for Selecting Prompts 1) select the least intrusive, effective prompt2) combine prompts if necessary3) select natural prompts and those related to the behavior4) provide only after students are attending5) provide in a supportive, instructive manner before response6) fade as soon as possible7) plan fading procedures beforehand
92 Prompt Examples: What prompts might be useful? Natural Sd Target Behavior Consequence(Prompt)Teaching cursive writingTeaching swallowingTeaching Carl how to ask to enter a wall ball game.Teaching Emily to move from one task to another without help.Teaching Phil to wait at snack without grabbing food.
93 Fading Defined: Stimulus Fading The gradual reduction or removal of a prompt.Fading is a process for transferring stimulus control.As soon as you decide to use reinforcement you need to begin planning how to get rid of it -- fadingExamples:Change in physical features (dashed lines)Change in specificity of verbal prompts (“pick up the screwdriver”…to… “what’s next”)Time delay (“Prompt+Sd”….to… “Prompt….Sd”)
94 Establishing Stimulus Control Time delay:begin with a prompt that works and then increase the DELAY between presentation of the target stimulus and the added promptfixedProgressiveSd +Prompt responseSd ….Prompt responseSd ….response
95 Fading PromptsIncreasing Assistance (Least-to-Most Prompts)—start with least intrusive and add more intrusive if necessary.Graduated Guidance (Hand-over-hand, physical guidance)—reducing full guidance to “shadowing”.Time Delay—wait several seconds before prompting to allow student to respond.Decreasing Assistance (Most-to-Least Prompts)—move to less intrusive prompt when behavior occurs reliably
96 How would you fade these prompts? Verbal prompt “move it to the tens” during two digit addition to prompt carrying.Verbal prompt “ask nicely” when prompting Elsie to ask for toys/food, etc.Physical prompt “touch on arm” as student points to communication board.Gesture prompt, pointing to the correct color when asked to touch “yellow, etc”Embedded prompt, dashed lines for writing
97 Teaching Applications: Shaping DefinedTeaching new behaviors through differential reinforcement of successive approximations of correct responding.Differential reinforcement for shaping means that responses that meet a certain criterion are reinforced, while those that do not meet the criterion are not.The Sd and reward are constant. What changes is the rule for delivering the reward. The goal is to improve the precision of the new skill.
98 Response Shaping1. Behavior is present, but not fluent in the presence of the “signal”2. Focus on CONSEQUENCES -requires powerful reinforcers -use differential reinforcement3. Systematic reinforcement of successive approximations toward the targetbehavior -specify dimensions of the target/goal behavior -reinforce slight improvements/changes -takes time -avoid practicing errors
99 Establishing Stimulus Control: Teaching New Behaviors Shaping:Students learn new things when a teacher “shapes” an existing response into the desired behavior.Advantages of shaping:faster than waiting for a correct responselearner succeeds at a high ratestill kind of slow because you are waiting for the learner
100 Designing Successful Shaping Programs Identify the terminal behavior (end result)Identify the initial behaviorIdentify intermediate behaviorsDetermine the size of steps toward the goalReinforce successive approximations of the behaviorMonitor progressExample student accessing a switch
101 Shaping ExampleProblem behavior: Students are off-task about 80% of the time when working with a partner. Off-topic conversation occurs and work is not completed.Define the terminal behavior.Define the initial behavior.What will our “successive approximations” be?
102 Shaping: How would you use shaping to.. Develop skill of saying “thank you” (in different ways) to peers.Develop skill of reading third grade material at 150 words correct per minute.Develop ability of a pre-schooler to stay in morning circle for 10 min without screaming
103 Chaining A procedure to teach complex skills. Main idea Two approaches Reinforce combinations of simple behaviors so they become an integrated, whole.Based on “task analysis” logicRequires a “task” that is organized into a sequence of “responses.” Each of the responses serves as a “link” in “chain of behavior”Main ideaThe reward at the end of a chain will maintain all the other responses in the chain. The goal is to teach that each step has an Sd-> R. Each R generates a new Sd until the final step which ends with a Sr+ (reward).Two approachesForward chainingBackward chaining
104 Forward ChainingStudent does FIRST STEP, teacher does the rest of chain.Keep adding steps until student completes entire chain.Reinforce student for completing the desired number of steps requested by the teacher.Useful when prompting is difficult.
105 Backward ChainingTeacher does all but last step, student completes LAST STEP.Keep adding steps until student completes entire chainReinforce student for completing the desired number steps requested bythe teacher.Often used with functional skillsStudent can perform steps with prompts.
106 Functional Communication Training Carr, E.G., & Durand, V.M. (1985). Reducing behavior problems through functional communication training. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 18(2),
107 Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) Frost, L. A. & Bondy, A.S. (1994). The Picture exchange communication system: Training manual. Cherry Hill, NJ: Pyramid Educational Consultants.
108 TEACCHTreatment and Education of Autistic and Communication related handicapped CHildren-http://www.teacch.com/-Established in the early 1970s by Eric Schopler-Structured Teaching Model-Physical organization, scheduling, visual (picture and color) approach, use of reinforcement strategies
109 Discrete Trial Training (DTT) Strategy based on ABA principlesBreaking skills down into smaller components and teaching those smaller sub-skills individuallyMass Trials and Repeated PracticeUse of prompting when necessaryLeaf, R., & McEachin, J. (1999). A Work In Progress. New York, New York: DRL BooksGreen, G., Luce, S., & Maurice, C. (1996). Behavioral Intervention for Young Children with Autism: A Manual forParents and Professionals. Austin, Texas: Pro-Ed.Smith, T. (2001). Discrete Trial Training in the Treatment of Autism. Focus on Autism and Other DevelopmentalDisabilities, 16(2),
110 “Discrete Trial” Initial Instruction (“Touch your nose”) A prompt or cue given by the teacher to help the child respond correctly (Teacher points to child’s nose)A response given by the child (Child touches nose)An appropriate consequence (“Nice job touching your nose” + sticker)Pause between consecutive trials (1-5 seconds before next trial)
111 Pivotal Response Training & Verbal Behavior Approach “How to Teach Pivotal Behaviors to Children with Autism: A Training Manual”Barbera, M. & Rasmussen, T. (2007). The Verbal Behavior Approach: How to Teach Children with Autism and Related Disorders. Philadelphia, PA: Kingsley Publishing.