Presentation on theme: "Welcome to Functional Assessment: Week 7"— Presentation transcript:
1Welcome to Functional Assessment: Week 7 Please discuss what you did this weekend with a partner….but only using the communication board provided
2Updates Preference Assessment Due today Task Analysis on Functional Skills due next week May 9thTask Analysis on Communication Skills due May 16thTask Analysis on Academic Skills due May 23rd.Article Review #2 due May 9thEcological Assessment Report due on June 6th.
3“If I could not express myself, I would become like the tree in the forest—the one for which it does not matter if it makes a sound when it comes crashing down, because there is no one around to hear it. Unfortunately, there are still many silent fallen trees all around us if we stop and look.”Bob Williams, AAC user with complex communication needs(Williams, 2000, p. 250)
4Entry Activity #1Get together with a partner and discuss the preference assessment you conducted.You can use your communication board or your typical communication system
6Communication Bill of Rights Each person has a right to: Request desired objects, actions, events, & peopleRefuse undesired objects, etc.Express personal preferences & feelings.Be offered choices & alternatives.Reject offered choices & alternatives.Request & receive another person’s attention/interactionAsk for & receive info about changes in routine & environment.Receive intervention to improve communication skills
7Communication Bill of Rights Each person has a right to: Receive a response to any communication, whether or not the responder can fill the request.Have access to augmentative and alternative communication and other assistive technology services & devices at all times.Be in environments that promote one’s communication as a full partner with other people, including peers.Be spoken to with respect & courtesy.Be spoken to directly and not spoken for or talked about in 3rd person while present.Have clear, meaningful, and culturally & linguistically appropriate communication.
8Entry Activity #2 Cont’d How you can ensure these occur for students within your current and future teaching situations?
9Entry Activity #3This activity is designed to be used throughout today’s discussion.Based on the chapter you read and what we are talking about today, explain how the assessment procedures we’ve been talking about all term apply to assessing communication.
10K-W-L about Communication skills for students with sig. disabilities
11OutcomesDefine communication & identify who needs communication interventionIdentify ecological and observational approaches to determining communication skills and needs.
12Communication is…“the complex process of information transfer that individuals use to influence the behavior of others.”(Orelove & Sobsey, 1996)
13ResourcesDowning, J.E. (2005)Teaching Communication Skills to Students with Severe DisabilitiesSnell, M.E., & Brown, F. (2011). Instruction of Students with Severe Disabilities
16Pre-Requisites for Communication? Competence in a symbolic and language system (e.g., spoken English, manual ASL)?Formalized rules of word representation, production, & use?Breathing is the only real pre-requisite (Mirenda, 1993)
17Communication is essential to quality of life Necessary to define oneselfShare ideas, feelingsDemonstrate knowledge & skillsSocializePerform job & daily tasks
18Communication: Basic Right When communication fails: Wars are fought(communication fails between countries)Divorce(communication fails between partners)Fired from jobs(communication fails between co-workers, supervisors)
19Communication in Daily Life Allows control over physical & social environmentAllows for acquiring new skills (strong correlation between literacy & communication skill development for students with severe disabilities; Beukelman & Mirenda, 2005)Allows for socially acceptable way to express feelings of frustrationAllows for development of friendships
20Least Dangerous Assumption (Cardinal, 2002; Donnellan, 1984) Better to err on the side of assuming competence even if it is not there, rather than err on the side of assuming incompetence when competence is the case.All individuals need to communicate
21Who Needs Communication Intervention? Students who demonstrate minimal communication skills that they are not adequately expressing themselves.Cognitive Referencing---Many professionals still believe that for children with severe intellectual challenges communication services are irrelevant (Downing, 2005)—Question should not be whether students will benefit from communication intervention,but how best to provide support
22Basic Conditions for Communication (Beukelman & Mirenda, 2005) At least 2 people who understand each otherForm (i.e. a way to send the message)Content (i.e., something to talk about)Function: Reason/Purpose to communicateEducational team members must ensure these are addressed
23Social Issues in Communication Students in special education classrooms tend to have interactions with adults but limited interaction with other students (Foreman et al., 2004)What affects does this have on: learning communication, and making friends?Foreman et al., found that students with disabilities in general education were involved in significantly higher levels of communication interactions than their matched pair in special education classrooms (2004).
24Two key parts of language… Receptive Language:Understanding what people mean when they speak to you.Expressive LanguageBeing able to speak/communicate so that others understand you.
