Presentation on theme: "Updates Check The Wiki -Epilepsy/Seizure article on Specialized Techniques Page (Coulter, 1997) Week 5 readings are posted choose either Carter & Kennedy,"— Presentation transcript:
1 UpdatesCheck The Wiki-Epilepsy/Seizure article on Specialized Techniques Page (Coulter, 1997)Week 5 readings are posted choose either Carter & Kennedy, 2006 OR Johnson et al., 2004Functional Curriculum (Wed Class)Article Review #2 Due on April 27th, Next WeekArticle Review #3 Due May 11th
2 Article Reviews Use APA format for citations for articles Authors. (Year). Title of article. Journal Name, XX, XXX-XXX.Make sure you answer all of the questions in the templateTreatment Integrity= how the authors noted that the intervention/treatment was delivered with fidelity (e.g., did they do the training the way it was designed)Please re-read your work before submitting it.
4 What do students with intellectual disabilities need to learn? Curriculum Goals?Putting pegs into pegboards?Several weeks on learning the 50 states and their capitals?Goals should be:1. Individualized (i.e., person-centered)2. Based on state content standards.3. Measurable & Observable
5 Goals & Objectives Write complete objectives Use task analysis to write behavioral (instructional) objectives
6 Behavioral Objectives DefinedDescription of anticipated change in behaviorWho will do what under specified conditions/ contextsLevelsGoalsChange in behavior over a year.Behavioral ObjectivesChange in behavior over a 1-4 month period.Short-term vs Long-termShort term = intial skillsLong-term= terminal skills
7 Behavioral Objectives Why Write Behavioral Objectives?Facilitate curriculum designAssist in assessing progressImproved communicationAmong multiple instructorsAmong multiple evaluators (staff, family)Legal/professional accountabilityLegal requirement in special education
8 Elements of Objectives Learner (who)Behavior (what)Condition (when, where, with whom)Criterion (how much, how fast)Given a 15 min daily snack period with seven other children, Darin will use a “please-statement” to verbally request an item at least two times across 4 of 5 snack periods.
9 Writing Objectives Behaviors are observable Conditions are replicable can be presented multiple timesCriteria are measurableacquisition (accuracy)speed (fluency)
10 More Helpful Hints be sure that the criterion matches the behavior be sure that the conditions are clear and make sensebe sure that the objective is stated in positive termsbe sure that baseline rates have been used to set criteriabe sure that filler words are avoided (e.g., will be able to, will demonstrate) -- just say will behavior
11 Behavioral Objectives Examples Given a 15 minute free time activity, Polly will keep her hands engaged in appropriate activities (drawing, playing with toys) or to her sides during 90% of that period for 8 of 10 days by the end of the month.Given a teacher direction to sit down, Franklin will take a seat at his desk within 10 seconds of the direction, during 85% of opportunities for 3 consecutive days by the end of the week.When presented with pictures, Sid will correctly state the emotion in the picture with 80% accuracy over 3 consecutive trials by the end of this learning section.
12 Non-Examples What’s wrong with these objectives? Jethro will raise his hand before speaking, 100% of the time for 2 consecutive days by the end of the week.Given a rolling pin and a recipe, Wilma will think of 3 ways to use the rolling pin for 3 of 5 trials within month.Each time that Hugh is directed to say he’s sorry, he will do so with 80% accuracy over 2 consecutive days by the end of the school year.When confronted by an angry peer after falling off of the bars during a rainstorm and tearing a hole in his pants, Benny will tell the teacher 100% of the time for 4 consecutive days by the end of the quarter.
