Presentation on theme: "Functional Assessment"— Presentation transcript:
1 Functional Assessment Session 2Addressing Diversity & Partnering with Families
2 Updates Next class- October 14th - Article Review #1 Due & Quiz #1October 21st - IEP at a Glance & Ecological InventoryOctober 28th- Preference Assessment & Quiz #2November 4th –Task Analysis #1November 25th- Task Analysis #2December 2nd- Ecological Assessment Report & Quiz #4December 9th- PLAAFP AssignmentRemember to always check the wiki for the assignments and materials.If links are not working, please me ASAP.
7 What planning looks like? solutions.com/pcplanning.asp
8 Features of Person-Centered Planning Intentional planning for success (pre-planning) – range of purpose for planning - stageFocus on and driven by the student’s strengths, interests and preferencesFocus on capacities and opportunities - establishes a visionThe process is flexible, dynamic and informalRequires collaborative teamwork with commitment to actionRequires an effective facilitatorExcerpt from Flannery, B., Slovic, R. & McLean Person-Centered Planning: How do we know we are doing it?
9 Putting it all together CommunityHomeGoalsSchoolWork
10 Person-centered Planning: Basic Beliefs Every person has:The right to plan a life for his or herself which is personally meaningful and satisfying.Talents and strengths that can be developed
11 Team Members and Roles Adapted Physical Education (APE) Teacher Provides adaptations to regular PE program to promote student participationAudiologist: Identifies types and degrees of hearing loss and provides equipment guidelinesFamily Members & Student: Experts in student and stakeholders in their futureGeneral Education Teacher: GE content expert, collaborates to instruct student
12 Team Members and RolesNurse: information source for the team on student’s medical conditions, performs & trains staff to do specialized medical procedures (e.g., tube feeding, catheterization)Occupational Therapist: Promotes optimal physical functioning (fine motor, sensory motor), suggests modifications/supportsPhysical Therapist: Same, but gross motor, positioning
13 Team Members and RolesOrientation & Mobility (O&M): specialized training in visual functioning in mobilityPsychologist: evaluator of student’s intellectual and adaptive abilities and interpreter of evaluation results, may provide suggestions for reducing student behaviorsSocial Worker: facilitates access to services and establishing linkages between school and community programs
14 Team Members and Roles Speech-Language Pathologist: Provides instruction in the area of communication, language, speech.Provides suggestions and instruction with AAC devices.Expertise in oral motor and feeding skillsSpecial Education Teacher:Provides specialized teaching strategies, provides and implements adaptations
15 Connection to IEP Education/School a part of person’s life Consistency acrossBehavior supportSkills training (generalization/adaptation of skills)Communication systemsPlanning team members
16 Choosing Outcomes & Accommodations for Children: COACH 3 Giangreco, Cloninger, Iverson (2011) Beyond Student-Centered Planning to Student-Directed Planning Intended to accompany and not supplant IEP planning process
17 COACH outlines a planning process specifically designed to assist teams in identifying the content of IEPs for students with significant cognitive disabilities in general education settings (Giangreco, 1996). The use of the COACH model in including students with severe disabilities in general education classrooms has been documented to change IEP goals by—Making them more specific and reducing the overall number of goals writtenPositively affecting relationships between families and professionalsShifting control of educational decisions to parentsFacilitating changes in valued life outcomes as reflected in new program and social opportunities
18 COACH consists of two parts, labeled A and B. Part A assists with determining a student's educational program and creating an IEPPart B assists with the development of strategies and processes to implement the program created in Part A.The steps in Part A consist of the following:A structure for conducting a family interview, the purpose of which is to determine family-selected learning priorities for the studentA structure for determining additional learning outcomes beyond family prioritiesAn elaboration of general supports that need to be provided to or for a studentA procedure to ensure that a family's priorities are reflected as IEP annual goalsA concise summary of the educational program devised, in the form of a "program-at-a-glance" document
21 Self-Determination Educational Materials partnerships/zarrow/self-determination-education-materials.htmlWho’s Future is it Anyway?partnerships/zarrow/self-determination-education- materials/whos-future-is-it-anyway.html
22 External Community Supports I hear “One Voice”Academic Support System:Response to InterventionSocial/Behavior Support System: School-wide PBSContext for: Person Centered Planning, Functional Assessment & Wraparound
24 Six Guiding Principles to Creating an Inclusive School All instruction is guided by General EducationAll school resources are configured to benefit all studentsSchool Proactively addresses social development and citizenshipSchool is data-based learning organizationSchool has open boundaries in relation to its families and its communityDistrict supports school-centered approach and extensive systems-change activities required to implement a school-wide modelSailor & Roger, 2005
26 Person-Environment Fit & Schools (Thompson, Wehmeyer, & Hughes, 2010)
27 ChangeWhen change occurs individuals are usually pushed out of their box, or their comfort zone. In the case of full inclusion, this change will effect the general education teacher and the special education teacher the most.Incorporate notion of Team-Work where we can pull together, instead of pulling apart, each team member’s expertise into an inclusive educational program
28 Schoolwide Integrated Framework for Transformation (SWIFT)
29 Collaboration is essential, but not easy... Students may receive supports from mental health providers, social services, physicians, juvenile justice, etc.But, supports may not be linked with the school, home, and community settingsDifferent terminology & professional perspectives
30 Therefore schools & educators need to be equipped to: Effectively engage families and support agencies outside of school wallsOrganize, implement, and sustain effective comprehensive behavior supports that systematically address the many detrimental variables affecting children with chronic behavioral problems.
