Presentation on theme: "RAH Day 12 Agenda Goal – understand that Ike’s administration addressed domestic issues and foreign policy including civil rights and vietnam. pp 8 of."— Presentation transcript:
RAH Day 12 Agenda Goal – understand that Ike’s administration addressed domestic issues and foreign policy including civil rights and vietnam. pp 8 of 9 1.Finish and review pp 8 and top of 9 about Ike’s presidency at home pp 10-11 2.Nixon’s scandal - Complete pp 10-11Nixon’s scandal 3.Questions from homework p 10 4.Ike’s foreign policy – p 10 p 10 groups willcomplete G.O. on p 10 according to chart Yellow Pick up Blue and Yellow Packets Yellow packet p 1 # 1-10 4.Complete Yellow packet p 1 # 1-10 5.Study chart on CR (blue) Packet p 5 – answer questions 1-4 re: chart A – attitudes about race ‘63 6.Read a Southern Defense of Segregated Ed. Explain the arguments made. Pp 6 7.Complete p 4 – Taking on Segregation beginning of civil rights movement #2-11 group 1Taiwan/China group 2USSR and Khrushchev group 3Hungary and Suez group 4Iran 1951-1953 group 5Guatemala 1954
The $3 Trillion Cop-Out By Robert J. Samuelson Wednesday, February 13, 2008; A19 The $3.1 trillion budget submitted last week by President Bush, with a projected $407 billion deficit for 2009, reminds us of the huge gap between uplifting political rhetoric -- including the rhetoric of this campaign -- and the grim realities of governing. Budgets are not just numbers. They express political choices. What should government do and who should pay? The reigning philosophy, practiced by both parties and largely approved by the public, is to evade choices.
1952 Presidential Election Candidate InfoRepublican – Dwight David “Ike” Eisenhower Democrat – Adlai Stevenson Campaign Style Comfortable w/ TV, calm, reassuring, smiling and vague terms Uncomfortable with TV, eloquent, erudite, somewhat bluntly honest Personal style Serene and confidentIntellectual, aristocratic, practical and realistic as to costs of Korea and Cold War Issue Civil Rights Non-committal – believed in limited federal power Strong promoter of Civil Rights but practical politically re: south Issue – Cold War Strong anti-communist (chose Nixon of HUAC and Alger Hiss fame as v-p running mate) Anti-communist but more in mold of George Kennan Issue Red Scare Publicly promoted idea that Truman was soft on communism Opposed to red-baiting and McCarthyism Issue – Fair Deal Wanted to lower taxes, but understood that New Deal programs like Social Security were the third rail of American politics Rejected public housing and National Health plan – lukewarm on Fair Deal
David Dwight “Ike” Eisenhower – President of the United States of America 1953-1961 Nicknamed “Ike” from the first letter in last name Adlai Stevenson
Nixon’s 1952 v-p election scandal The scandal related to $18,000 for campaigning and a cocker spaniel named “Checker” – Nixon was accused of taking campaign donations for personal use to upgrade his lifestyle Nixon’s Nixon’s Response was to go on public TV to defend himself, his history and finances to show that he was a self-made American Dream success story, but not over the top. He trotted out his wife and discussed how she did not have a fur coat, they did not drive fancy cars, they had two mortgages just like everyone else. But, he said, he did get the dog and he is not going to give it back because his kids loved the dog too much. This showed he was a family man.
Dynamic Conservatism Liberal when it comes to people and conservative when it comes to money. Expanded social security, minimum wage, housing assistance and used loads of federal money to build the National Highway system BUT… Wanted to control federal spending and deregulate business activity, cut the TVA and other government projects related to electricity generation Immediate goals and beliefs of Dynamic conservatism – go slow to review the situation Ike inherited Shrink power of president and fed. Gov’t Believed gov’t regulations were hurting business Reverse deficits, balance budget, cut defense $ Don’t use fed taxes to reward friends Immediate actions after inauguration Selected pro-business cabinet Submerged Lands Act to transfer oil lands to state control Cut TVA expansion Cut 200,000 federal jobs Cut 10% of budget Cut planned hydro plant Conservative action – cut taxes, Cut federal jobs, toughened FELP, FBI wiretaps and supported Communist Control Act Liberal actions – increased spending in 54 and 58 recessions, expanded S.S., $1.3 billion for housing and slum clearing, created Dept of Housing, education and Welfare, social spending increase 50% in 8 years, federal money for ed. & highways
