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**Introduction A Closer Look at Graphing The Distance Formula**

Skip Intro Introduction A Closer Look at Graphing Translations Definition of a Circle Definition of Radius Definition of a Unit Circle Deriving the Equation of a Circle The Distance Formula Moving The Center Completing the Square It is a Circle if? Conic Movie Conic Collage Geometers Sketchpad: Cosmos Geometers Sketchpad: Headlights Projectile Animation Planet Animation Plane Intersecting a Cone Animation Footnotes End Next

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**CONIC SECTIONS Quadratic Relations Parabola Circle Ellipse Hyperbola**

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**The quadratic relations that we studied in the beginning **

of the year were in the form of y = Ax2 + Dx + F, where A, D, and F stand for constants, and A ≠ 0. This quadratic relation is a parabola, and it is the only one that can be a function. It does not have to be a function, though. A parabola is determined by a plane intersecting a cone and is therefore considered a conic section. End Main Menu Previous Next

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**The general equation for all conic sections is:**

Ax2 + Bxy + Cy2 + Dx + Ey + F = 0 where A, B, C, D, E and F represent constants and where the equal sign could be replaced by an inequality sign. When an equation has a “y2” term and/or an “xy” term it is a quadratic relation instead of a quadratic function. End Main Menu Previous Next

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**A Closer Look at Graphing Conics**

Plot the graph of each relation. Select values of x and calculate the corresponding values of y until there are enough points to draw a smooth curve. Approximate all radicals to the nearest tenth. x2 + y2 = 25 x2 + y2 + 6x = 16 x2 + y2 - 4y = 21 x2 + y2 + 6x - 4y = 12 Conclusions End Last Viewed Main Menu Previous Next

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x2 + y2 = 25 x = 3 32 + y2 = 25 9 + y2 = 25 y2 = 16 y = ± 4 There are 2 points to graph: (3,4) (3,-4) End A Close Look at Graphing Main Menu Previous Next

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**Continue to solve in this manner, generating a table of values.**

-5 -4 ±3 -3 ±4 -2 ±4.6 -1 ±4.9 ±5 1 ±4.9 2 ±4.6 3 ±4 4 ±3 5 End A Close Look at Graphing Main Menu Previous Next

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**Graphing x2 + y2 = 25 y x End A Close Look at Graphing Main Menu**

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**x2 + y2 + 6x = 16 x = 1 12 + y2 +6(1) = 16 1 + y2 +6 = 16 y2 = 9**

There are 2 points to graph: (1,3) (1,-3) End A Close Look at Graphing Main Menu Previous Next

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**Continue to solve in this manner, generating a table of values.**

-8 -7 ±3 -6 ±4 -5 ±4.6 -4 ±4.9 -3 ±5 -2 -1 1 2 -8 -7 ±3 -6 ±4 -5 ±4.6 -4 ±4.9 -3 ±5 -2 ±4.9 -1 ±4.6 ±4 1 ±3 2 End A Close Look at Graphing Main Menu Previous Next

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**Graphing x2 + y2 + 6x = 16 -8 -7 ±3 -6 ±4 -5 ±4.6 -4 ±4.9 -3 ±5 -2 -1**

-7 ±3 -6 ±4 -5 ±4.6 -4 ±4.9 -3 ±5 -2 -1 1 2 End A Close Look at Graphing Main Menu Previous Next

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x2 + y2 - 4y = 21 x = 3 32 + y2 - 4y = 21 9 + y2 - 4y = 21 y2 - 4y -12 = 0 (y - 6)(y + 2) = 0 y - 6 = 0 and y + 2 = 0 y = 6 and y = -2 There are 2 points to graph: (3,6) (3,-2) End A Close Look at Graphing Main Menu Previous Next

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**Continue to solve in this manner, generating a table of values.**

-3, 7 3 -2, 6 4 -1, 5 5 2 1 -2.9, 6.9 -2.6, 6.6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 -5 2 -4 -1, 5 -3 -2, 6 -2 -2.6, 6.6 -1 -2.9, 6.9 -3, 7 1 -2.9, 6.9 2 -2.6, 6.6 3 -2, 6 4 -1, 5 5 2 End A Close Look at Graphing Main Menu Previous Next

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Graphing x2 + y2 - 4y = 21 -3, 7 3 -2, 6 4 -1, 5 5 2 1 -2.9, 6.9 -2.6, 6.6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 End A Close Look at Graphing Main Menu Previous Next