32 Discussion GuideFor the next minutes get together with a partner and discuss the readings from this week.Spend more of your time talking about Chapter 2 as we will be discussing the article in more detail later in the class period.
33 What is Single-Subject Research? Review from the Horner et al., 2005 article
34 Single Subject Research Systematic analysis using individual subjects as their own experimental control.Main message:Single subject research is an approach to rigorous experimentation that involves small numbers of subjects, repeated observations of subjects over time, and employs research designs that allow each subject to provide his/her own experimental control.Within-subject analysisFine-grained analysis across time and conditions
35 Defining Features of Single Subject Research An experimental research method focused on defining causal (e.g., functional) relations between independent and dependent variables.Focus is on individuals as unit of analysiscan treat groups as participants with focus on the group as a single unitRepeated measures of participants’ behavior (DV) over timeWithin-subject comparison to analyze effectObserved change in individual’s behavior from “Baseline” to “Intervention”
36 Reasons for using single subject methodology Focus on an individual rather than group means (averages)Interest is in the behavior of a single individual or on within-subject variabilityA “group” may be treated as an “individual”Group descriptive statistics may not "describe" any actual individualGeneralizations from a group to an individual are problematic in many instancesPredicting the behavior of a specific individual is different from predicting that of a “typical” individual
37 Reasons for Using Single Subject Methodology (continued) Many populations of interest are low incidence populationsPractically, large numbers of subjects may not be availableAssumptions of normal distribution and homogeneity of variance may not be validCan be used in clinical practice contextsSingle subject research studies may develop out of and be conducted on a specific problem or need of an individual(s) in a practical contextScientist-practitioner model
38 Using Single Subject Research to Establish “Evidence-based Practices” A “practice” may be considered “evidence- based” when:The practice is operationally defined, and implemented with fidelity.The outcomes associated with the practice are operationally defined.The context in which the practice in use is operationally definedResults from the single subject studies used to assess the practice demonstrate experimental control.The effects are replicated across 5 single subject studies conducted in at least 3 locations, and with at least 20 different participants.
39 Dependent and independent variables Dependent variable (DV) – the behavior (measure) that you are analyzingYou want to produce change (variability) in the dependent variableStudies may have multiple DVsIndependent variable (IV) – the variable (event, intervention, condition) that is of experimental interest and that the researcher manipulates in an experimental research designMay be discrete or continuousMay be a single element or multi-component compoundStudies may have multiple IVs
40 For your research article define the DV, IV, & research question Dependent Variable (Outcome):Independent Variable (Intervention):Research question: “Is there a functional relationship between …… and …… ?”
41 Phase APhase BPhase APhase BImmediacy of EffectVariabilityLevelTrendOverlapResearch Question???
42 Phase APhase BPhase APhase BImmediacy of EffectVariabilityLevelTrendOverlapResearch Question???
43 In SSD, a Functional Relationship/Experimental Control has occurred when… There are 3 demonstrations of an effect at 3 points in time.Effect could be: change in trend or levelAlso want to see immediacy of effectGood study design has at least 5 data points in each phase to establish a consistent pattern in the data (Horner et al., 2005).
44 Establishing a Baseline Baseline - phase in a design that serves as the reference point or comparator for analysis of change in behavior (effect of IV)Used in withdrawal/reversal and multiple baseline designs; may be included in alternating treatments design (but not needed)Should provide a representative picture of behavior under pre-intervention (typical, status quo) conditionsBaseline is the “control condition” in within subject analysisMay involve some alternative intervention/treatment
45 Guidelines for Establishing a Baseline Collect repeated measures of a DV under “baseline” conditionsGoal is to establish the stability of behaviorLook at level, trend, and variability of dataAt minimum, Horner et al. (2005) propose 5 data points in baseline phase (at least for initial phase)Variability in DV requires more data points
46 Trends in baseline data? Trends (increasing or decreasing slope) can be accepted, if the trend is in the opposite direction of the anticipated effect of the IVVisual analysis does consider changes in trend across/between phasesTrend in the “expected” change direction is problematicCollect more data pointsConsider whether intervention is warrantedIf substantial change in slope is expected, you may go forward with interventionStatistical analysis may be used to supplement visual analysis
47 Assessing Baselines Define research question and dependent variable. Does BL document a predictable pattern of behavior?Does BL document a pattern that will allow comparison with expected effect when Intervention (IV) is implemented?