Dynamic conservatism cont. Dynamic Conservatism is based on the underlying vital center theory and the resultant paradoxes. Tough on communism but cuts in defense $. Smaller gov’t and taxes but expansions of social programs. Economic results – GNP goes up during a period of unprecedented widespread prosperity for most Americans, with top marginal tax rate still at 90%, tax rate on median income dropped from 24.6 to 22% The political results were that Democrats win Congress in 1954 but Ike retains presidency and leaves office as the fourth most popular president in the entire 20 th century behind only FDR, Reagan & Bill Clinton
Ike’s Foreign Policy Practicality – rhetorically tough, but understood that global communism was not monolithic like the PRC and USSR at odds. Did not go into Hungary during ’56 even though “rolling back” called for it. Saw Soviets as wanting to avoid war w. us so “New Look” kept up appearance of pressure but allowed US to avoid costly wars like Korea Resultant policy choices New Look – reliance on massive retaliation of Nuclear Weapons Avoiding Hungary situation Ending Korean War CIA covert actions in Iran, Guatemala, planning Bay of Pigs Regional defense treaties like ANZUS and SEATO Beliefs of Economics and politics on Foreign Policy Wanted to cut spending and have a smaller gov’t w less taxes and less risk of long-term war but still containing communism Resultant policy choices Ended Korean War New Look Built massive nuclear arsenal Decreased defense spending from 14% to 9% of GDP Built Strategic Air Command with long- range nuclear-armed bombers and the first Polaris missile-armed nuclear submarines
’62 H-bomb test on Christmas Island’52 H-bomb test Ivy King 2 – 550kt ’62 104 kt 635 ft underground test made this 1280ft wide 320ft deep crater 12 million tons of earth moved by blast
C. Led to new strategy of "Massive Retaliation" 1. Idea of John Foster Dulles (Sec. of State) 2. Implied U.S. would use nuclear weapons in response to any act of communist aggression. 3. Was the U.S. bluffing? 4. Dulles said it was sometimes necessary to "go to the brink." 5. Critics called the idea brinkmanship” and said it was way too dangerous. 6. Proved to be impractical. C. Led to new strategy of "Massive Retaliation"
1. Stalin died (1953). 2. New Soviet leader - Nikita Khrushchev. a. Called Stalin a "cruel dictator" b.Talked of "peaceful coexistence" with the West c. Americans hoped for better relations. 3. New U.S. President - Dwight D. Eisenhower. a. Proposed idea of “Open Skies” (1955) b. Idea rejected by Soviets. c. U.S. began U-2 flights over USSR. A. New Leadership
1. Reliance on nuclear weapons to keep the peace (deter war) based on concept of MAD (Mutual Assured Destruction). 2. If war came, both sides hoped to destroy other side's nuclear weapons before they could be used. 3. Neither side could allow the other to get too far ahead - an arms race developed. H. Nuclear Arms Race
Dulles’ Foreign Policy Beliefs – communism is a monolithic evil menace – an unholy alliance of imperialism and Marxism. Containment is like appeasement Policy proposals – rolling back communism - liberate the people under its evil system Brinkmanship Massive retaliation Should have fought to win in Korea (MacArthur was right) Connecting the present with the past But in fact the invasion of Iraq and the doctrine of preventive war have a sterling conservative pedigree; they were handed down from the right- wingers in the early years of the Cold War who rejected the strategy of containing communism and argued instead for rolling it back (an idea that Dwight Eisenhower considered sheer madness). Michael Kinseley – Washington Post 11/15/06
John Foster Dulles – Secretary of State 1953-1959
The New Look Situation describedUS New Look response Taiwan – PRC won by CCP in China, so Nationalists went to Taiwan. Chinese attacked islands of Matsu and Quemoy leading conservatives to think PRC was imperialist US threatened to use nukes on PRC and signed defense agreement with Taiwan Khruschev – NK wanted to improve relations and to have USSR spend less money on defense but still needed army for political reasons and to weaken US ties w/ NATO Open Skies proposal (USSR turned it down) and slowign of arms race, but still relied on nukes Geneva meeting in 55 - personal contact Hungary ’56 – Hungarian revolted against and kicked out communists – USSR rolled in tanks and killed 30,000 US sent some medical supplies – this showed the major weakness of New Look Suez ’56 – Israel, France and UK attack Egypt and take Suez canal b/c Nasser nationalized the canal because US cancelled help for Aswan Dam because Nasse got closer to USSR – USSR threatens to side w/ Egypt Ike told the allies to back off Threatened USSR with nukes and issued Eisenhower Doctrine – noone can mess with mideast or US will strike with nukes Uses UN to keep peace in Sinai
Nikita Khrushchev – General Secretary of Communist Party of the Soviet Union
Hungarians overthrow the communists in October 1956 and destroy tanks and symbols of the Soviet Union In November 1956, Soviet tanks return, taking Hungary back and putting it under a new Communist dictatorship, and killing 30,000 Hungarian “freedom fighters.”
