Presentation on theme: "Functional Assessment"— Presentation transcript:
1 Functional Assessment Session 6Assessing Communication Skills, Social Skills & Assistive Technology Needs
2 Updates Article Review# 2 Due Today Assessment Tool Box Project & Presentations Due Next Week: August 11thRight now I am going to give you 30 minutes to work with your group on this to work out logistics and I will answer questions within each group.We may have more time at end of class.
3 Outcomes for today Discuss Readings as a class! Lecture on Communication AssessmentActivities on Communication AssessmentLecture on Assistive Technology AssessmentSocial Skills Assessment
4 Discussion on Readings Teaching Communication Skills (Ch 11)2. Sigafoos et al. Ch 3-53. Using Technology to Enhance Teaching & Learning (Ch 19)
5 “If I could not express myself, I would become like the tree in the forest—the one for which it does not matter if it makes a sound when it comes crashing down, because there is no one around to hear it. Unfortunately, there are still many silent fallen trees all around us if we stop and look.”Bob Williams, AAC user with complex communication needs(Williams, 2000, p. 250)
6 Communication Bill of Rights Each person has a right to: Request desired objects, actions, events, & peopleRefuse undesired objects, etc.Express personal preferences & feelings.Be offered choices & alternatives.Reject offered choices & alternatives.Request & receive another person’s attention/interactionAsk for & receive info about changes in routine & environment.Receive intervention to improve communication skillsFrom the National Joint Committee for the Communicative Needs of Persons with Severe Disabilities. (1992). Guidelines for meeting the communication needs of persons with severe disabilities. ASHA, 34(Suppl. 7), 2–3.
7 Communication Bill of Rights Each person has a right to: Receive a response to any communication, whether or not the responder can fill the request.Have access to augmentative and alternative communication and other assistive technology services & devices at all times.Be in environments that promote one’s communication as a full partner with other people, including peers.Be spoken to with respect & courtesy.Be spoken to directly and not spoken for or talked about in 3rd person while present.Have clear, meaningful, and culturally & linguistically appropriate communication.
9 Cultural aspects of communicative competence (Hetzroni & Harris, 1996) “Communicative competence implies the ability to meet the demands of participation and communication within the culture” (p. 55).The adequacy of one’s communication is based on having sufficient knowledge, judgment, & skills needed to convey a message to a communicative partner.This complex behavior is learned within a cultural environment
10 Light (1989), Communicative Competence for AAC users made up of: Linguistic CompetenceOperational CompetenceSocial CompetenceStrategic Competence
11 Linguistic Competence AAC user needs to perform in at least two environments-Both native language & AAC codes need to be mastered-represent two different cultures-AAC user by default is bicultural and has to learn to function adequately in at least two environments.
12 Operational Competence Technical skills needed to operate systems used by AAC users.Skills include:Access, transmission, and operational skills needed to reach mastery level in accuracy and speed in using a given system.Mastery level may differ in different culturesEvaluation of preferred operational methods and transmission modes within a culture should occur within an AAC assessment for a studentThese preferences may be evaluated while assessing student strengths (e.g., person/family-centered planning)
13 Social CompetenceAchieved when the user has the knowledge, judgment, and skill to understand and adequately function within their cultural communityRelates to knowledge of how to use language (i.e., what terminology and forms are used, at what times, and with what people)What behaviors are expected (at what times, with whom, for what purposes)What is considered appropriate decorum and dress in public & homeHow the culture perceives the world
14 Strategic CompetenceAAC users must learn to use specific systems or strategies of communication that often differ from the verbal communication systems of the family or communityAAC users may be highly dependent on communication partners to infer meanings of messages.Strategies for communicating AND the technology of communicating make up a communication systemAAC users must achieve competence in both
15 AAC users are vulnerable to the culture of practitioners Communication strategies are often developed by the practitioners without adequate knowledge of the AAC user’s culture.Providing a culturally acceptable strategic system may enhance the strategic competence while enabling the user appropriate use of the chosen technology.What can you do to ensure a student’s culture is considered in the development of a communication system?