48 Guidelines for Implementing IVs Establish effects of IV on one baseline (data path) before implementing IV in another baseline (data path) in a multiple baselineShould report measures of IV implementation fidelity
49 Defining Features of Multiple Baseline Designs A multiple baseline design involves three or more AB interventions (series) with phase changes staggered across at least three points in time.Key FeaturesSeries are independent of each otherPeople, places, materials, behaviors/skillsThe same IV is applied in each seriesStaggered implementation of IV
50 BLTreatmentLollipop for R+610080604020VivianLollipop for R+1008060Percentage of Correct Responding4020TammyLollipop for R+10080604020Dr. Cathy10203040506070Sessions
51 Interpreting MBL Designs Assess Baselines for each seriesDo the Baselines document a predictable pattern?Do Baselines allow opportunity to document IV effect?Are Baselines similar?Horizontal Analysis of Effect (per series)Level, trend, variability, overlap, immediacy of effectVertical AnalysisDV change in one series is associated with NO change in other series?Similar effect (consistent effect) across series?Functional Relationship?At least three demonstrations of effect at three points in time
52 Defining features of withdrawal and reversal designs Sequential phases of data collection involving the implementation and withdrawal of an independent variable(s)traditionally, the first phase is Baseline, followed by implementation of the IV (Intervention)
53 4B Baseline FCT Baseline FCT 6 5 4 Total SIB per minute 3 2 1 1 5 10 15101520253035Sessions
54 When are reversal and withdrawal designs appropriate? Behavior measured as DV is “reversible”Learning will not occurLimited carryover effects between phasesEthical concernsCan do a reversalDV is not a dangerous behavior, or you can protect participantStaff cooperationCan compare multiple conditionsComparison of too many conditions makes design cumbersome
55 Defining Features of Changing Criterion Designs Within subject analysisIndependent variable needs to have at least four levels (e.g. criteria)Document baseline performance with one level of the IVChange the level of the IV and monitor change in DVImmediacy of change importantAbsence of trend and variability importantRepeat level (criterion) change in IV two more times.
56 Example Examine the graphs below 1. What is the research question? 2. Is there a functional relationship?3. Does the design document three demonstrations of an “effect” at three different points in time? Where?
57 ATD/ MED DefinedAlternating Treatment (Multi-Element) Designs employ rapid phase reversals across 2 or more conditions to assess sensitivity of change in the dependent variable to change in condition.
58 Student 1 Hypothesis: Escape Math Work 2. Is Esc different than Attn?1. Is Esc different than Control?
59 In-class activity (30 minutes) Walk through article review with the article you plan to use for completing your assignment.Complete the article review sheet with a partner who selected the same article.If you are unable to find where you might find the answer to the questions, ask your partner and/or myself.
60 Steps in Ecological Assessment Process Step 1: Plan with Student & FamilyPerson-centered PlanningStep 2: Summarize what is known about the studentRecord Review, IEP ReviewStep 3: Encourage Self-Determination/ Assess Student PreferencesPreference AssessmentStep 4: Assess student’s instructional programDaily Schedule AnalysisTask AnalysesOther AssessmentsStep 5: Develop ecological assessment reportTo inform IEP: PLAAFP, Goals & Objectives, Interventions
62 Preference Assessments Why are preference assessments so important?Want to be seen as the “giver of good things”Natural consequences may not be reinforcing to the learner.
63 Rating Scale of Potential Reinforcers Blank Template & Example on the wiki
64 Direct Observation is most reliable method for assessing preferences From list, directly manipulate potentially preferred items and observe to identify which items are actually preferred.Free Access or Forced Choice of reinforcing items
65 Systematic Preference Assessments Can be used for a number of reasons, but mostly used to identify potential reinforcersGood idea is to start with:An interview of significant others to find out about a variety of items and activities a learner might like
66 Steps in Conducting a Systematic Preference Assessment Define the purpose of the assessment.Select the range of sampling optionsDetermine the forms of the sampling optionsDefine the student’s responses for preference and non-preference of optionsOutline presentation proceduresDetermine sampling schedule & locationObserve & record responses to optionsSummarize & make recommendations based on assessment.Take a look at the Template and Example from the wiki.
67 ASK: What am I requiring students to do? Bryant, D.P., Smith, D. D., & Bryant, B. R. (2008). Teaching students with special needs in inclusive classrooms. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.AASK: What am I requiring students to do?DDETERMINE the prerequisite skills of the task.ANALYZE the student’s strengths and needs.PPROPOSE and implement adaptationsTTEST to determine if adaptations helped the studentStandards/ Lesson PlanObserve steps ALL students are doing to achieve the standardObserve what TARGET student is doing—what steps can do.Identify TARGET STUDENT outcomes and adaptations needed based on observationCreate a DATA collection plan.Bryant, D.P., Smith, D. D., & Bryant, B. R. (2008). Teaching students with special needs in inclusive classrooms. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
68 Wraparound Action Planning Collaboratively complete assessments to outline supportsPlan that speaks with “One Voice”Consistently Implement, Monitor, Evaluate, COMMUNICATE