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Updates Check The Wiki -Epilepsy/Seizure article on Specialized Techniques Page (Coulter, 1997) Week 5 readings are posted choose either Carter & Kennedy,

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Presentation on theme: "Updates Check The Wiki -Epilepsy/Seizure article on Specialized Techniques Page (Coulter, 1997) Week 5 readings are posted choose either Carter & Kennedy,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Updates Check The Wiki -Epilepsy/Seizure article on Specialized Techniques Page (Coulter, 1997) Week 5 readings are posted choose either Carter & Kennedy, 2006 OR Johnson et al., 2004 Functional Curriculum (Wed Class) Article Review #2 Due on April 27th, Next Week Article Review #3 Due May 11th

2 Article Reviews Use APA format for citations for articles
Authors. (Year). Title of article. Journal Name, XX, XXX-XXX. Make sure you answer all of the questions in the template Treatment Integrity= how the authors noted that the intervention/treatment was delivered with fidelity (e.g., did they do the training the way it was designed) Please re-read your work before submitting it.

3 Today’s Agenda Entry Activity Designing effective instruction
Introduction to Task Analysis

4 What do students with intellectual disabilities need to learn?
Curriculum Goals? Putting pegs into pegboards? Several weeks on learning the 50 states and their capitals? Goals should be: 1. Individualized (i.e., person-centered) 2. Based on state content standards. 3. Measurable & Observable

5 Goals & Objectives Write complete objectives
Use task analysis to write behavioral (instructional) objectives

6 Behavioral Objectives
Defined Description of anticipated change in behavior Who will do what under specified conditions/ contexts Levels Goals Change in behavior over a year. Behavioral Objectives Change in behavior over a 1-4 month period. Short-term vs Long-term Short term = intial skills Long-term= terminal skills

7 Behavioral Objectives
Why Write Behavioral Objectives? Facilitate curriculum design Assist in assessing progress Improved communication Among multiple instructors Among multiple evaluators (staff, family) Legal/professional accountability Legal requirement in special education

8 Elements of Objectives
Learner (who) Behavior (what) Condition (when, where, with whom) Criterion (how much, how fast) Given a 15 min daily snack period with seven other children, Darin will use a “please-statement” to verbally request an item at least two times across 4 of 5 snack periods.

9 Writing Objectives Behaviors are observable Conditions are replicable
can be presented multiple times Criteria are measurable acquisition (accuracy) speed (fluency)

10 More Helpful Hints be sure that the criterion matches the behavior
be sure that the conditions are clear and make sense be sure that the objective is stated in positive terms be sure that baseline rates have been used to set criteria be sure that filler words are avoided (e.g., will be able to, will demonstrate) -- just say will behavior

11 Behavioral Objectives Examples
Given a 15 minute free time activity, Polly will keep her hands engaged in appropriate activities (drawing, playing with toys) or to her sides during 90% of that period for 8 of 10 days by the end of the month. Given a teacher direction to sit down, Franklin will take a seat at his desk within 10 seconds of the direction, during 85% of opportunities for 3 consecutive days by the end of the week. When presented with pictures, Sid will correctly state the emotion in the picture with 80% accuracy over 3 consecutive trials by the end of this learning section.

12 Non-Examples What’s wrong with these objectives?
Jethro will raise his hand before speaking, 100% of the time for 2 consecutive days by the end of the week. Given a rolling pin and a recipe, Wilma will think of 3 ways to use the rolling pin for 3 of 5 trials within month. Each time that Hugh is directed to say he’s sorry, he will do so with 80% accuracy over 2 consecutive days by the end of the school year. When confronted by an angry peer after falling off of the bars during a rainstorm and tearing a hole in his pants, Benny will tell the teacher 100% of the time for 4 consecutive days by the end of the quarter.

