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Welcome to Week 9 of Functional Curriculum Inclusion is an umbrella that keeps us dry when the downpours of life occur." Linda S. Wallace.

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Presentation on theme: "Welcome to Week 9 of Functional Curriculum Inclusion is an umbrella that keeps us dry when the downpours of life occur." Linda S. Wallace."— Presentation transcript:

1 Welcome to Week 9 of Functional Curriculum Inclusion is an umbrella that keeps us dry when the downpours of life occur." Linda S. Wallace

2 Updates  May 25 th - Instructional Plan for Communication Skills June 1 st - Instructional Plan for Academic Skills June 8 th - Implementation Plan (for one of the above)  Please check with me during the break concerning missing assignments.

3 Today’s Agenda  Review assignments/ upcoming Ecological Inventory/Assessment Report & Implementation Plan  Oregon Extended Assessment  Discuss academic instruction for students with significant disabilities

4 Writing objectives  By March 7 th, given a task analysis recording form and a deadline to complete a task analysis, IEEP students will independently complete the steps of the TA assignments with 90% accuracy in 3 consecutive opportunities as measured by professor-made data sheet.  For multiple-step tasks give the number of correct/independent steps (usually want 100%) AND across how many opportunities (if not they have met criteria if they have done it only once)  Put how you will measure the skill as well.

5 Total Task Chaining  Task analyze steps & measure baseline performance  Instruction begins by starting with the first step in the chain and teaching each successive step in order until the chain of responses is completed  All steps that need instruction are taught in order and concurrently during each performance of the chained routine.  Reinforcement is given quickly after each response for corrections and improved performances, and again at the end of the chain.

6 Total Task Chaining for multiple-step behaviors Successful with all sorts of chained tasks Works best if the chain is not too long (chained tasks can be subdivided or a single training trial can be too lengthy). Main advantage: all teaching opportunities are used (each step is taught each time) and the task is completed. May produce faster learning than other chaining methods. More natural approach than the other options

7 Forward Chaining Begin instruction by starting with the student performing any learned steps in order up to the first unmastered response, at which point instruction occurs. Remainder of chain completed by teacher or by student with assistance Useful with many self-care routines and chained academic tasks (e.g., use of number line, telephone dialing, calculator use, etc.) May be stigmatizing when assistance with unlearned part of the task is obvious…so think of how to do this and respect student’s dignity

8 Forward Chaining Recommendations  Usually combined with prompting to teach the target step, as well as shaping across the entire chain  May work better than total task for some learners who have multiple disabilities or for longer tasks  Replace with backward chaining when task has an especially reinforcing end.  Replace with total task if chain is performed less often; may want to switch to total task after half of the steps are learned.

9 Backward Chaining Instruction begins by helping the student perform the entire chain up until the last step of the chain, at which point instruction occurs. Useful with many self-care routines Advantage over forward chaining: student is being assisted through the task, completes the task quickly, and gets reinforcement early in learning. May also be stigmatizing, respect student’s dignity

10 Constant Time Delay (CTD) Commonly used to teach single, discrete behaviors such as sight words and naming objects : ○ Attention Cue: “Get Ready” ○ Task Direction: target stimulus + “read this” ○ Delay period: Pause 4 to 5 seconds ○ Effective Prompt: verbal, gestural, etc. Prompt must have worked in the past/ know that prompt works ○ Ex: Teacher reading the sign followed by student imitating teacher’s words First several trials use zero-second delay period to provide initial instruction ○ Ex: “Read the sign” & immediately say “walk” After initial trials, insert delay period

11 Progressive Time Delay  Similar to CTD, but more effective for students with severe disabilities  Difference is: gradually increases the time delay period between the direction and the prompt  Go from zero-second to 1-s (for several trails), then 2-s (for several trials, then 3-s, etc….