13 Improve this exampleOvid will raise his hand instead of yelling out during math seat work.Is this objective intended toteach hand raising?teach asking for help?teach to request teacher attention less often?Learner:Condition:Behavior:Criteria:
14 How do I know what the right objectives are? Each skill must be broken down into smaller steps which are teachable - this is known as task analysis (think of chaining)A task analysis isthe process of breaking skills into teachable stepsthe product (teaching sequence) that is created by the task analysis process
15 Task Analysis: Why do it? • Create instructional objectives of teachable sizeFacilitate a high success rate because the student is presented with, critically important yet achievable objectives• Ensure learner successAllows the student to be successful and initial success is predictive of longer range success
16 Steps in Ecological Assessment Process Step 1: Plan with Student & FamilyStep 2: Summarize what is known about the studentStep 3: Encourage Self-Determination/ Assess Student PreferencesStep 4: Assess student’s instructional programStep 5: Develop ecological assessment report
17 Step 4- Assess Student’s Instructional Program Remember ADAPT frameworkAsk: what am I requiring?Determine: prerequisite skills of the taskAnalyze: student’s strengths & needsPropose & implement adaptationsTest: determine if adaptations helpedTask Analytic Assessment is an assessment method of breaking down complex activities into smaller, teachable units into a series of sequentially ordered steps.
18 Do you use task analysis (TA) in your daily life? To learn new skillsRecipe for a complicated dish (Mac & Cheese!)Using a map to go someplace that we have never been (GPS to tell me when to turn)Following instructions to build a piece of furniture (IKEA!!)For individuals with disabilities, TA is a foundational approach for teaching (Taber et al., 2003)Taught 6 secondary-school-age students with cognitive disabilities to use a cell phone if and when they became lost in the community
19 Teaching a student to answer a cell phone to get assistance: Press the top-left (blue) button to turn on the phone.Place phone in pocket, on belt, or in hand.When the phone rings, remove the phone from pocket or belt (if in hand, hold up to visually check that it is ringing)Press “YES” (or blue button) to answer the phone.Put phone to ear to say, “Hello”Listen for directionsVerbally describe the location an surroundingsStay putContinue to speak to the caller until found.Once found, press, “No” (or red button) to hang up.
20 TA: Assess student performance & used to teach student Next class we will discuss a number of strategies for teaching using a task analysis.Ex: chaining strategies, prompt-fading strategies, interrupted chain strategies
21 Increase success in conducting task analyses Select a needed skill by using ecological inventory results (remember activity analysis/ADAPT) to identify a functional and age-appropriate skill that is an important target for a particular student.Define the target skill simply, including a description of the settings and materials most suited to the natural performance of the task.Perform the task and observe peers performing the task, using the chosen materials in the natural setting.
22 Increasing success cont’d… Adapt the steps to suit the student’s abilities; employ as needed the principle of partial participationValidate the task analysis by having the student perform the task, but provide assistance on steps that are unknown so that performance of all of the steps can be viewed.Revise the task analysis so that it works; explore adding simple, nonstigmatizing adaptations to steps that appear to be unreasonable in an unadapted form
23 Writing the Task Analysis on the data collection form State steps in observable terms.Steps are ordered in logical sequence.Written in second-person singular (“You”) so that they could serve as verbal prompts.Use language that is not confusing to the student, with the performance details that are essential to assessing performance enclosed in parentheses e.g., Walk down the hallway (thru lobby to the left).
25 Ways to increase the relevance & utility of TA Component Model of Functional Life Routines (Brown et al., 1987)Found areas of concern of traditional TA for assessmentLimited in scope:-Traditional: tasks into observable motor skills (e.g., pick up hairbrush, bring brush to head, brush down, etc.)-Component Model: related skills associated with meaningful performance in the natural environment (e.g., choosing a hairstyle, what to do if you have a knot in your hair, etc.)-other ex: initiating an activity, socializing during the activity, communicating about the activity, problem solving as needed, making choices related to the activity, & monitoring the quality of the activity.
26 Other ways to improve TA Consider the natural cues in the environment & ways that typical people perform tasksEg., lunch bell vs teacher promptThe way a task is endedFor students with physical disabilities, ending a task may mean indicating when they would like the activity to end.TA should include the expectation of performing in ways that reflect typical performance and/or allow meaningful participation so that skills are more functional and complete.