13 Improve this example Ovid will raise his hand instead of yelling out during math seat work. Is this objective intended to teach hand raising? teach asking for help? teach to request teacher attention less often? Learner: Condition: Behavior: Criteria:

14 How do I know what the right objectives are?
Each skill must be broken down into smaller steps which are teachable - this is known as task analysis (think of chaining) A task analysis is the process of breaking skills into teachable steps the product (teaching sequence) that is created by the task analysis process

15 Task Analysis: Why do it?
• Create instructional objectives of teachable size Facilitate a high success rate because the student is presented with, critically important yet achievable objectives • Ensure learner success Allows the student to be successful and initial success is predictive of longer range success

16 Steps in Ecological Assessment Process
Step 1: Plan with Student & Family Step 2: Summarize what is known about the student Step 3: Encourage Self-Determination/ Assess Student Preferences Step 4: Assess student’s instructional program Step 5: Develop ecological assessment report

17 Step 4- Assess Student’s Instructional Program
Remember ADAPT framework Ask: what am I requiring? Determine: prerequisite skills of the task Analyze: student’s strengths & needs Propose & implement adaptations Test: determine if adaptations helped Task Analytic Assessment is an assessment method of breaking down complex activities into smaller, teachable units into a series of sequentially ordered steps.

18 Do you use task analysis (TA) in your daily life?
To learn new skills Recipe for a complicated dish (Mac & Cheese!) Using a map to go someplace that we have never been (GPS to tell me when to turn) Following instructions to build a piece of furniture (IKEA!!) For individuals with disabilities, TA is a foundational approach for teaching (Taber et al., 2003) Taught 6 secondary-school-age students with cognitive disabilities to use a cell phone if and when they became lost in the community

19 Teaching a student to answer a cell phone to get assistance:
Press the top-left (blue) button to turn on the phone. Place phone in pocket, on belt, or in hand. When the phone rings, remove the phone from pocket or belt (if in hand, hold up to visually check that it is ringing) Press “YES” (or blue button) to answer the phone. Put phone to ear to say, “Hello” Listen for directions Verbally describe the location an surroundings Stay put Continue to speak to the caller until found. Once found, press, “No” (or red button) to hang up.

20 TA: Assess student performance & used to teach student
Next class we will discuss a number of strategies for teaching using a task analysis. Ex: chaining strategies, prompt-fading strategies, interrupted chain strategies

21 Increase success in conducting task analyses
Select a needed skill by using ecological inventory results (remember activity analysis/ADAPT) to identify a functional and age-appropriate skill that is an important target for a particular student. Define the target skill simply, including a description of the settings and materials most suited to the natural performance of the task. Perform the task and observe peers performing the task, using the chosen materials in the natural setting.

22 Increasing success cont’d…
Adapt the steps to suit the student’s abilities; employ as needed the principle of partial participation Validate the task analysis by having the student perform the task, but provide assistance on steps that are unknown so that performance of all of the steps can be viewed. Revise the task analysis so that it works; explore adding simple, nonstigmatizing adaptations to steps that appear to be unreasonable in an unadapted form

23 Writing the Task Analysis on the data collection form
State steps in observable terms. Steps are ordered in logical sequence. Written in second-person singular (“You”) so that they could serve as verbal prompts. Use language that is not confusing to the student, with the performance details that are essential to assessing performance enclosed in parentheses e.g., Walk down the hallway (thru lobby to the left).


25 Ways to increase the relevance & utility of TA
Component Model of Functional Life Routines (Brown et al., 1987) Found areas of concern of traditional TA for assessment Limited in scope: -Traditional: tasks into observable motor skills (e.g., pick up hairbrush, bring brush to head, brush down, etc.) -Component Model: related skills associated with meaningful performance in the natural environment (e.g., choosing a hairstyle, what to do if you have a knot in your hair, etc.) -other ex: initiating an activity, socializing during the activity, communicating about the activity, problem solving as needed, making choices related to the activity, & monitoring the quality of the activity.

26 Other ways to improve TA
Consider the natural cues in the environment & ways that typical people perform tasks Eg., lunch bell vs teacher prompt The way a task is ended For students with physical disabilities, ending a task may mean indicating when they would like the activity to end. TA should include the expectation of performing in ways that reflect typical performance and/or allow meaningful participation so that skills are more functional and complete.