16 Person-centered Approach to Assessment Involve the student & family every step of the wayDon’t think of assessment “on” a student, but rather “with” a studentEssential to understand student’s unique physical and sensory skillsHow they see, hear, moveE.g., if a student has no functional vision and does not use speech, then an alternate form of expressive communication will probably involve…..????Use of objects, parts of objects, gestures, & manual signs
17 Other ResourcesDowning, J.E. (2005)Teaching Communication Skills to Students with Severe DisabilitiesSoto, G. & Zangari, C. (2009). Practically Speaking: Language, Literacy, & Academic Development for Students with AAC Needs.
20 Pre-Requisites for Communication? Competence in a symbolic and language system (e.g., spoken English, manual ASL)?Formalized rules of word representation, production, & use?Breathing is the only real pre-requisite (Mirenda, 1993)
21 Communication is essential to quality of life Necessary to define oneselfShare ideas, feelingsDemonstrate knowledge & skillsSocializePerform job & daily tasks
22 Communication in Daily Life Allows control over physical & social environmentAllows for acquiring new skills (strong correlation between literacy & communication skill development for students with severe disabilities; Beukelman & Mirenda, 2005)Allows for socially acceptable way to express feelings of frustrationAllows for development of friendships
23 Least Dangerous Assumption (Cardinal, 2002; Donnellan, 1984) Better to err on the side of assuming competence even if it is not there, rather than err on the side of assuming incompetence when competence is the case.All individuals need to communicate
24 Who Needs Communication Intervention? Students who demonstrate minimal communication skills and are not adequately expressing themselves.Cognitive Referencing---Many professionals still believe that for children with severe intellectual challenges communication services are irrelevant (Downing, 2005)—Question should not be whether students will benefit from communication intervention,but how best to provide support
25 Basic Conditions for Communication (Beukelman & Mirenda, 2005) At least 2 people who understand each otherForm (i.e. a way to send the message)Content (i.e., something to talk about)Function: Reason/Purpose to communicateEducational team members must ensure these are addressed
26 Social Issues in Communication Students in special education classrooms tend to have interactions with adults but limited interaction with other students (Foreman et al., 2004)What affects does this have on: learning communication, and making friends?Foreman et al., found that students with disabilities in general education were involved in significantly higher levels of communication interactions than their matched pair in special education classrooms (2004).
27 Two key parts of language… Receptive Language:Understanding what people mean when they speak to you.Expressive LanguageBeing able to speak/communicate so that others understand you.
28 Communication Forms (Behaviors) Multi-modal nature of communication No one form of communication will meet all needs or all social situationsTeaching a combination of different modes is necessaryExamples: Vocalization, body movements, pointing, facial expressions, nodding, gestures, use of object symbols, picture symbols, manual signs
29 Communicative Functions/ Intent RequestInitiate/greetingTerminateAttentionNamingAccept/RejectProtesting situationsAffirming situationsExpressing choices or preferences
30 Content of Communication When there is nothing to say, there is no communication (i.e. the awkward pause when run out of things to say)Individuals with severe disabilities need to have access to a variety of objects, pictures, and photos
31 Communication Skills Speech Language Conversation Skills Articulation, Resonance, Voice, FluencyLanguagePhonology, Syntax, Semantics, PragmaticsConversation SkillsTurn taking, content, initiation, closureArticulation - production of consonants, vowels with lips, teeth and tongueResonance - balance of airflow between nose and mouthVoice - vibration of vocal chords in larnyxFluency - rate and rhythm; rising and falling; change in pitchPhonology - rules for structure, distribution, sequencing of speech soundsSyntax - rules for word order, sentence organization and word relationshipsSemantics - word meaningPragmatics - language use in context; how adapted to different social situations
32 Problems in the Classroom? Receptive language deficitsCannot recall sequences of ideas presented orallyDifficulty understanding humor, sarcasm, figurative languageMay not understand questionsTrouble following directionsCannot retain information presented orallyDifficulty understanding compound and complex sentences
33 Expressive DeficitsSpoken language may include incorrect grammar or syntaxLimited use of vocabularyFrequent hesitations/can’t find right wordsDifficulty discussing abstract, temporal or spatial conceptsJumps from topic to topicAfraid to ask questions, does not know what questions to ask, does not no how to ask questions.
