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RAH Day 11 Agenda Goal – understand that life in the fifties and Ike’s administration addressed domestic issues and foreign policy in a vital center and.

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Presentation on theme: "RAH Day 11 Agenda Goal – understand that life in the fifties and Ike’s administration addressed domestic issues and foreign policy in a vital center and."— Presentation transcript:

1 RAH Day 11 Agenda Goal – understand that life in the fifties and Ike’s administration addressed domestic issues and foreign policy in a vital center and paradoxical manner. Packet page 6 1.Reading Comprehension Packet page 6 – The Organization Man answer questions 1-3 p 2 2.Review Critics of 50s culture and the paradoxes (related to vital center) p 2 3.Identify the paradox inherent in life in the 50s, including paradoxes of the criticisms 4.How does this chapter reflect your lives today? Rise of Suburbs 5.Questions from homework pp 8 of 9 6.Finish and review pp 8 and top of 9 about Ike’s presidency at home pp 10-11 7.Nixon’s scandal - Complete pp 10-11Nixon’s scandal 8.Notes on Eisenhower’s foreign policy

2 1.A. O-man works in a hierarchical organization where he is not at the top, but hopes to be able to move up. B. He lives in the suburbs in middle class neighborhoods C. works in a collective for the betterment of the organization but loathes the word collective D. Has given himself to the org. giving up individuality, family and spirit E. Extols the idea of individuality while not having any F. Is aware of the lack of control in his life but is delusional about his relationship between the reality of the collective and individuality The Organization Man 2. The protestant work ethic of the individual for individual gain does not jive with the demands and facts of the organization collective

3 The conflict between the American value of individualism and the fact of organization life is that:  individualism is not workable in a hierarchical organizational environment like corporate America or big bureaucracy government, university or research work.  The organization environment is a collective, similar to the collectivism of communist USSR.  Since the two cannot work together, the organization man deluded himself into thinking that he was an individual, that he was not part of a collective – which of course was really not correct. The Organization Man

4 Religious leaders – thought that the culture was getting away from traditional American values because there was the promotion of sex, gender role changes, the evil of greed, covetousness through advertising and consumerism and increased violence in media. Writers/artists – thought that the culture was too conformist and stifling, too homogenized, lacking in creativity and individuality – too bland. Sociologists – thought there was too much peer pressure, too inner directed with individualized goals rather than social communal and outer-directed goals. They believed there was a loss of individual personality due the need to work within an organization system Criticisms of the ’50s culture

5 Critics complained of homogenization, which occurred simultaneously to greater choices of books, magazines movies and artistic activities; and simultaneously to the angst about an invasion of communist ideology that would make people be the same. The affluence promoted on television belied the 25% poverty rate and while promoting homogenization and conformity, also promoted dissatisfaction leading less to consensus but to racial and gender and class and generational conflict While celebrating universal values of freedom, god, prosperity, equality, suburbia and the expectation of progress, the reality was that many were kept from all of these things and that behind the scenes and behind closed doors people behaved differently. Paradoxes

6 1952 Presidential Election Candidate InfoRepublican – Dwight David “Ike” Eisenhower Democrat – Adlai Stevenson Campaign Style Comfortable w/ TV, calm, reassuring, smiling and vague terms Uncomfortable with TV, eloquent, erudite, somewhat bluntly honest Personal style Serene and confidentIntellectual, aristocratic, practical and realistic as to costs of Korea and Cold War Issue Civil Rights Non-committal – believed in limited federal power Strong promoter of Civil Rights but practical politically re: south Issue – Cold War Strong anti-communist (chose Nixon of HUAC and Alger Hiss fame as v-p running mate) Anti-communist but more in mold of George Kennan Issue Red Scare Publicly promoted idea that Truman was soft on communism Opposed to red-baiting and McCarthyism Issue – Fair Deal Wanted to lower taxes, but understood that New Deal programs like Social Security were the third rail of American politics Rejected public housing and National Health plan – lukewarm on Fair Deal