25Communication Forms (Behaviors) Multi-modal nature of communication No one form of communication will meet all needs or all social situationsTeaching a combination of different modes is necessaryExamples: Vocalization, body movements, pointing, facial expressions, nodding, gestures, use of object symbols, picture symbols, manual signs
26Communicative Functions/ Intent RequestInitiate/greetingTerminateAttentionNamingAccept/RejectProtesting situationsAffirming situationsExpressing choices or preferences
27Contents of Communication When there is nothing to say, there is no communication (i.e. the awkward pause when run out of things to say)Individuals with severe disabilities need to have access to a variety of objects, pictures, and photos
28Communication Skills Speech Language Conversation Skills Articulation,Resonance, Voice, FluencyLanguagePhonology, Syntax, Semantics, PragmaticsConversation SkillsTurn taking, content, initiation, closureArticulation - production of consonants, vowels with lips, teeth and tongueResonance - balance of airflow between nose and mouthVoice - vibration of vocal chords in larnyxFluency - rate and rhythm; rising and falling; change in pitchPhonology - rules for structure, distribution, sequencing of speech soundsSyntax - rules for word order, sentence organization and word relationshipsSemantics - word meaningPragmatics - language use in context; how adapted to different social situations
29Problems in the Classroom? Receptive language deficitsCannot recall sequences of ideas presented orallyDifficulty understanding humor, sarcasm, figurative languageMay not understand questionsTrouble following directionsCannot retain information presented orallyDifficulty understanding compound and complex sentences
30Expressive DeficitsSpoken language may include incorrect grammar or syntaxLimited use of vocabularyFrequent hesitations/can’t find right wordsDifficulty discussing abstract, temporal or spatial conceptsJumps from topic to topicAfraid to ask questions, does not know what questions to ask, does not no how to ask questions.
31Assessing Communication Skills Standardized Tests will not provide the information you needAssessment driven by questions that need to be answered to help benefit from communication intervention—Team EffortInterviews with Significant Others & Ecological-Functional Assessment Process
33Assessing Receptive Communication Skills Receptive skills for a specific activity need to be identifiedWhat does the student do to demonstrate that the message has been received and understood?Document what forms of communication seem to be best understood
34Assessing Expressive Communication Skills Any attempt by the student to start, maintain, or end a communicative exchange should be noted.How the students communicates (the form)—Skill level?Why the student is communicating (function/intent)—different forms of communication for different purposes?What the student talks about (content)—information on breadth of skills and accessibility?
36Significant Other Interview(s) See Communication Style Assessment—handoutInterview questions forprofessionals---handout
37Questions for professionals What modes is the student using to communicate throughout the day?Does the student have a means to initiate an interaction? How?Does the student have opportunities to initiate an interaction? When? With whom?
38More professional questions Do others in the environment understand and respond appropriately to the student?Does the student have a means to engage different functions of communication, or does he or she primarily make requests or protests? (List the functions/purposes of communication & how the student conveys them)
39More Questions to askDoes the student have different things to talk about? What are they?Does the student have the means to respond to others and maintain conversation? How?Does he/she have a way and know how to end a conversation? How?
40Last Question…Does the student have a way to correct a communication breakdown? How?
41Assessing current communication Communication Matrix by Charity Rowland(designs to learn website)Organized by communication functionList of behaviorsNot used, emerging or mastered
44Ecological-functional Assessment Process Uses observational techniques to analyze skill demands of the natural environment and determine how the student performs within the environmentLeads directly to intervention plan (Snell, 2002)
45Communication Ecological Inventory Worksheet (Figure 8-10, p Communication Ecological Inventory Worksheet (Figure 8-10, p.249, Best, Heller, Bigge, 2005)1. Ask: Where does the student spend time? (environment, sub-environment, activities)2. Select Activity: (e.g., ordering food)3. Observe: (for vocabulary used in activity)List Expressive Vocabulary used in the activityList Receptive Vocabulary used in the activity4. Review listed words and determine which words & skills need to be taught to the student.
46Example of Communication Ecological Inventory Where does the student spend time?Environment: Community: McDonald’sSubenvironment: McDonald’s counter areaActivities: Ordering food, waiting in line, socializing in lineSelect activity: Ordering Food
47Example Cont’d Observe vocabulary used in activity Expressive: “I want, hamburger, fish sandwich, small, medium, large, coke, milkshake, yes/no, that’s all, thank you, my order is wrong, I need, extra ketchup, for here, please repeat that, how much?”Receptive: “May I help you?, Is that all?, Here or to go?, Your order will be ready soon?, I don’t understand, Your total is_____”Review listed words: which are above, below, and at the student’s level. Which are within or outside student’s experience, which are necessary for the task
48Ecological Inventory of Functional Skills Steps inActivityNatural CuesComm. SkillsNeededStudentPerformanceDiscrepancyAnalysisInterv.PlanReceptive or Expressive+ or -Why student isn’t doing the stepsuggestions
5010 minute partner activity Think of the student you are working with for your task analysis. Use the examples presented and outline how you will determine his/her communication needs
51Augmentative & Alternative Communication is… “any means that helps a person communicate when conventional speaking, writing, and/or understanding others are not possible.”(McCormic, Loeb, & Schieffelbusch, 2003)“any item, piece of equipment, or product system, whether acquired commercially off the self, modified, or customized, that is used to increase, maintain, or improve the functional capabilities of children with disabilities.” (IDEA, 1990 ~ Federal Register)
52Two types of AAC techniques Unaided- Do not require any external equipment (i.e. manual signs, facial expressions, gestures)Aided- Incorporate external devices (i.e., computers, microswitches, or speech-generating devices (SGDs)Most people use both to communicate in different situations with different people
53Communication SystemCombination of all of the techniques used by an individual student
54Unaided Communication Teachers need to be attuned to how student communicatesUnderstand what various gestures, vocalization, and other techniques mean
55Gesture Dictionary What John Does What it means How to Respond Runs to the door“I want a drink of water”Let him go for a drink of water from the water fountain or set a timer for when he can goGrabs another student’s arm“I like you”Explain the meaning to John’s classmate & help them work together
56When is unaided communication appropriate? Used when students have no other way to get their messages acrossMust be Socially acceptable & Intelligible
57Manual Signs: Pros & Cons Some people who can hear use manual signs (e.g. ASL)Advantage: requires no equipmentDisadvantage: Many people do not understand signs, therefore limited communication partnersWhat are other pros or cons?