34 Assessing Communication Skills Standardized Tests will not provide the information you needAssessment driven by questions that need to be answered to help benefit from communication intervention—Team EffortInterviews with Significant Others & Ecological- Functional Assessment Process
35 Person/family-centered planning Summarize student life/learning/cultural backgroundIdentify preferencesIdentify Potential Communicative ActsVerify communicative functions,Analyze environmental demandsMonthly/ QuarterlyGraph learner progressModify procedures as necessaryExpand plan as necessarySelect Instructional ProceduresCreate opportunities for comm.Implement relevant proceduresProgram generalization & maintenanceReview Assessment InfoSelect appropriateinterventionsWrite communication goals
36 Steps in Ecological Assessment Process Step 1: Plan with Student & FamilyStep 2: Summarize what is known about the studentStep 3: Encourage Self-Determination/ Assess Student PreferencesStep 4: Assess student’s instructional programStep 5: Develop ecological assessment report
38 Assessing Receptive Communication Skills Receptive skills for a specific activity need to be identifiedWhat does the student do to demonstrate that the message has been received and understood?Document what forms of communication seem to be best understood
39 Assessing Expressive Communication Skills Any attempt by the student to start, maintain, or end a communicative exchange should be noted.How the students communicates (the form)—Skill level?Why the student is communicating (function/intent)— different forms of communication for different purposes?What the student talks about (content)—information on breadth of skills and accessibility?
41 Significant Other Interview(s) See Communication Style Assessment— handoutInterview questions forprofessionals---handout
42 Embedded In-class activity Practice using these interviews with a partner based on your case study OR you may use a student that you have or are working with.Note your evaluation of using these interview questions.
45 Assessing current communication Communication Matrix by Charity Rowland(designs to learn website)Organized by communication functionList of behaviorsNot used, emerging or mastered
46 Ecological-Functional Assessment Process Uses observational techniques to analyze skill demands of the natural environment and determine how the student performs within the environmentLeads directly to intervention plan (Snell, 2002)
47 3. List sub-environments 1. List Domains2. List environments3. List sub-environments4. List activities associated with each sub environment5. Task analyze each activity to identify skills6. Observe the performance of the activity to identify needs
48 Communication Ecological Inventory Worksheet (Figure 8-10, p Communication Ecological Inventory Worksheet (Figure 8-10, p.249, Best, Heller, Bigge, 2005)1. Ask: Where does the student spend time? (environment, sub-environment, activities)2. Select Activity: (e.g., ordering food)3. Observe: (for vocabulary used in activity)List Expressive Vocabulary used in the activityList Receptive Vocabulary used in the activity4. Review listed words and determine which words & skills need to be taught to the student.
49 Example of Communication Ecological Inventory Where does the student spend time?Environment: Community: McDonald’sSubenvironment: McDonald’s counter areaActivities: Ordering food, waiting in line, socializing in lineSelect activity: Ordering Food
50 Example Cont’d Observe vocabulary used in activity Expressive: “I want, hamburger, fish sandwich, small, medium, large, coke, milkshake, yes/no, that’s all, thank you, my order is wrong, I need, extra ketchup, for here, please repeat that, how much?”Receptive: “May I help you?, Is that all?, Here or to go?, Your order will be ready soon?, I don’t understand, Your total is_____”Review listed words: which are above, below, and at the student’s level. Which are within or outside student’s experience, which are necessary for the task
51 Embedded in-class activity Complete the communication ecological worksheet on your in-class activity.Use only one activity in the school environment (e.g., asking to play a game at recess, participating in writing activity in language arts class)
52 Ecological Inventory of Communication Skills Steps inActivityNatural CuesComm. SkillsNeededStudentPerformanceDiscrepancyAnalysisInterv.PlanReceptive or Expressive+ or -Why student isn’t doing the stepsuggestions
54 How to establish baseline skills student already has? Significant other interviewsEcological AssessmentDirect observation in natural environmentsInterrupted chain proceduresInterrupt a routine that student has to complete and see how student communicatesAssess student in interactions with other studentsProvide direct assessments to determine if student understands words, pictures, symbols, etc.
55 Take Typical Language Samples As we talked about last class, take an inventory of the vocabulary used in the settings student’s are in or will be going to.Conversation inventories with same age peersCould use audio recorder if allowed.