27 More improvement in TA Sample the range of behaviors necessary for functional use of the routine. E.g., “wash hands and face” 1. washes hands and face with soap & water without prompting 2. washes hands with soap 3. washes face with soap 4. washes hands and face with water 5. dries hands and face. Does the completion of these steps imply mastery? Should also learn: when hands need to be washed, check to make sure that they are clean, & where to find more soap when the soap runs out.

28 Task Analysis Assignments
Complete the Task Analysis Recording Form Designed to be a continuous data collecting tool after baseline data collection You will be conducting a task analysis by observing a focus student through a routine/skill that requires multiple steps Be sure to include teaching schedule & location (some routines may be able to be performed in multiple settings and times, please note those) Note any adaptive materials needed for the student to complete the task List relevant features to vary (to promote generalization) Outline the steps in backwards order (top: last step, bottom, first step) Make sure the steps are logical and in the order they naturally occur. By the end of the task analysis you will complete an objective and criteria for achieving that objective

29 TA assignments continued
Continue working with the student that you conducted the preference assessment with. Outline the steps needed to complete an important routine/skill Observe the student attempting to complete the routine, unassisted, at least 3 times (sessions, days) Record these data on the TA recording form Add up the number of steps performed independently, circle, and graph. Be sure to note anecdotal comments on the back of the TA recording form for qualitative information.

30 Task Analysis Planning
First Task Analysis due: May 2nd -For a functional skill Examples of functional skills: Self-care skills, community involvement skills, transportation, job skills, purchasing skills Activity: Take the time now to identify a functional skill within a school routine for your focus student that you can do a task analysis on. Start completing the information on the task analysis recording form. Please ask any questions you may have about this assignment.

31 Academic Curriculum Programs for all students with intellectual disabilities should include the basic skills for reading, writing, & math (Al Otaiba & Hosp 2004; Bradford, et al., 2006; Jolivette et al., 2006). Functional academics considered to be the “most useful parts of the 3 R’s” (Browder & Snell, 200; p. 497). Must carefully assess each student’s current routines to find those skills that the student requires and/or could use often.

32 Functional Curriculum
Learning activities that will maximize a student’s independence, self-direction, health and fitness, and enjoyment in everyday school, community, & work environments. E.g.: Purchasing, Shopping, ordering in a restaurant(, cooking, telling time, and nutrition & fitness (Ayres et al., 2006; Mechling et al. 2005; Graves et al., 2005; Horn et al., 2006; Simpson et al., 2006)

33 How to determine functional skills:
Does the content focus on necessary knowledge and skills….(so that the student can) function as independently as possible in home, school, or community? Does the content provide a scope and sequence for meeting future needs? Do the parents (student) think it is important? Is the content appropriate for the student’s chronological age and current performance level? What are the consequences to the student of not learning the concepts and skills (Clark, 1994)

34 Self-determination Teaching learners to set goals, plan, and implement a course of action. Evaluate their performance & make adjustments Teaching skills such as: Choice/decision making Goal setting Problem solving Self-evaluation, self-management Self-advocacy, self-awareness

35 Work as collaborative teams
Decisions are made at numerous points, but only after team members share their different perspectives on the student, engage in relevant discussion, problem solving, and then reach consensus as a team (Friend & Cook, 2010) Nonconsensual decisions tend to reflect a narrower range of information and risk being of poorer quality (Snell & Janney, 2005)

36 Effective Instruction
“Holding a student responsible for assigned material is not teaching, even though it is a large part of modern school and university practice.” B.F. Skinner, 1968

37 Understanding the Stages of Learning
Acquisition (build initial stimulus control) Fluency (develop speed, accuracy) Maintenance (durability of skill across time) Generalization (performance of behavior under appropriate, non-trained conditions)