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x2 + y2 + 6x - 4y = 12 x = 1 12 + y2 + 6(1) - 4y = 12 1 + y y = 12 y2 - 4y - 5 = 0 (y - 5)(y + 1) = 0 y - 5 = 0 and y + 1 = 0 y = 5 and y = -1 There are 2 points to graph: (1,5) (1,-1) End A Close Look at Graphing Main Menu Previous Next

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**Continue to solve in this manner, generating a table of values.**

-8 2 -7 -1, 5 -6 -2, 6 -5 -2.6, 6.6 -3 -3, 7 -2 -2.9, 6.9 -1 -4 1 -8 2 -7 -1, 5 -6 -2, 6 -5 -2.6, 6.6 -4 -2.9, 6.9 -3 -3, 7 -2 -2.9, 6.9 -1 -2.6, 6.6 -2, 6 1 -1, 5 2 End A Close Look at Graphing Main Menu Previous Next

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**Graphing x2 + y2 + 6x - 4y = 21 -8 2 -7 -1, 5 -6 -2, 6 -5 -2.6, 6.6 -3**

-3, 7 -2 -2.9, 6.9 -1 -4 1 End A Close Look at Graphing Main Menu Previous Next

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**What conclusions can you draw about the shape and location of the graphs?**

x2 + y2 = 25 x2 + y2 + 4x = 16 x2 + y2 + 4x - 6y = 12 x2 + y 2 - 6y = 21 End A Close Look at Graphing Main Menu Previous Next

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**What conclusions can you draw about the shape and location of the graphs?**

All of the graphs are circles x2 + y2 = 25 As you add an x-term, the graph moves left x2 + y2 + 4x = 16 As you subtract a y-term, the graph moves up. x2 + y 2 - 6y = 21 You can move both left and up x2 + y2 + 4x - 6y = 12 End A Close Look at Graphing Main Menu Previous Next

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**GEOMETRICAL DEFINITION OF A CIRCLE**

A circle is the set of all points in a plane equidistant from a fixed point called the center. Center Circle Circle Center End Main Menu Previous Next

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**A radius is the segment whose endpoints are the center of the circle, and any point on the circle.**

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**It is the circle on which all other circles are based.**

A unit circle is a circle with a radius of 1 whose center is at the origin. r = 1 A unit circle is a circle with a radius of 1 whose center is at the origin. Center: (0, 0) A unit circle is a circle with a radius of 1 whose center is at the origin. A unit circle is a circle with a radius of 1 whose center is at the origin. It is the circle on which all other circles are based. End Main Menu Previous Next

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**The equation of a circle is derived from its radius.**

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**Use the distance formula to find an equation for x and y**

Use the distance formula to find an equation for x and y. This equation is also the equation for the circle. End Deriving the Equation of a Circle Main Menu Previous Next

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**THE DISTANCE FORMULA (x2, y2) (x1, y1) End**

Deriving the Equation of a Circle Main Menu Previous Next

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**Let r for radius length replace D for distance.**

(x, y) (0, 0) r2 = x2 + y2 r2 = x2 + y2 Is the equation for a circle with its center at the origin and a radius of length r. End Deriving the Equation of a Circle Main Menu Previous Next

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**The unit circle therefore has the equation:**

x2 + y2 = 1 (x, y) (0, 0) r = 1 End Deriving the Equation of a Circle Main Menu Previous Next

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**(x, y) r = 2 If r = 2, then (0, 0) x2 + y2 = 4 End**

Deriving the Equation of a Circle Main Menu Previous Next

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In order for a satellite to remain in a circular orbit above the Earth, the satellite must be 35,000 km above the Earth. Write an equation for the orbit of the satellite. Use the center of the Earth as the origin and 6400 km for the radius of the earth. (x - 0)2 + (y - 0)2 = ( )2 x2 + y2 = 1,713,960,000 End Deriving the Equation of a Circle Main Menu Previous Next

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**What will happen to the equation if the center is not at the origin?**

(1,2) r = 3 (x,y) End Last Viewed Main Menu Previous Next

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**No matter where the circle is located, or where the center is, the equation is the same.**

(h,k) (x,y) r (h,k) (x,y) r (h,k) (x,y) r (h,k) (x,y) r (h,k) (x,y) r End Moving the Center Main Menu Previous Next

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**Assume (x, y) are the coordinates of a point on a circle.**