56 Research on Comm. Assessment Standardized Tests may provide age- equivalencies in receptive & expressive language, but often fail to recognize the unique characteristics of students with severe disabilities (Cress, 2002; Ross & Cress, 2006; Snell, 2002).Recommendation is interviewing significant others (Bailey, Stoner, Parrette, & Angelo, 2006)Analyze Communication Environment (Blackstone & Hunt Bert, 2003; Downing, 2005); Use of Video recordings (Suarez & Daniels, 2009)
57 Great Resource: Wisconsin Assistive Technology Initiative ports/free/index.phpNumber of free publicationsWATI Assessment- provides an overview of the assistive technology consideration, assessment and planning processWATI AT Checklist in your book pg
58 S E T T Framework TASK TOOLS STUDENT ENVIRONMENT The SETT Framework, developed by Joy Zabala (2005), is an organizational instrument to help collaborative teams create student-centered, environmentally useful, and tasks-focused tool systems that foster the educational success of students with disabilities.SETT is an acronym forStudent, Environment, Task and Tools.Key questions are asked in each area to in order to guide teams in gathering data and information to support the consideration and implementation of appropriate inclusive technologies. These questions provide a framework and not a protocol, as they guide the discussion and provide a vehicle for the team to collaborate and form a consensus on ‘where to from here’.TOOLSENVIRONMENTTASKSTUDENT
60 STUDENTSTUDENT – Examples of guiding questions concerning inclusive technologies:What are the student’s current abilities?What are the student’s special needs?What are the functional areas of concern?What are the other students doing that this student needs to be able to do?What does the student need to be able to do that is difficult or impossible to accomplish independently at this time?A useful resource to support these questions from a student point of view is Bowser, G., & Reed, P. (2001). Hey Can I Try That? A Student Handbook for Choosing and Using Assistive Technology. This is available from
61 ENVIRONMENTENVIRONMENTS – Examples of guiding questions concerning inclusive technologies:What activities take place in the environment?Where will the student participate—classroom, home, community, therapy?What is the physical arrangement?What activities do other students do that this student cannot currently participate in?What assistive technology does the student have access to or currently use?
63 Sensory Considerations (new) New section as a subset of Student & EnvironmentDoes this student have sensory deficits or sensitivities that will impact his/her ability to …. ?Do the learning environment(s) impact the sensory issues of the student?Insert topic area into first questionInsert Sensory Considerations section of topic Decision Making Guide
64 Sensory Considerations STUDENTENVIRONMENTVisual (glare, color vs. black & white, white space between symbols, etc.)Auditory (voice, volume, button click)Tactile (velcro, weight)Personal spaceStudent specificBackground noiseLighting (full spectrum vs. flourescent)Physical spaceInsert possible sensory consideration for both student & environment for topic area
65 TASKTASKS – Examples of guiding questions concerning inclusive technologies:What specific tasks occur in the environment?What activities is the student expected to do?What does success look like?
66 Tasks Access to standard apps Education/Rehab Alternative Writing RecreationOrganizationInternet
67 TOOLSTOOLS – Examples of guiding questions concerning inclusive technologies:Tools are devices and services—anything that is needed to help the student participate and access learning programs.Are the tools being considered on a continuum from no/low to high-tech?Are the tools student centered and task oriented and reflect the student’s current needs?Are tools being considered because of their features that are needed rather than brand names?What is the cognitive load required by the student to use the tool?What are the training requirements for the student, family and staff?
70 AT ContinuumFollow the progression of low tech, through mid tech to high tech when selecting assistive technology toolsInsert Topic Tools ContinuumFrom this page on…..add additional slides to match the topic continuum. Add pics when applicable.