7 David Dwight “Ike” Eisenhower – President of the United States of America 1953-1961 Nicknamed “Ike” from the first letter in last name Adlai Stevenson

8 Nixon’s 1952 v-p election scandal The scandal related to $18,000 for campaigning and a cocker spaniel named “Checker” – Nixon was accused of taking campaign donations for personal use to upgrade his lifestyle Nixon’s Nixon’s Response was to go on public TV to defend himself, his history and finances to show that he was a self-made American Dream success story, but not over the top. He trotted out his wife and discussed how she did not have a fur coat, they did not drive fancy cars, they had two mortgages just like everyone else. But, he said, he did get the dog and he is not going to give it back because his kids loved the dog too much. This showed he was a family man.

9 Dynamic Conservatism Liberal when it comes to people and conservative when it comes to money. Expanded social security, minimum wage, housing assistance and used loads of federal money to build the National Highway system BUT… Wanted to control federal spending and deregulate business activity, cut the TVA and other government projects related to electricity generation Immediate goals and beliefs of Dynamic conservatism – go slow to review the situation Ike inherited Shrink power of president and fed. Gov’t Believed gov’t regulations were hurting business Reverse deficits, balance budget, cut defense $ Don’t use fed taxes to reward friends Immediate actions after inauguration Selected pro-business cabinet Submerged Lands Act to transfer oil lands to state control Cut TVA expansion Cut 200,000 federal jobs Cut 10% of budget Cut planned hydro plant Conservative action – cut taxes, Cut federal jobs, toughened FELP, FBI wiretaps and supported Communist Control Act Liberal actions – increased spending in 54 and 58 recessions, expanded S.S., $1.3 billion for housing and slum clearing, created Dept of Housing, education and Welfare, social spending increase 50% in 8 years, federal money for ed. & highways

10 Dynamic conservatism cont. Dynamic Conservatism is based on the underlying vital center theory and the resultant paradoxes. Tough on communism but cuts in defense $. Smaller gov’t and taxes but expansions of social programs. Economic results – GNP goes up during a period of unprecedented widespread prosperity for most Americans, with top marginal tax rate still at 90% The political results were that Democrats win Congress in 1954 but Ike retains presidency and leaves office as the third most popular president in the entire 20 th century behind only FDR and Bill Clinton

11 Ike’s Foreign Policy Practicality – rhetorically tough, but understood that global communism was not monolithic: PRC and USSR at odds. Did not go into Hungary during ’56 though “rolling back” called for it. Saw Soviets as wanting to avoid war w. US so “New Look” kept up appearance of pressure but allowed US to avoid costly wars like Korea Resultant policy choices New Look – reliance on massive retaliation of Nuclear Weapons Avoiding Hungary situation Ending Korean War CIA covert actions in Iran, Guatemala, planning Bay of Pigs Regional defense treaties like ANZUS and SEATO Eisenhower Doctrine re: defend Mid-east Beliefs of Economics and politics on Foreign Policy Wanted to cut spending and have a smaller gov’t w less taxes and less risk of long-term war but still containing communism Resultant policy choices Ended Korean War New Look Built massive nuclear arsenal Decreased defense spending from 14% to 9% of GDP Built Strategic Air Command with long- range nuclear-armed bombers and the first Polaris missile-armed nuclear submarines

12 1. Stalin died (1953). 2. New Soviet leader - Nikita Khrushchev. a. Called Stalin a "cruel dictator" b.Talked of "peaceful coexistence" with the West c. Americans hoped for better relations. 3. New U.S. President - Dwight D. Eisenhower. a. Proposed idea of “Open Skies” (1955) b. Idea rejected by Soviets. c. U.S. began U-2 flights over USSR. A. New Leadership