58When to teach signs Poor prognosis for speech Signing partners availablePhysically ableAdequate cognitive skillsA portable communication system is desirable
59Aided CommunicationLow-Tech/Non-electronic: symbols, and communication displaysHi-Tech/Electronic: Speech-generating devicesAdvantages/ Disadvantages of both?
60Symbols for Communication Real Object SymbolsPhotographs & PicturesLine Drawing SymbolsTextured SymbolsLetters & WordsDefine these types of symbols and for whom they may be appropriate for.How would you be sure if symbols are appropriate for the student?
61Selecting Symbols—What to look for? Should make sense to the user & communication partners (assess with range of choices)Similarity between the symbols & what represents should be obviousStudents sensory modalities should be consideredSymbols introduced gradually building on current communication skills
62Communication Displays--examples Velcro board with a few picture symbols that students point toPlexiglas eye gaze display that a student uses eye to “point” (Figure 8-19, p.261)Communication Book or Wallet
65Considerations for Designing Displays Messages: which are needed, in what contextsSymbols: depending on the individual & messagesHow symbols are displayed: booklets, notebooks, wheelchair trays, scannersOrganizing symbols: context specific, how many per page, etc.
66Graphic arraysDesigning communication boards or communication notebooksChoosing itemsSize of each itemPositioning each itemAccessibility of each itemPerception of each item (both user and communication partner)Item placement/ordering- groups? Effort in scanning?Motor involvement in using array- vertical or horizontal?
67Using Symbols to Promote Participation/Conversation Calendar/Schedule SystemsChoice DisplaysRemnant (e.g. Movie ticket, scraps from activities) DisplaysConversation Displays
68Hi-Tech: Speech Generating Devices Devices “talk” when a student touches a symbol on the deviceWhat are advantages/ disadvantages??Advantages: “Voice”, can be easily integrated in everyday environmentsDisadvantages: Cost, cumbersome, break down (when broken down—student has no voice), requires a lot of training for student , staff, and family
69Types of Electronic Devices Single-level Devices: deliver a limited number of messages (about 20), simple to program & operate (e.g. BIGmack)Multi-level Devices: Up to thousands of messages, more difficult to program, multiple symbol displays to program messages on two or more levels.Comprehensive Devices: “dynamic display” technologyFor whom do you think each fits??---most likely dependent on physical & cognitive impairments
70Supporting AAC learners is a collaborative effort Family/caregivers & friendsPresent & future employersTeachers (SPED & Gen Ed.)Speech/language specialistsPhysical & occupational therapistsStudent
71Supporting AAC Learners (continued) Access to AACAvailableAccessibleAppropriateAtmosphere of acceptanceNonjudgmental - OK to make mistakes, model correct response, praise attempts, allow more time, minimize peer pressure, reinforce tolerance of individual differences.
72Teaching Communication Skills General Education Classroom Ideal environment- numerous opportunities to communicate with responsive communicative partnersHowever, students need specific & systematic instruction to acquire desired skillsEducational Team must develop teaching strategies and implement them consistently
73Things to Consider with AAC Mode of communication – Input: how the student receives the message;Output: means in which the student transmits the messages to othersMechanism for communication – Gestures, Vocalizations, GraphicType of selection - Direct selection, Scanning, EncodingPhysical display - Number of graphic symbols, Spacing and arrangement, Background, Orientation, Fixed or dynamicVocabulary selectionOutput - Print copy, Speech, Scan displayDirect Selection - one movement necessary; generally faster; requires sufficient range of motion; requires pointing skill - fine movementsScanning - conducted by listener or “speaker”; generally slower than direct selection; less fine motor required;Encoding - indicate through pattern or series of signals/codes; rapid access to small number of items; faster than scanning in large vocabulary;
74What do we choose to teach? Consider:What to communicate aboutActivities/environments used inPeople communicate with
75Initial Instructional Strategies Establishing Want/NoResponse Prompt Strategies (Time Delay, System of Least/Maximum Prompts)Milieu Teaching- modeling, manding, time delay, incidental teachingEnvironmental Arrangement & Interrupted-chain StrategyConversation skill training
76Supporting AAC Learners (continued) AAC TrainingTraining for student, parents/family/friends, teachers, employers, peersTraining in the use/maintenance of the systemTraining in facilitative/instructional techniques that promote communication