The New Look Situation describedUS New Look response Iran ’51-’53– popularly and freely elected Prime Minister Mossadeqh nationalizes Iranian oil fields but promises to pay UK for its losses. US CIA overthrows Mossadeqh and installs a king, Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlevi Guatemala ’54 – Jacobo Arbenz implements land reform and 200,000 acres of United Fruit Company land is given to peasants – seems communistic CIA supports and organizes and army trainied in Honduras to overthrow Arbenz. CIA planes help rebel army. General Armas becomes dictator
Locations of CIA covert operations to overthrow unwanted leftist governments
E. Cold War Politics in the Third World 1. Third World - non-white, developing countries in Africa~ Asia Latin America, and the Middle East. 2. Movements for national independence resulted in many new countries. 3. Third World important to U.S. for resources and allies against communist expansion. 4. U. S. assumed these- struggles for self-determination were directed by the Soviet Union. 5. U.S. feared these revolutions would lead to new communist countries. 6. U.S. sent massive amounts of foreign aid to the Third World to win friends and combat Soviet influence there. E. Cold War Politics in the Third World
Vietnam beginning of US involvement Events in VietnamUS response 1945 – WWII the US was allied closely with Ho Chi Minh and his Viet Minh League for Vietnamese independence, Ho declared the independence of Vietnam from France and Japan France wanted to recolonize Vietnam US at first supported Vietnamese independence but then allowed France to try to recolonize and turned down Ho’s request for aid. 1950 – France losing the war to Ho wants help Viet Minh turn to USSR for help Truman begins funding French war effort – total of $3 billion Ike provide 75% of war’s cost Ike pushes France to be more reasonable b/c he sees that the winner of a civil war is the one with the most public support. 1954 – France loses at Dien Bien Phu Vietnam separated at 17 th parallel US signs agreement in Geneva for national elections in all of Vietnam in 1956 1956 – supposed to be free elections but Diem cancels them Ike supports cancellation of elections, CIA harasses the North, lots of $ to Diem Domino Theory – if one country in southeast Asia falls to communism so will all of the others
Causes for War in ‘Nam For about 1000 yrs before the 8 th century C.E., Vietnam was ruled by China: Vietnamese always rebelled From the 8 th C until the 19 th C Vietnamese culture had a major theme: repel invaders by guerilla war France’s first attempt at colonization was in 1802 then from 1858 they conducted wars of conquest until France completely controlled Nam by 1883 – But there were always rebels trying to oust France
When Japan conquered Nam in 1940, the French administration there collaborated with Japan. The only opposition to Japan was the Viet Minh (1. founded to gain independence for Vietnam) led by Nguyen That Than (Ho Chi Minh) Causes for War in ‘Nam After March 9, 1945 Japan removed the French administration; only then did France fight against Japan On September 2, 1945 Ho Chi Minh (2.) declares the independence of Vietnam –US soldiers, the US flag, the US national anthem and the US Declaration of Independence play a prominent role in the ceremony
Following WWII, at the beginning of the Cold War, US needed France to be on its side against the USSR. France wanted to be a world power – France wanted to regain its colonies, especially – Vietnam. The US agreed to allow France to retake Vietnam Causes for War in ‘Nam
How the Cold War helped cause ‘Nam France’s enemy in its attempt to retake Vietnam was “Uncle” Ho Chi Minh and his League for Vietnamese Independence (Viet Minh) –he had communist leanings and got military assistance from USSR –(3.) Ho and the Viet Minh violent resist the return of French colonization Therefore, (4. ) helping France grew more important to Truman and the US (5. ) The US sent money and military supplies to the French war effort in Vietnam Because (6.)The Cold War spread and communism seemed to spread in Europe through the 1940s – then China, in Asia, fell to communism in 1949 – the US could not see both France in Europe and Vietnam in Asia fall to communism – it would violate containment
Background to the War zThe French lost the war to Ho Chi Minh’s Viet Minh forces in 1954 at Dien Bien Phu zPresident Eisenhower declined to intervene on behalf of France, seeing it as a lost cause. z(8.) France more or less surrendered and negotiated a peace settlement called the Geneva Accords of 1954
Background to the War (9.) International Conference at Geneva P Vietnam was divided at 17 th parallel O Ho Chi Minh’s nationalist forces controlled the North O Ngo Dinh Diem, a French and US-educated, Roman Catholic claimed control of the South O The two sides agree that national elections would occur in 1956
Background to the War z(7.) Ike saw the southeast Asian nations as a row of dominos that would fall to communism if Vietnam fell first. z(10.)With Eisenhower’s approval, Diem backed out of the elections, leading to military conflict between North and South zHo Chi Minh seemed like everyone’s Uncle in ‘Nam – he is very popular –Ho seems to Americans to be a communist –Ho would win a nation-wide election –Diem holds a mock-election where he wins through voter fraud –Vietnam remains split: North under Ho and South under Diem with American financial support
U.S. Military Involvement Begins zRepressive dictatorial rule by Diem –Diem is Catholic in a 90% Bhuddist country –Diem is wealthy, western educated, aristocratic in 90% poor, rural, peasant P Diem’s family holds all power P Wealth is hoarded by the elite P Buddhist majority persecuted P Torture, lack of political freedom prevail zThe U.S. aided Diem’s government and the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) P Ike sent financial and military aid P 675 U.S. Army advisors sent by 1960.