38 Stages of Learning Acquisition: new at task, instruction crucial, student not accurate Fluency: accurate and increase in speed Maintenance: skills retained over time Generalization: skill in new contexts (discriminate) Adaptation: modify skill for new situation

39 Adaptation Generalization Maintenance Fluency Acquisition
Stages of Learning Adaptation Generalization Maintenance Fluency Acquisition: new task, need teacher assistance, performance may be clumsy and slow, teaching explicitly is crucial! Think of new tasks for yourself? Fluency: timely, few errors, achieved via practice of skills; some skills learned to fluency naturally, but teachers need to be explicit and plan! Maintenance: Acquisition

40 Acquisition Teaching discriminations
Positive examples Maximally different negative example Minimally different negative example Teach what to do, and when to do it. The behavior The signal (discriminative stimulus) Prompting, fading, shaping, rewarding

41 Learner characteristics at acquisition stage
Student performs none or up to about half of the task May need to cue or prompt initiation May need a low-error prompt system Possibly break skill down into smaller components Give frequent positive feedback

42 Fluency Improved rate of responding But fluency is more than just rate
Fluid motions Absence of pausing Speed in decision-making Rhythmic Build fluency through practice Math facts, chromatic scale, second language Fluency is an index of the power of stimulus control that has been established.

43 Fluent learner characteristics
Student performs more than half of the task Add realistic speed and quality criteria Add to skill to make it more functional (e.g., monitors speed & quality) Enrich skill with communication choice, or social behaviors Drop all intrusive requests Fade intrusive prompt Shift attention to natural cues and prompts Thin out reinforcement Shift to natural reinforcement

44 Maintenance Stability of responding over time
Variables that affect maintenance Building fluency with initial instruction (level of stimulus control Regular opportunity to perform On-going access to contingent rewards (reinforcement) Access to competing alternative behaviors that are contingently reinforced.

45 Learners at the maintenance stage
Student performs more than half of the task “Schedule it” and expect student to perform Add to the skill to make it more functional (e.g., initiates, prepares) Enrich skill with communication, choice, social behaviors Drop all intrusive requests Fade intrusive prompts Shift attention to natural cues Thin out reinforcement Shift to natural reinforcement

46 Generalization Defined:
Target behavior is performed under conditions beyond those used during instruction. Generalization can be desired (e.g. “greeting skills”) or undesired (saying /b/ in the presence of “d”). Build generalized skills through selection and sequencing of teaching examples

47 Characteristics of learners at the generalization stage
Student performs more than half of the task Vary settings Vary instructors, supervisors, others Vary materials Vary conditions and teach problem solving Enrich skill with communication, choice Drop all intrusive requests Fade intrusive prompt, reinforcement Shift attention to natural cues & natural reinforcement

48 Adaptation Generalization Maintenance Fluency Acquisition
Stages of Learning Adaptation Generalization Maintenance Fluency Acquisition: new task, need teacher assistance, performance may be clumsy and slow, teaching explicitly is crucial! Think of new tasks for yourself? Fluency: timely, few errors, achieved via practice of skills; some skills learned to fluency naturally, but teachers need to be explicit and plan! Maintenance: Acquisition

49 Review 4 basic elements of behavior 9 principles of behavior
Response, Antecedent stimulus, Consequence, Setting Event 9 principles of behavior Stimulus control, Positive reinforcement, Negative reinforcement, Positive punishment, Negative punishment, Transfer, Generalization, Maintenance Applications to teaching Prompting, Fading, Shaping, Task Analysis, Design of Instruction, Instructional objectives, Behavioral objectives.