71 Assistive Technology for Communication Low Tech ToolsInsert topic in header
72 AT Communication Continuum Low Tech Concrete RepresentationsReal ObjectsCalendar boxTangible SymbolsMiniaturesTOBIs (true object based icon)
73 AT Communication Continuum Low Tech Communication system with pictures, symbols, letters &/or words
74 Assistive Technology for Communication Mid Tech ToolsInsert topic in header
75 AT Communication Continuum Mid Tech Simple Voice Output DevicesStep-by-stepBIGmackCheapTalkHip Talk
76 AT Communication Continuum Mid Tech Speech Generating Device with levelsLeoTech seriesBluebird II7 Level Communication BuilderMessage Mate
77 Assistive Technology for Communication High Tech ToolsInsert topic in header
78 AT Communication Continuum High Tech Speech Generating Devices with icon sequencing ORVantage PlusPathfinder PlusSpringBoard Lite
79 AT Communication Continuum High Tech Speech Generating Devices with a Dynamic DisplayEyegaze SystemDynavox V series & V-MaxM3Tango!ChatPC
80 AT Communication Continuum High Tech Text based device with speech synthesisDynaWriteLightWriter SL40PolyTABLET withPersonaFreedom LITE
81 Solution Selection: Tools & Strategies Review the list of potential toolsNow is the time to evaluate for a match with:Student (abilities, difficulties, likes/dislikes)Environment (supports, obstacles)Tasks (what 1-2 things do you want the studentto do?)Prioritize selectionsUse a Feature Match process to discuss and select those ideas, tools, and strategies that were generated during the solution brainstorming. Select those that best match the student, the environment and tasks that need to be accomplished. Limit your selections to a reasonable number and prioritize them according to those that can be accomplished immediately, in a reasonable time period and those that will be considered at a later time or require additional or significant staff training.
82 STUDENT What are the student’s current abilities? What are the student’s special needs?What are the functional areas of concern?What are the other students doing that this student needs to be able to do?What does the student need to be able to do that is difficult orimpossible to accomplish independently at this time?
83 ENVIRONMENT What activities take place in the environment? Where will the student participate—classroom, home, community, therapy?What is the physical arrangement?What activities do other students do that this student cannot currently participate in?What assistive technology does the student have access to or currently use?
84 TASK What specific tasks occur in the environment? What activities is the student expected to do?What does success look like?
85 TOOLSAre the tools being considered on a continuum fromno/low to high-tech?Are the tools student centered and task oriented andreflect the student’s current needs?Are tools being considered because of their featuresthat are needed rather than brand names?What is the cognitive load required by the student to use the tool?What are the training requirements for the student, family and staff?
86 SETT- similar to ecological inventory StudentSEnvironmentETaskTToolsWhat are the student’s current abilities?What are the student’s special needs?What are the functional areas of concern?What activities take place in the environment?What activities do other students do that this student cannot currently participate in?What assistive technology does the student have access to or currently use?What specific tasks occur in the environment?What activities is the studentexpected to do?What does success look like?Are the tools being considered on a continuum from no/low to high-tech?Are the tools student centered and task oriented and reflect the student’s current needs?What are the training requirements for the student, family and staff?
88 Resistant student and/or Refusal to learn to use his device This may mean that the device/system is not meaningful or does not meet a communicative need (OR BOTH)Re-evaluate student’s opportunities to communicate.May need to manipulate the environment in such a way that necessitates the student use the device/system (Reichle, 1997; Snell, 2002)May be too difficult in comparison to other communicative means…think of some unaided means of communication (facial expressions, gestures, etc.) OR different symbols, colors, etc.
89 How to select communication devices? Conduct person-centered ecological assessment on communicationTeam approach- teacher, SLP, parentsConsider contextual-fitConsider: durability, ease of use, transportability, flexibility, cultural sensitivity, cost of device, & quality of speech (McCord & Soto, 2004; Mirenda, 1999).Ability of student to access an AAC system need to be assessed prior to purchasing system
90 Working with Parents?Consider their home-language, culture, and long-term vision for the student’s communication.Want to build system so that you can bridge home and school vocabulary, language, etc.May be an issue when device is not allowed to go home.Try to work with school to allow device to go home. Parents may need to sign responsibility for device.
91 Funding for AAC? http://www.aacfundinghelp.com/ Low-incidence funding (property of school)Health Insurance (property of student)Medicare (property of student)Department of RehabilitationDependent on potential for employability w/ deviceIn Oregon, Educational Service District (ESD) may have guidelines for this.