27 More improvement in TASample the range of behaviors necessary for functional use of the routine.E.g., “wash hands and face”1. washes hands and face with soap & water without prompting2. washes hands with soap3. washes face with soap4. washes hands and face with water5. dries hands and face.Does the completion of these steps imply mastery?Should also learn: when hands need to be washed, check to make sure that they are clean, & where to find more soap when the soap runs out.
28 Task Analysis Assignments Complete the Task Analysis Recording FormDesigned to be a continuous data collecting tool after baseline data collectionYou will be conducting a task analysis by observing a focus student through a routine/skill that requires multiple stepsBe sure to include teaching schedule & location (some routines may be able to be performed in multiple settings and times, please note those)Note any adaptive materials needed for the student to complete the taskList relevant features to vary (to promote generalization)Outline the steps in backwards order (top: last step, bottom, first step)Make sure the steps are logical and in the order they naturally occur.By the end of the task analysis you will complete an objective and criteria for achieving that objective
29 TA assignments continued Continue working with the student that you conducted the preference assessment with.Outline the steps needed to complete an important routine/skillObserve the student attempting to complete the routine, unassisted, at least 3 times (sessions, days)Record these data on the TA recording formAdd up the number of steps performed independently, circle, and graph.Be sure to note anecdotal comments on the back of the TA recording form for qualitative information.
30 Task Analysis Planning First Task Analysis due: May 2nd-For a functional skillExamples of functional skills: Self-care skills, community involvement skills, transportation, job skills, purchasing skillsActivity: Take the time now to identify a functional skill within a school routine for your focus student that you can do a task analysis on.Start completing the information on the task analysis recording form. Please ask any questions you may have about this assignment.
31 Academic CurriculumPrograms for all students with intellectual disabilities should include the basic skills for reading, writing, & math (Al Otaiba & Hosp 2004; Bradford, et al., 2006; Jolivette et al., 2006).Functional academics considered to be the “most useful parts of the 3 R’s” (Browder & Snell, 200; p. 497).Must carefully assess each student’s current routines to find those skills that the student requires and/or could use often.
32 Functional Curriculum Learning activities that will maximize a student’s independence, self-direction, health and fitness, and enjoyment in everyday school, community, & work environments.E.g.: Purchasing, Shopping, ordering in a restaurant(, cooking, telling time, and nutrition & fitness(Ayres et al., 2006; Mechling et al. 2005; Graves et al., 2005; Horn et al., 2006; Simpson et al., 2006)
33 How to determine functional skills: Does the content focus on necessary knowledge and skills….(so that the student can) function as independently as possible in home, school, or community?Does the content provide a scope and sequence for meeting future needs?Do the parents (student) think it is important?Is the content appropriate for the student’s chronological age and current performance level?What are the consequences to the student of not learning the concepts and skills(Clark, 1994)
34 Self-determinationTeaching learners to set goals, plan, and implement a course of action.Evaluate their performance & make adjustmentsTeaching skills such as:Choice/decision makingGoal settingProblem solvingSelf-evaluation, self-managementSelf-advocacy, self-awareness
35 Work as collaborative teams Decisions are made at numerous points, but only after team members share their different perspectives on the student, engage in relevant discussion, problem solving, and then reach consensus as a team (Friend & Cook, 2010)Nonconsensual decisions tend to reflect a narrower range of information and risk being of poorer quality (Snell & Janney, 2005)
36 Effective Instruction ““Holding a student responsible for assigned material is not teaching, even though it is a large part of modern school and university practice.”B.F. Skinner, 1968
37 Understanding the Stages of Learning Acquisition(build initial stimulus control)Fluency(develop speed, accuracy)Maintenance(durability of skill across time)Generalization(performance of behavior under appropriate, non-trained conditions)
38 Stages of LearningAcquisition: new at task, instruction crucial, student not accurateFluency: accurate and increase in speedMaintenance: skills retained over timeGeneralization: skill in new contexts (discriminate)Adaptation: modify skill for new situation
39 Adaptation Generalization Maintenance Fluency Acquisition Stages of LearningAdaptationGeneralizationMaintenanceFluencyAcquisition: new task, need teacher assistance, performance may be clumsy and slow, teaching explicitly is crucial!Think of new tasks for yourself?Fluency: timely, few errors, achieved via practice of skills; some skills learned to fluency naturally, but teachers need to be explicit and plan!Maintenance:Acquisition
40 Acquisition Teaching discriminations Positive examplesMaximally different negative exampleMinimally different negative exampleTeach what to do, and when to do it.The behaviorThe signal (discriminative stimulus)Prompting, fading, shaping, rewarding
41 Learner characteristics at acquisition stage Student performs none or up to about half of the taskMay need to cue or prompt initiationMay need a low-error prompt systemPossibly break skill down into smaller componentsGive frequent positive feedback
42 Fluency Improved rate of responding But fluency is more than just rate Fluid motionsAbsence of pausingSpeed in decision-makingRhythmicBuild fluency through practiceMath facts, chromatic scale, second languageFluency is an index of the power of stimulus control that has been established.