12 Peer Support Plan Class: American History, Ms. Alameda Student: Chris Peers: Josh & Aaron Typical Activities & Routine Expectations of all students Needed adaptations/ supports Roles of peers in providing support Whole-class instruction Listen to lectures, answer questions, take notes C will receive guided notes from teacher; sit in 1 st 2 rows Help C complete his notes, share their notes, ask clarifying questions Small group instruction Read case studies & answer application questions Be a part of the same group as Josh & Aaron Paraphrase aspects of readings for C; make connections to his experiences, prompt him to contribute to discussion

13 Identifying “Big Ideas” in Curriculum Content for Students with Significant Disabilities l Requires pre-planning on the part of teachers l Requires knowledge of the student (e.g., academic, communication, social, behavior, physical skills) l Requires collaboration among parents, educators, IEP team

14 Quick Review  When designing a student’s instructional program what should be determined first: placement OR objectives?  What should objectives be based on;  and how do you go about assessing a student with significant disabilities?  What tools/process would you use to help teachers/staff/ administrators see how a student’s IEP goals can be met in general education settings?

15 Oregon’s Extended Assessment  Alternate assessments designed specifically for students with significant cognitive disabilities.  Decision to administer is made by the IEP team  Based on alternate achievement standards with content that is reduced in depth, breadth, complexity,  test results from these assessments are not comparable to results achieved on the state’s general assessment 

16 Oregon Extended Assessment  Online there is an administration manual, FAQs for parents, scoring guides, sample tests.  Testing window is from February 17th, 2011 through April 28th,  A training and proficiency website is located at  This website is used by all assessors as part of the qualification process to become a Qualified Assessor (QA) or Qualified Trainer (QT).

17 Overview of Extended Assessment  Subject areas of Reading, Writing, & Science.  Organized into 3 grade levels Elementary (grades 3-5) Middle (grades 6-8) High (grade 11)  Mathematics- each grade (3 rd -8 th, & 11 th ) has a unique test

18 Extended Assessment Format  2 administration formats provided for each grade level: Standard & Scaffold administration  Each test begins with a “Prerequisite Skills “ task  Followed by 10 content-level Tasks referred to as the “Content Prompts”. Each Content Prompt Task consists of up to 5 test items.

19 IEP team decision-making  General Assessment  Standard Extended Assessment  Scaffold Extended Assessment

20 General Assessment if…  Performs at or around grade level  Difficulties primarily in reading, but other subject areas fall within the normal range  Is reading within two to three grades of his/her enrolled level

21 Standard Extended if…  Student well below grade level in reading  Academic difficulties are generalized (all subject areas)  Benefits from specialized individual supports  General curriculum must be significantly reduced in breadth, depth, & complexity

22 Scaffold Extended Assessment if…  Performance is significantly impacted due to the nature of disability  Does not read  Has academic, mobility, receptive, & expressive language difficulties that are generalized relies on individual supports & adaptations to access reduced content materials.

23 Look at some examples  Form groups with one person in each group that has a sample of: Math Science Reading Writing  Discuss the test items, scoring, & difference between Standard & Scaffold administration items

24 Instruction in the Content Areas  How should we determine/design instruction for students in the content areas?  Does disability dictate where a student receives instruction?  Does ability level in content area dictate where a student receives instruction?  Where do we start when we look at providing instruction for students with significant disabilities?

25 Why teach academic skills?

26 How should we select academic skills for instruction  Goals/objectives that build on student’s present level of performance (in using symbols/reading,etc.)...how?  Align content with student’s ability to perform successfully in current environments…how?  Align content with the student’s long-term post-school goals…how?  Select academic content that is suited to the student’s chronological age…why?...how?  Select academic content that has the potential to enhance inclusion in school & community settings…how?

27 Developing Academic IEP goals & objectives: Comprehensive approach  Identify goals & objectives that are linked to the state’s academic content standards and are structured to document a student’s continuous progress toward mastering content.  Develop goals & objectives that are focused on learning academic content that is not aligned to the academic content standards but nonetheless are necessary for the student to perform successfully in home, school, and community settings.

