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Functional Assessment

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Presentation on theme: "Functional Assessment"— Presentation transcript:

1 Functional Assessment
Session 2 Addressing Diversity & Partnering with Families

2 Updates Next class- October 14th
- Article Review #1 Due & Quiz #1 October 21st - IEP at a Glance & Ecological Inventory October 28th- Preference Assessment & Quiz #2 November 4th – Task Analysis #1 November 25th- Task Analysis #2 December 2nd- Ecological Assessment Report & Quiz #4 December 9th- PLAAFP Assignment Remember to always check the wiki for the assignments and materials. If links are not working, please me ASAP.

3 Review & Questions from Last Week

4 Steps in Ecological Assessment Process
Step 1: Plan with Student & Family Person-centered Planning Step 2: Summarize what is known about the student Record Review, IEP Review Step 3: Encourage Self-Determination/ Assess Student Preferences Preference Assessment Step 4: Assess student’s instructional program Daily Schedule Analysis Task Analyses Other Assessments Step 5: Develop ecological assessment report To inform IEP: PLAAFP, Goals & Objectives, Interventions

5 Person-Centered Planning
Strength-based shared understanding of : Values, Long-term goals, Current programs, Barriers to participation & success , Possible variables influencing barriers

6 Planning Alternative Tomorrows with Hope (PATH)

7 What planning looks like?

8 Features of Person-Centered Planning
Intentional planning for success (pre-planning) – range of purpose for planning - stage Focus on and driven by the student’s strengths, interests and preferences Focus on capacities and opportunities - establishes a vision The process is flexible, dynamic and informal Requires collaborative teamwork with commitment to action Requires an effective facilitator Excerpt from Flannery, B., Slovic, R. & McLean Person-Centered Planning: How do we know we are doing it?

9 Putting it all together
Community Home Goals School Work

10 Person-centered Planning: Basic Beliefs
Every person has: The right to plan a life for his or herself which is personally meaningful and satisfying. Talents and strengths that can be developed

11 Team Members and Roles Adapted Physical Education (APE) Teacher
Provides adaptations to regular PE program to promote student participation Audiologist: Identifies types and degrees of hearing loss and provides equipment guidelines Family Members & Student: Experts in student and stakeholders in their future General Education Teacher: GE content expert, collaborates to instruct student

12 Team Members and Roles Nurse: information source for the team on student’s medical conditions, performs & trains staff to do specialized medical procedures (e.g., tube feeding, catheterization) Occupational Therapist: Promotes optimal physical functioning (fine motor, sensory motor), suggests modifications/supports Physical Therapist: Same, but gross motor, positioning

13 Team Members and Roles Orientation & Mobility (O&M): specialized training in visual functioning in mobility Psychologist: evaluator of student’s intellectual and adaptive abilities and interpreter of evaluation results, may provide suggestions for reducing student behaviors Social Worker: facilitates access to services and establishing linkages between school and community programs

14 Team Members and Roles Speech-Language Pathologist:
Provides instruction in the area of communication, language, speech. Provides suggestions and instruction with AAC devices. Expertise in oral motor and feeding skills Special Education Teacher: Provides specialized teaching strategies, provides and implements adaptations

15 Connection to IEP Education/School a part of person’s life
Consistency across Behavior support Skills training (generalization/adaptation of skills) Communication systems Planning team members

16 Choosing Outcomes & Accommodations for Children: COACH 3
Giangreco, Cloninger, Iverson (2011) Beyond Student-Centered Planning to Student-Directed Planning Intended to accompany and not supplant IEP planning process

17 COACH outlines a planning process specifically designed to assist teams in identifying the content of IEPs for students with significant cognitive disabilities in general education settings (Giangreco, 1996). The use of the COACH model in including students with severe disabilities in general education classrooms has been documented to change IEP goals by— Making them more specific and reducing the overall number of goals written Positively affecting relationships between families and professionals Shifting control of educational decisions to parents Facilitating changes in valued life outcomes as reflected in new program and social opportunities