(h,k) The center of the circle is (h, k), r and the radius is r. Then the equation of a circle is: (x - h)2 + (y - k)2 = r2. End Moving the Center Main Menu Previous Next

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**Write the equation of a circle with a center at (0, 3) and a radius of 7.**

(x - h)2 + (y - k)2 = r2 (x - 0)2 + (y - 3)2 = 72 (x)2 + (y - 3)2 = 49 End Moving the Center Main Menu Previous Next

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**Find the equation whose diameter has endpoints of (-5, 2) and (3, 6).**

First find the midpoint of the diameter using the midpoint formula. This will be the center. MIDPOINT End Moving the Center Main Menu Previous Next

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**Find the equation whose diameter has endpoints of (-5, 2) and (3, 6).**

Then find the length distance between the midpoint and one of the endpoints. This will be the radius. DISTANCE FORMULA End Moving the Center Main Menu Previous Next

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**Find the equation whose diameter has endpoints of (-5, 2) and (3, 6).**

Therefore the center is (-1, 4) The radius is (x - -1)2 + (y - 4)2 = (x + 1)2 + (y - 4)2 = 20 End Skip Tangents Moving the Center Main Menu Previous Next

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**A line that intersects the circle in exactly one **

A line in the plane of a circle can intersect the circle in 1 or 2 points. A line that intersects the circle in exactly one point is said to be tangent to the circle. The line and the circle are considered tangent to each other at this point of intersection. Write an equation for a circle with center (-4, -3) that is tangent to the x-axis. A diagram will help. (-4, 0) A radius is always perpendicular to the tangent line. 3 (x + 4)2 + (y + 3)2 = 9 (-4, -3) End Moving the Center Main Menu Previous Next

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**The standard form equation for all conic sections is:**

Ax2 + Bxy + Cy2 + Dx + Ey + F = 0 where A, B, C, D, E and F represent constants and where the equal sign could be replaced by an inequality sign. How do you put a standard form equation into graphing form? The transformation is accomplished through completing the square. End Last Viewed Main Menu Previous Next

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**Graph the relation x2 + y2 - 10x + 4y + 13 = 0. **

2. Group the x-terms and y-terms together x2 - 10x + y2 + 4y = -13 Graph the relation 13 1. Move the F term to the other side. x2 + y2 - 10x + 4y = -13 3. Complete the square for the x-terms and y-terms. x2 - 10x + y2 + 4y = -13 x2 - 10x y2 + 4y + 4 = (x - 5)2 + (y + 2)2 = 16 End Completing the Square Main Menu Previous Next

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**(x - 5)2 + (y + 2)2 = 16 (x - 5)2 + (y + 2)2 = 42 center: (5, -2)**

radius = 4 4 (5, -2) End Completing the Square Main Menu Previous Next

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**What if the relation is an inequality? x2 + y2 - 10x + 4y + 13 < 0 **

Do the same steps to transform it to graphing form. (x - 5)2 + (y + 2)2 < 42 This means the values are inside the circle. The values are less than the radius. End Completing the Square Main Menu Previous Next

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**Write x2 + y2 + 6x - 2y - 54 = 0 in graphing form**

Write x2 + y2 + 6x - 2y - 54 = 0 in graphing form. Then describe the transformation that can be applied to the graph of x2 + y2 = 64 to obtain the graph of the given equation. x2 + y2 + 6x - 2y = 54 x2 + 6x + y2 - 2y = 54 (6/2) = (-2/2) = -1 (3)2 = (-1)2 = 1 x2 + 6x y2 - 2y + 1 = (x + 3)2 + (y - 1)2 = 64 (x + 3)2 + (y - 1)2 = 82 center: (-3, 1) radius = 8 End Completing the Square Main Menu Previous Next

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**Write x2 + y2 + 6x - 2y - 54 = 0 in graphing form**

Write x2 + y2 + 6x - 2y - 54 = 0 in graphing form. Then describe the transformation that can be applied to the graph of x2 + y2 = 64 to obtain the graph of the given equation. x2 + y2 = 64 is translated 3 units left and one unit up to become (x + 3)2 + (y - 1)2 = 64. End Completing the Square Main Menu Previous Next

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The graph of a quadratic relation will be a circle if the coefficients of the x2 term and y2 term are equal (and the xy term is zero). End Main Menu Previous

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Definitions Circle: The set of all points that are the same distance from the center Radius: a segment whose endpoints are the center and a point.

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