43 Fluent learner characteristics Student performs more than half of the taskAdd realistic speed and quality criteriaAdd to skill to make it more functional (e.g., monitors speed & quality)Enrich skill with communication choice, or social behaviorsDrop all intrusive requestsFade intrusive promptShift attention to natural cues and promptsThin out reinforcementShift to natural reinforcement
44 Maintenance Stability of responding over time Variables that affect maintenanceBuilding fluency with initial instruction (level of stimulus controlRegular opportunity to performOn-going access to contingent rewards (reinforcement)Access to competing alternative behaviors that are contingently reinforced.
45 Learners at the maintenance stage Student performs more than half of the task“Schedule it” and expect student to performAdd to the skill to make it more functional (e.g., initiates, prepares)Enrich skill with communication, choice, social behaviorsDrop all intrusive requestsFade intrusive promptsShift attention to natural cuesThin out reinforcementShift to natural reinforcement
46 Generalization Defined: Target behavior is performed under conditions beyond those used during instruction.Generalization can be desired (e.g. “greeting skills”) or undesired (saying /b/ in the presence of “d”).Build generalized skills through selection and sequencing of teaching examples
47 Characteristics of learners at the generalization stage Student performs more than half of the taskVary settingsVary instructors, supervisors, othersVary materialsVary conditions and teach problem solvingEnrich skill with communication, choiceDrop all intrusive requestsFade intrusive prompt, reinforcementShift attention to natural cues & natural reinforcement
48 Adaptation Generalization Maintenance Fluency Acquisition Stages of LearningAdaptationGeneralizationMaintenanceFluencyAcquisition: new task, need teacher assistance, performance may be clumsy and slow, teaching explicitly is crucial!Think of new tasks for yourself?Fluency: timely, few errors, achieved via practice of skills; some skills learned to fluency naturally, but teachers need to be explicit and plan!Maintenance:Acquisition
49 Review 4 basic elements of behavior 9 principles of behavior Response, Antecedent stimulus, Consequence, Setting Event9 principles of behaviorStimulus control, Positive reinforcement, Negative reinforcement, Positive punishment, Negative punishment, Transfer, Generalization, MaintenanceApplications to teachingPrompting, Fading, Shaping, Task Analysis, Design of Instruction, Instructional objectives, Behavioral objectives.