50 Examples Teaching reading in second grade
Objective: Hailey will read at 100 words correct per min with the Open Court text. Acquisition: Fluency: Maintenance: Generalization:

51 Example Decrease problem behavior
Objective: Mikai will not hit, kick or bite others on the playground. Mikai will play cooperatively with others on the playground without hitting, kicking, or biting for 5 consecutive days. Acquisition: Fluency: Maintenance: Generalization:

52 Instructional Activities (acquisition)
Direct instruction Systematic teaching of target skills: reading, math, social-behavioral skills MODEL  LEAD TEST

53 direct instruction (“little di”): Steps
Gain attention … ”Everyone eyes on me.” Review previous material to: Check for understanding to ensure students remember How previous material is relevant to new material State goal State Expectations Positively New content in small steps Explicit Instruction, range of examples, logical sequence) Model Demonstration of the skill Lead Prompted (guided) practice Unprompted practice Test Independent practice

54 Instructional Concepts
State expectations positively Explicit instruction Range of examples Logical sequencing

55 Instructional Concept #1
State Expectations Positively Teach them what you do want them to do

56 Ineffective Instruction
Sets the occasion for student failure

57 Teaching Behaviors Behavior: Peer Relations Academic Skill: Addition
No elbowing others No kicking No hitting No pinching No biting No scratching Etc. . . 2+2 is not 1 2+2 is not 2 2+2 is not 3 2+2 is not 5 2+2 is not 6 2+2 is not 7 Etc. . .

58 Teaching Behaviors Behavior: Peer Relations Academic Skill: Addition
Hands and feet to self or Respect others 2+2 = 4

59 Instructional Concept #2
Explicit Instruction Be Direct

60 What is the Best Way to Facilitate Academic Success?
Should we teach, facilitate, or just support? Teaching - teacher structures a lesson, models skills, and leads students through practice or key skills. Facilitate - teachers sets up activities wherein students discover key skills. Support - teachers simply oversee students and offer support for whatever they do.

61 Large-Scale Research and Meta Analyses
Explicit Instruction Large-Scale Research and Meta Analyses Direct Comparison Meta-Analysis Favor explicit instruction % Tie % Favor other methods % Students of all ages and abilities Academic and social behaviors Especially effective with low performers Very successful with disadvantaged students

62 Instructional Concept #3
Range of Examples Show all the possibilities

63 Effective Instruction
Effective instruction is: Effective example selection and sequencing Task analysis Facilitate success Delivered at the level of the student

INEFFECTIVE MODELS INEFFECTIVE PRACTICE - TESTING OUTCOMES Walk on green Don’t walk on red Walk on green Don’t walk on red FAILURE = ? Green light = Walk YES NO LIGHT = ?

65 Instructional Concept #4
Logical Sequencing Juxtapose positive and negative examples



68 Instructional Sequence
Presentation - tell and model Recitation - student Q & A Individual Work - with teacher feedback -make sure students get it Group work -activities, experiments, etc. -chance to discover application to real world Test - Make sure they have skill fluency

69 Instructional Sequence
Model: Structured, Clear Be direct with multiple examples & non-examples Lead: High levels of opportunities to respond (OTR), success Individual Work - with clear teacher feedback -make sure students get it Group work -activities, experiments, etc. -chance to discover application to real world Test - Make sure they have skill fluency

70 Instructional Methods
Students with intellectual disabilities learn best when instructional methods are explicit, systematic, and derived from empirical research such as the following practices (Heward, 2003)

71 Heward, 2003 Assess each student’s present levels of performance to help identify and prioritize most important instructional targets. Define and task-analyze the new knowledge or skills to be learned Design instructional methods and activities so the student has frequent opportunities for active student response in the form of guided and independent practice Use mediated scaffolding (provide and then fade prompts so student can respond to natural occurring stimuli)

72 Heward, 2003 continued Provide systematic consequences for student performance in the form of contingent reinforcement, instructional feedback, and error correction. Incorporate fluency-building activities into lessons Incorporate strategies for promoting generalization and maintenance of newly learned skills Conduct direct and frequent measurements of student performance, and use those data to instructional decisions.

73 Specialized Teaching Strategies
Visual modality strategies Visual supports, visual schedules, activity boards, rule scripts, video modeling, Task analysis & chaining Forward, backward, interrupted Discrete teaching trials Prompting systems, time-delay, Antecedent & Consequence strategies

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