18 COACH consists of two parts, labeled A and B.
Part A assists with determining a student's educational program and creating an IEP Part B assists with the development of strategies and processes to implement the program created in Part A. The steps in Part A consist of the following: A structure for conducting a family interview, the purpose of which is to determine family-selected learning priorities for the student A structure for determining additional learning outcomes beyond family priorities An elaboration of general supports that need to be provided to or for a student A procedure to ensure that a family's priorities are reflected as IEP annual goals A concise summary of the educational program devised, in the form of a "program-at-a-glance" document

19 Questions about COACH?

20 Loman et al., 2010

21 Self-Determination Educational Materials
partnerships/zarrow/self-determination-education-materials.html Who’s Future is it Anyway? partnerships/zarrow/self-determination-education- materials/whos-future-is-it-anyway.html

22 External Community Supports
I hear “One Voice” Academic Support System: Response to Intervention Social/Behavior Support System: School-wide PBS Context for: Person Centered Planning, Functional Assessment & Wraparound

23 Horner (2011)

24 Six Guiding Principles to Creating an Inclusive School
All instruction is guided by General Education All school resources are configured to benefit all students School Proactively addresses social development and citizenship School is data-based learning organization School has open boundaries in relation to its families and its community District supports school-centered approach and extensive systems-change activities required to implement a school-wide model Sailor & Roger, 2005

25 Christian M’s Story Video

26 Person-Environment Fit & Schools (Thompson, Wehmeyer, & Hughes, 2010)

27 Change When change occurs individuals are usually pushed out of their box, or their comfort zone. In the case of full inclusion, this change will effect the general education teacher and the special education teacher the most. Incorporate notion of Team-Work where we can pull together, instead of pulling apart, each team member’s expertise into an inclusive educational program

28 Schoolwide Integrated Framework for Transformation (SWIFT)

29 Collaboration is essential, but not easy...
Students may receive supports from mental health providers, social services, physicians, juvenile justice, etc. But, supports may not be linked with the school, home, and community settings Different terminology & professional perspectives

30 Therefore schools & educators need to be equipped to:
Effectively engage families and support agencies outside of school walls Organize, implement, and sustain effective comprehensive behavior supports that systematically address the many detrimental variables affecting children with chronic behavioral problems.


32 Discussion Guide For the next minutes get together with a partner and discuss the readings from this week. Spend more of your time talking about Chapter 2 as we will be discussing the article in more detail later in the class period.

33 What is Single-Subject Research?
Review from the Horner et al., 2005 article

34 Single Subject Research
Systematic analysis using individual subjects as their own experimental control. Main message: Single subject research is an approach to rigorous experimentation that involves small numbers of subjects, repeated observations of subjects over time, and employs research designs that allow each subject to provide his/her own experimental control. Within-subject analysis Fine-grained analysis across time and conditions

35 Defining Features of Single Subject Research
An experimental research method focused on defining causal (e.g., functional) relations between independent and dependent variables. Focus is on individuals as unit of analysis can treat groups as participants with focus on the group as a single unit Repeated measures of participants’ behavior (DV) over time Within-subject comparison to analyze effect Observed change in individual’s behavior from “Baseline” to “Intervention”

36 Reasons for using single subject methodology
Focus on an individual rather than group means (averages) Interest is in the behavior of a single individual or on within-subject variability A “group” may be treated as an “individual” Group descriptive statistics may not "describe" any actual individual Generalizations from a group to an individual are problematic in many instances Predicting the behavior of a specific individual is different from predicting that of a “typical” individual

37 Reasons for Using Single Subject Methodology (continued)
Many populations of interest are low incidence populations Practically, large numbers of subjects may not be available Assumptions of normal distribution and homogeneity of variance may not be valid Can be used in clinical practice contexts Single subject research studies may develop out of and be conducted on a specific problem or need of an individual(s) in a practical context Scientist-practitioner model

38 Using Single Subject Research to Establish “Evidence-based Practices”
A “practice” may be considered “evidence- based” when: The practice is operationally defined, and implemented with fidelity. The outcomes associated with the practice are operationally defined. The context in which the practice in use is operationally defined Results from the single subject studies used to assess the practice demonstrate experimental control. The effects are replicated across 5 single subject studies conducted in at least 3 locations, and with at least 20 different participants.