92 Pre-literate vocabulary Needs for an AAC system Developmental VocabularyTo encourage language & vocabulary growthShould include words or messages that encourage students to use various language structures and combinationsE.g., more, no, thereVariety of nouns, verbs, & adjectives to support word combinationsE.g., more car, OR no eatAs vocabulary expands encourage use of combinations of 2,3,4, or more
93 Developmental vocabulary categories (include from the lists) Substantive words (i.e., people, places, things)Relational words (e.g., big, little)Generic verbs (e.g., give, get, make)Specific verbs (e.g., eat, drink, sleep)Emotional state words (e.g., happy, scared)Affirmation/negation words (e.g., yes, no, not)Recurrence/discontinuation words (e.g., more, all gone)Proper names for people first (Mike) and personal pronouns (his) laterSingle adjectives first (e.g., hot, dirty) & polar opposites later (e.g., cold, clean)Relevant colorsRelevant prepositions (e.g., on, over)
94 Vocabulary selection for nonliterate individuals If limited sight word recognition…Messages chosen from a functional rather than developmental perspectiveSingle words or whole messages are selected to meet individual communication needs.One or more symbols to represent messagesAge/context/culturally appropriate.Include some developmental vocabulary in AAC systemsAdded whenever new environments or participation opportunities are included
95 Core vocabularyWords & messages that are commonly used by a variety of individuals and occur very frequently.Sources to identify core vocabulary items1. Word lists based on the vocabulary-use patterns of other individuals who successfully use AAC systems (http://aac.unl.edu/vocabulary.html)2. Word lists based on the use patterns of the specific individual3. Word lists based on the performance of natural speakers or writers in similar contexts.
97 Types of Electronic Devices Single-level Devices: deliver a limited number of messages (about 20), simple to program & operate (e.g. BIGmack)Multi-level Devices: Up to thousands of messages, more difficult to program, multiple symbol displays to program messages on two or more levels.Comprehensive Devices: “dynamic display” technologyFor whom do you think each fits??---most likely dependent on physical & cognitive impairments
98 Communication Skills Across Classes & Subjects Greetings & FarewellsAge-appropriate vocabulary, mannerismsMay not necessarily need a Speech Generated Device (SGD)Asking for Attention/HelpComments of Approval & RejectionSocial ClosenessObserve what typical students do to achieve thisE.g., admiring another’s hairstyle, telling secretsCommunicative Skills specific to a class or an activity
99 [to Bobby] “You don't have what they call "the social skills [to Bobby] “You don't have what they call "the social skills." That's why you never have any friends, 'cept fo' yo' mama.”From Waterboy, 1998 starring Adam Sandler
100 How is communication related to the development of social skills? Besides communication skills, what other factors affect a student’s development of social skills?Based on what we have talked about in this class thus far, how would you go about assessing the social skills of a student with significant disabilities?
101 Think about students in the school you are working in… What types of interactions do they engage in? (e.g., academic, social)How do they establish relationships/friendships?How do they gain membership & belonging?What about romantic relationships?What about relationships with adults?
102 Esaul 7th grade at Chavez Middle School Spanish is his first/home languageCan be quite shy when meeting someone for the first time & it takes him a while to feel comfortable around new people.Has autism & tends to repeat a few favorite phrases, avoids making eye contact, & holds fast to specific routines.When topics of video games, movies, or comic books are brought up his entire demeanor changes
103 Discuss with a partner What are Esaul’s strengths? What are (or can) be barriers to Esaul developing positive social relationships?What process would you use to assess these barriers?
104 Alexis 4th grader at North Elementary School. Only knows a few of her classmates and often feels alone at school.Has moderate intellectual disabilities, a mild hearing impairment, and a severe physical disability for which she uses an electric wheelchair.Alexis discovered she has a knack for abstract painting that features vibrant colors and bold lines.
105 Discuss with a partner What are Alexis’ strengths? What are or can be barriers to Alexis developing positive social relationships?
106 How would you assess a student’s social skills? Rating scales- from those in environmentTeacher nomination & ranking-List of students who demonstrate a specific behavioral characteristic to the greatest or least extent in comparison to classmatesSelf-report- student’s subjective perceptions about own social competenceDirect behavioral observation-
107 Contextually & Age-appropriate Contextual approach-Assess the skills of students within the environment.Identify skills that need to be taughtEnsures meaningful social developmentEnsures the identification of skills that are relevant to the student’s culture.