28 Approaches to determining goals & objectives aligned with standards  Standards-based Identify the academic content standards for all students, identify benchmarks, identify level of performance, adapts learning outcome so they match student’s abilities  Standards-referenced Identify priority skills based on ecological inventories, identify grade-level academic standards that match the critical functions of those skills

29 Literacy research for students with significant disabilities  Erickson, Koppenhaver, Yoder, & Nance, 1997 Similar strategies for all students  Justice & Pullen, 2003; Rowland & Schweigert, 2000 Systematic instruction  Browder et al., 2006 Meta-analysis on reading instruction for individuals with cognitive disabilities

30 Examples of education reading software  Bailey’s Book House (www.riverdeep.net)www.riverdeep.net Letters, words, rhyming, prepositions, adjectives, sentence building  Edmark Words Around Me (www.riverdeep.net)www.riverdeep.net Word identification, plurals, categorization, sameness, difference  Edmark Reading program (www.riverdeep.net)www.riverdeep.net Comprehension of sight words through story reading, picture matching  Simon Sounds it Out (www.donjohnston.com) Letter sounds, word families, onsets, rimes  Start-to-Finish books (www.donjohnston.com)www.donjohnston.com Reading comprehension through end-of-story quizzes  Intellitools Reading: Balanced Literacy (www.intellitools.com)www.intellitools.com Phonics, guided reading, comprehension

31 Math methods for students with significant disabilities  Browder et al., 2008 Meta-analysis on teaching math for students with significant disabilities

32 Good Resource Browder, D.M., & Spooner, F. (2011). Teaching Students with Moderate and Severe Disabilities. Guilford Press: NewYork, NY.

33 Discuss the topic of instruction/modifications/ adaptations for students in general education setting. Questions??

34 Universally Designed Instruction…Why? I. Provide Multiple Means of Representation II. Provide Multiple Means of Action & Expression III. Provide Multiple Means of Engagement PerceptionPhysical ActionRecruiting Interest Language, expressions, and symbols Expression & Communication Sustaining Effort and Persistence ComprehensionExecutive Functioning Self-regulation National Center on UDL;

35 Guideline #1: Provide Options for Perception  Offer ways for customizing the display of information  Offer alternatives to auditory information  Offer alternatives to visual invormation

36 Guideline #2 Provide options for language, mathematical expressions, & symbols  Clarify vocabulary & symbols  Clarify syntax & structure  Support decoding text, mathematical notation, & symbols  Promote understanding across languages  Illustrate through multiple media

37 Guideline #3: Provide options for comprehension  Activate or supply background knowledge  Highlight patterns, critical features, big ideas, & relationships  Guide information processing, visualization, & manipulation  Maximize transfer & generalization

38 Universally Designed Instruction…Why? I. Provide Multiple Means of Representation II. Provide Multiple Means of Action & Expression III. Provide Multiple Means of Engagement PerceptionPhysical ActionRecruiting Interest Language, expressions, and symbols Expression & Communication Sustaining Effort and Persistence ComprehensionExecutive Functioning Self-regulation National Center on UDL;

39 Guideline #4 Provide Multiple Means for Action & Expression  Vary the methods for response & navigation  Optimize access to tools and assistive technologies

40 5. Provide options for expression & communication  Use multiple media for communication  Use multiple tools for construction & composition  Build fluencies with graduated levels of support for practice & performance

41 6. Provide options for executive functioning  Guide appropriate goal-setting  Support planning & strategy development  Facilitate managing information & resources  Enhance capacity for monitoring progress

42 Universally Designed Instruction…Why? I. Provide Multiple Means of Representation II. Provide Multiple Means of Action & Expression III. Provide Multiple Means of Engagement PerceptionPhysical ActionRecruiting Interest Language, expressions, and symbols Expression & Communication Sustaining Effort and Persistence ComprehensionExecutive Functioning Self-regulation National Center on UDL;

43 7. Provide options for recruiting interest  Optimize individual choice & autonomy  Optimize relevance, value, & authenticity  Minimize threats & distractions

44 8. Provide options for sustaining effort & persistence  Heighten salience of goals & objectives  Vary demands & resources to optimize challenge  Foster collaboration & communication  Increase master-oriented feedback

45 9. Provide options for self- regulation  Promote expectations & beliefs that optimize motivation  Facilitate personal coping skills & strategies  Develop self-assessment & reflection

46 Universally Designed Instruction…Why? I. Provide Multiple Means of Representation II. Provide Multiple Means of Action & Expression III. Provide Multiple Means of Engagement PerceptionPhysical ActionRecruiting Interest Language, expressions, and symbols Expression & Communication Sustaining Effort and Persistence ComprehensionExecutive Functioning Self-regulation National Center on UDL;


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