39 Dependent and independent variables
Dependent variable (DV) – the behavior (measure) that you are analyzing You want to produce change (variability) in the dependent variable Studies may have multiple DVs Independent variable (IV) – the variable (event, intervention, condition) that is of experimental interest and that the researcher manipulates in an experimental research design May be discrete or continuous May be a single element or multi-component compound Studies may have multiple IVs

40 For your research article define the DV, IV, & research question
Dependent Variable (Outcome): Independent Variable (Intervention): Research question: “Is there a functional relationship between …… and …… ?”

41 Phase A Phase B Phase A Phase B Immediacy of Effect Variability Level Trend Overlap Research Question???

42 Phase A Phase B Phase A Phase B Immediacy of Effect Variability Level Trend Overlap Research Question???

43 In SSD, a Functional Relationship/Experimental Control has occurred when…
There are 3 demonstrations of an effect at 3 points in time. Effect could be: change in trend or level Also want to see immediacy of effect Good study design has at least 5 data points in each phase to establish a consistent pattern in the data (Horner et al., 2005).

44 Establishing a Baseline
Baseline - phase in a design that serves as the reference point or comparator for analysis of change in behavior (effect of IV) Used in withdrawal/reversal and multiple baseline designs; may be included in alternating treatments design (but not needed) Should provide a representative picture of behavior under pre-intervention (typical, status quo) conditions Baseline is the “control condition” in within subject analysis May involve some alternative intervention/treatment

45 Guidelines for Establishing a Baseline
Collect repeated measures of a DV under “baseline” conditions Goal is to establish the stability of behavior Look at level, trend, and variability of data At minimum, Horner et al. (2005) propose 5 data points in baseline phase (at least for initial phase) Variability in DV requires more data points

46 Trends in baseline data?
Trends (increasing or decreasing slope) can be accepted, if the trend is in the opposite direction of the anticipated effect of the IV Visual analysis does consider changes in trend across/between phases Trend in the “expected” change direction is problematic Collect more data points Consider whether intervention is warranted If substantial change in slope is expected, you may go forward with intervention Statistical analysis may be used to supplement visual analysis

47 Assessing Baselines Define research question and dependent variable.
Does BL document a predictable pattern of behavior? Does BL document a pattern that will allow comparison with expected effect when Intervention (IV) is implemented?

48 Guidelines for Implementing IVs
Establish effects of IV on one baseline (data path) before implementing IV in another baseline (data path) in a multiple baseline Should report measures of IV implementation fidelity

49 Defining Features of Multiple Baseline Designs
A multiple baseline design involves three or more AB interventions (series) with phase changes staggered across at least three points in time. Key Features Series are independent of each other People, places, materials, behaviors/skills The same IV is applied in each series Staggered implementation of IV

50 BL Treatment Lollipop for R+ 6 100 80 60 40 20 Vivian Lollipop for R+ 100 80 60 Percentage of Correct Responding 40 20 Tammy Lollipop for R+ 100 80 60 40 20 Dr. Cathy 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Sessions

51 Interpreting MBL Designs
Assess Baselines for each series Do the Baselines document a predictable pattern? Do Baselines allow opportunity to document IV effect? Are Baselines similar? Horizontal Analysis of Effect (per series) Level, trend, variability, overlap, immediacy of effect Vertical Analysis DV change in one series is associated with NO change in other series? Similar effect (consistent effect) across series? Functional Relationship? At least three demonstrations of effect at three points in time

52 Defining features of withdrawal and reversal designs
Sequential phases of data collection involving the implementation and withdrawal of an independent variable(s) traditionally, the first phase is Baseline, followed by implementation of the IV (Intervention)