108 What are social relationships? Easy answers:It’s obvious….we all have them and know what they are.Defining social relationships is like defining the meaning of life…it’s relative to the individual.More useful understanding of social relationships, focused on interrelated aspects of our social lives:Patterns of contactSubjective satisfaction
109 Contact PatternsSocial relationships are based on contact patterns between two peopleExample: 2 students might see each other in class on a regular basis, or that contact might be intermittent such as 2 students getting together for lunch once a week.Contact does not need to be direct for a social relationship to exist (e.g., )Student’s social life can be understood as a collection of interactions with other people.
110 Environmental & Activity Variables: These occur within a context Different patterns of interaction among studentsSocial Support BehaviorsSocial contactsSocial NetworksSocial Relationships based on: how often 2 students interact, how long, what days, etc.What occurs between students when they interact
111 Subjective Satisfaction Variation among students regarding what constitutes a desirable social life.Some individuals prefer to interact with a small number of people, but interact frequentlyLarge number of people, but interact less frequentlyThere is no metric for what constitutes a “good social life”What would be the best way to define a “good social life” for a student?
112 ImportanceSocial support- behaviors that are a part of social interactionsEmotional support, companionship, access to others, information, material aid, decision makingGoal should be to increase a student’s access to social support & improve student’s ability to provide social support to othersMembership/belonging- sense of “connectedness” with othersStable and something shared by individuals involvedCircle of friends (Haring & Breen, 1992)Part of their school/communityPersonal happiness-be aware of student’s perception of the adequacy of his or her relationships (Strully & Strully, 1985)
113 Processes in Social Relationships? What makes social relationships develop?Still not specifically identified in researchGeneral areas we will discuss relating to social relationship development & maintenanceHow relationships develop?Balancing independence and interdependence?Types of social interactions?Variables that influence the course of a relationship?
114 How social relationships develop? Predictable pattern (Goldstein et al., 2001),3 phases:1- Initial social encountersIntroduced to students55% of peers who are initially met go on to second stage2-Preferred interaction contextsTry out different activities with one anotherMake decisions of what form relationship will takeMajority of relationships do not extend beyond this3- Durable relationshipsDescribed as friendshipsMost satisfactory of relationshipsSustained social interactionRoutine develops
115 Balancing Independence & Interdependence Social relationships influenced by social competenceStudent’s ability to effectively interact and maintain social interactionsIndependently engage in set of behaviors= social skillsMore independent students are in initiating, taking turns, and providing reciprocal social support= more likely to self-determine a happy social lifeCaution: No “readiness” prerequisite to developing relationshipsBalance with interdependence: able to work collaboratively with others to accomplish a common goal (e.g., finding a role within a class activity/situation…determine what to search, controlling the mouse, etc. when searching the net)
116 Contexts & Types of Social Interaction Where we interact & what we do are closely linkedSchools have 3 broad contexts: class, break/mealtimes, & brief interactions in other settingsThink about what types of social interactions are “appropriate” during these times.
117 Assessing Opportunities for Interaction Identify the times & settings to be assessed.Identify what aspects of a person’s social life you want to assess.Formal & informal information gathering Increasing number of people that student meets?Maintaining already established social relationships?Summarize info & make recommendations
118 Social Life Assessment Questions & Suggestions List the people with whom you interactIs each person a friend or an acquaintance?How many times per week do you interact with each person?In what settings do you interact with each person?Does this person know any of the other people you interact with?What areas of your social life could be improved?Would you like more interactions with a particular person?Would you like to interact with this person in new settings?Would you like to do different activities with this person?Would you prefer individual or group activities?Would you like to meet new people?
119 Top 5 Barriers to social relationships for students w disabilities Barriers to Social Interact/RelationshipsSuggested strategiesAccess to general education (GE) settingsFacilitating inclusive placementsAccess to peers without disabilities in GE settingsPeer supportsClassroom participationAccess to GE curriculumAdaptations/modificationsSkills for facilitating interactionsPivotal activity skillsReciprocity skillsTeaching interdependenceAccess to peers over timeClass schedulingAlternative school interaction opportunitiesAfterschool interaction opportunities