50 Examples Teaching reading in second grade Objective: Hailey will read at 100 words correct per min with the Open Court text.Acquisition:Fluency:Maintenance:Generalization:
51 Example Decrease problem behavior Objective: Mikai will not hit, kick or bite others on the playground.Mikai will play cooperatively with others on the playground without hitting, kicking, or biting for 5 consecutive days.Acquisition:Fluency:Maintenance:Generalization:
52 Instructional Activities (acquisition) Direct instructionSystematic teaching of target skills: reading, math, social-behavioral skillsMODEL LEAD TEST
53 direct instruction (“little di”): Steps Gain attention … ”Everyone eyes on me.”Review previous material to:Check for understanding to ensure students rememberHow previous material is relevant to new materialState goalState Expectations PositivelyNew content in small stepsExplicit Instruction, range of examples, logical sequence)ModelDemonstration of the skillLeadPrompted (guided) practiceUnprompted practiceTestIndependent practice
54 Instructional Concepts State expectations positivelyExplicit instructionRange of examplesLogical sequencing
55 Instructional Concept #1 State Expectations PositivelyTeach them what you do want them to do
56 Ineffective Instruction Sets the occasion for student failure
57 Teaching Behaviors Behavior: Peer Relations Academic Skill: Addition No elbowing othersNo kickingNo hittingNo pinchingNo bitingNo scratchingEtc. . .2+2 is not 12+2 is not 22+2 is not 32+2 is not 52+2 is not 62+2 is not 7Etc. . .
58 Teaching Behaviors Behavior: Peer Relations Academic Skill: Addition Hands and feet to self orRespect others2+2 = 4
59 Instructional Concept #2 Explicit InstructionBe Direct
60 What is the Best Way to Facilitate Academic Success? Should we teach, facilitate, or just support?Teaching - teacher structures a lesson, models skills, and leads students through practice or key skills.Facilitate - teachers sets up activities wherein students discover key skills.Support - teachers simply oversee students and offer support for whatever they do.
61 Large-Scale Research and Meta Analyses Explicit InstructionLarge-Scale Research and Meta AnalysesDirect Comparison Meta-Analysis Favor explicit instruction % Tie % Favor other methods %Students of all ages and abilitiesAcademic and social behaviorsEspecially effective with low performersVery successful with disadvantaged students
62 Instructional Concept #3 Range of ExamplesShow all the possibilities
63 Effective Instruction Effective instruction is:Effective example selection and sequencingTask analysisFacilitate successDelivered at the level of the student
64 INEFFECTIVE INSTRUCTION INEFFECTIVE MODELSINEFFECTIVE PRACTICE-TESTING OUTCOMESWalk on greenDon’t walkon redWalk on greenDon’t walkon redFAILURE= ?Green light =WalkYESNO LIGHT =?
65 Instructional Concept #4 Logical SequencingJuxtapose positive and negative examples
67 EFFECTIVE INSTRUCTION EFFECTIVE MODELSEFFECTIVE PRACTICE-TESTING OUTCOMES= osh= osh= osh= not osh= osh= osh= not oshSUCCESSOsh =RED SIDED RECTANGLE
68 Instructional Sequence Presentation - tell and modelRecitation - student Q & AIndividual Work - with teacher feedback -make sure students get itGroup work-activities, experiments, etc.-chance to discover application to real worldTest - Make sure they have skill fluency
69 Instructional Sequence Model: Structured, ClearBe direct with multiple examples & non-examplesLead: High levels of opportunities to respond (OTR), successIndividual Work - with clear teacher feedback -make sure students get itGroup work-activities, experiments, etc.-chance to discover application to real worldTest - Make sure they have skill fluency
70 Instructional Methods Students with intellectual disabilities learn best when instructional methods are explicit, systematic, and derived from empirical research such as the following practices (Heward, 2003)
71 Heward, 2003Assess each student’s present levels of performance to help identify and prioritize most important instructional targets.Define and task-analyze the new knowledge or skills to be learnedDesign instructional methods and activities so the student has frequent opportunities for active student response in the form of guided and independent practiceUse mediated scaffolding (provide and then fade prompts so student can respond to natural occurring stimuli)
72 Heward, 2003 continuedProvide systematic consequences for student performance in the form of contingent reinforcement, instructional feedback, and error correction.Incorporate fluency-building activities into lessonsIncorporate strategies for promoting generalization and maintenance of newly learned skillsConduct direct and frequent measurements of student performance, and use those data to instructional decisions.