13 Nikita Khrushchev – General Secretary of Communist Party of the Soviet Union

14 Dwight David “Ike” Eisenhower – President of the United States of America 1953-1961

15 John Foster Dulles – Secretary of State 1953-1959

16 1. How to deter communist aggression, yet reduce U.S. defense spending? 2. Answer: Greater dependence on nuclear weapons (cheaper thantrying to match Soviet buildup of conventional forces). 3. Size of army and navy reduced. 4. Air Force (and stockpile of nuclear weapons) increased. B. Eisenhower's "New Look" Defense Policy

17 ’62 H-bomb test on Christmas Island’52 H-bomb test Ivy King 2 – 550kt ’62 104 kt 635 ft underground test made this 1280ft wide 320ft deep crater 12 million tons of earth moved by blast

18 C. Led to new strategy of "Massive Retaliation" 1. Idea of John Foster Dulles (Sec. of State) 2. Implied U.S. would use nuclear weapons in response to any act of communist aggression. 3. Was the U.S. bluffing? 4. Dulles said it was sometimes necessary to "go to the brink." 5. Critics called the idea brinkmanship” and said it was way too dangerous. 6. Proved to be impractical. C. Led to new strategy of "Massive Retaliation"

19 John Foster Dulles – Secretary of State 1953-1959

20 D. "Rolling back" communism 1. Dulles said containment of' communism wasn't good enough. 2. Said U.S. goal was now the liberation of "captive peoples” living in countries already under communist rule. 3. "Roll Back" proved to be a bluff during a revolution in Hungary in 1956. But in fact the invasion of Iraq and the doctrine of preventive war have a sterling conservative pedigree; they were handed down from the right-wingers in the early years of the Cold War who rejected the strategy of containing communism and argued instead for rolling it back (an idea that Dwight Eisenhower considered sheer madness). Michael Kinseley – Washington Post 11/15/06 D. "Rolling back" communism

21 Hungarians overthrow the communists in October 1956 and destroy tanks and symbols of the Soviet Union In November 1956, Soviet tanks return, taking Hungary back and putting it under a new Communist dictatorship, and killing 30,000 Hungarian “freedom fighters.”

22 E. Cold War Politics in the Third World 1. Third World - non-white, developing countries in Africa~ Asia Latin America, and the Middle East. 2. Movements for national independence resulted in many new countries. 3. Third World important to U.S. for resources and allies against communist expansion. 4. U. S. assumed these- struggles for self-determination were directed by the Soviet Union. 5. U.S. feared these revolutions would lead to new communist countries. 6. U.S. sent massive amounts of foreign aid to the Third World to win friends and combat Soviet influence there. E. Cold War Politics in the Third World

23 Locations of CIA covert operations to overthrow unwanted leftist governments

24 1. The CIA (Central Intelligence Agency) was created by Truman in 1947. 2. The purpose of the CIA was to spy and conduct covert operations. 3. CIA worked behind the scenes to overthrow pro-Soviet governments and support pro- Western ones. 4. CIA helped overthrow governments in Iran (1953) and Guatemala (1954). F. CIA Operations

25 1. Part of Eisenhower's containment policy. 2. U.S. signed many NATO-like mutual security pacts with nations next to communist ones. Like SEATO and ANZUS 3. U.S. threat: Soviet aggression against any U.S. ally would result in "massive retaliation". G. Security Alliances

26 1. Reliance on nuclear weapons to keep the peace (deter war) based on concept of MAD (Mutual Assured Destruction). 2. If war came, both sides hoped to destroy other side's nuclear weapons before they could be used. 3. Neither side could allow the other to get too far ahead - an arms race developed. H. Nuclear Arms Race

27 1945 Atomic bomb (US.) (USSR in 1949) 1948 Intercontinental Bombers (U.S.) (USSR in 1955) 1952 H-Bomb (U;S.) (USSR in 1953)) 1957 First satellite - "Sputnik" (USSR) (US. in 1958) 1957 First ICBM (USSR) (U.S. in 1958) 1960 First submarine with missiles (U S.) (Soviets in 1968) 1966 First ICBM with multiple warheads (US.) (Soviets in 1968)

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