53 4B Baseline FCT Baseline FCT 6 5 4 Total SIB per minute 3 2 1 1 5 10
1 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Sessions

54 When are reversal and withdrawal designs appropriate?
Behavior measured as DV is “reversible” Learning will not occur Limited carryover effects between phases Ethical concerns Can do a reversal DV is not a dangerous behavior, or you can protect participant Staff cooperation Can compare multiple conditions Comparison of too many conditions makes design cumbersome

55 Defining Features of Changing Criterion Designs
Within subject analysis Independent variable needs to have at least four levels (e.g. criteria) Document baseline performance with one level of the IV Change the level of the IV and monitor change in DV Immediacy of change important Absence of trend and variability important Repeat level (criterion) change in IV two more times.

56 Example Examine the graphs below 1. What is the research question?
2. Is there a functional relationship? 3. Does the design document three demonstrations of an “effect” at three different points in time? Where?

57 ATD/ MED Defined Alternating Treatment (Multi-Element) Designs employ rapid phase reversals across 2 or more conditions to assess sensitivity of change in the dependent variable to change in condition.

58 Student 1 Hypothesis: Escape Math Work
2. Is Esc different than Attn? 1. Is Esc different than Control?

59 In-class activity (30 minutes)
Walk through article review with the article you plan to use for completing your assignment. Complete the article review sheet with a partner who selected the same article. If you are unable to find where you might find the answer to the questions, ask your partner and/or myself.

60 Steps in Ecological Assessment Process
Step 1: Plan with Student & Family Person-centered Planning Step 2: Summarize what is known about the student Record Review, IEP Review Step 3: Encourage Self-Determination/ Assess Student Preferences Preference Assessment Step 4: Assess student’s instructional program Daily Schedule Analysis Task Analyses Other Assessments Step 5: Develop ecological assessment report To inform IEP: PLAAFP, Goals & Objectives, Interventions

61 Preference Assessment

62 Preference Assessments
Why are preference assessments so important? Want to be seen as the “giver of good things” Natural consequences may not be reinforcing to the learner.

63 Rating Scale of Potential Reinforcers
Blank Template & Example on the wiki

64 Direct Observation is most reliable method for assessing preferences
From list, directly manipulate potentially preferred items and observe to identify which items are actually preferred. Free Access or Forced Choice of reinforcing items

65 Systematic Preference Assessments
Can be used for a number of reasons, but mostly used to identify potential reinforcers Good idea is to start with: An interview of significant others to find out about a variety of items and activities a learner might like

66 Steps in Conducting a Systematic Preference Assessment
Define the purpose of the assessment. Select the range of sampling options Determine the forms of the sampling options Define the student’s responses for preference and non-preference of options Outline presentation procedures Determine sampling schedule & location Observe & record responses to options Summarize & make recommendations based on assessment. Take a look at the Template and Example from the wiki.

67 ASK: What am I requiring students to do?
Bryant, D.P., Smith, D. D., & Bryant, B. R. (2008). Teaching students with special needs in inclusive classrooms. Boston: Allyn & Bacon. A ASK: What am I requiring students to do? D DETERMINE the prerequisite skills of the task. ANALYZE the student’s strengths and needs. P PROPOSE and implement adaptations T TEST to determine if adaptations helped the student Standards/ Lesson Plan Observe steps ALL students are doing to achieve the standard Observe what TARGET student is doing—what steps can do. Identify TARGET STUDENT outcomes and adaptations needed based on observation Create a DATA collection plan. Bryant, D.P., Smith, D. D., & Bryant, B. R. (2008). Teaching students with special needs in inclusive classrooms. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

68 Wraparound Action Planning
Collaboratively complete assessments to outline supports Plan that speaks with “One Voice” Consistently Implement, Monitor, Evaluate, COMMUNICATE

69 Resources/Extra Reading
Person-Centered Planning: -Person-Centered Planning: Research, Practice, & Future Directions (2002) by Holburn & Vietze Wraparound: -National Wraparound Institute

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