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DISCIPLINARY LITERACY: READING STRATEGIES IN CTE AND OTHER SUBJECTS

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1 DISCIPLINARY LITERACY: READING STRATEGIES IN CTE AND OTHER SUBJECTS

2 You Tube Video: DID YOU KNOW READING CRISIS
Jigsaw and discuss “CTE’s role in Adolescent Literacy” (4MAT – Quadrant Two- WHAT: Deepen the learner’s reflection and understanding. Inform (2L): Deepen the learner’s understanding. Teach the conceptual information.) (FYI for the Presenter: The video “Did You Know Reading Crisis” is presented with words displayed on the screen and music in the background. It was loaded to You Tube on Sep 24, It’s message is that there is a profound reading crisis in the United States.) Use the ACTE article “CTE’s role in Adolescent Literacy”to build connections to student need and to stress the involvement of CTE in DL

3 Readicide – “The systematic killing of the love of reading…”
Requiring students to read difficult texts without proper instructional support; Insisting that students focus solely on academic texts; Ignoring the importance of developing recreational reading; Losing sight of authentic instruction (4MAT – Quadrant Two- WHAT: Deepen the learner’s reflection and understanding. Inform (2L): Deepen the learner’s understanding. Teach the conceptual information.) Kelly Gallagher, a high school English teacher, author and literacy advocate defines readicide as : Read-i-cide n: The systematic killing of the love of reading, often exacerbated by the inane, mind-numbing practices found in schools. His book indicates the drastic need to change how we do business in schools. Paraphase the forward of the book to the group: “Readicide: How schools are killing reading and what you can do about it” claims that reading is dying in our schools. Educators are familiar with many of the factors that have contributed to the decline—poverty, second-language issues, and the ever-expanding choices of electronic entertainment. Kelly Gallagher suggests that American schools are the reason that there is a decline of reading by students. Specifically, he contends that the standard instructional practices used in most schools are killing reading by: valuing the development of test-takers over the development of lifelong readers; mandating breadth over depth in instruction; requiring students to read difficult texts without proper instructional support; insisting that students focus solely on academic texts; drowning great books with sticky notes, double-entry journals, ignoring the importance of developing recreational reading; and losing sight of authentic instruction in the shadow of political pressures.   Do you agree with the author? Gallagher, Kelly. Readicide:The killing of reading and what we can do about it . NY: Stenhouse Publishers, Print.

4 COMMON VOCABULARY Text: Anything students are asked to read, including articles, internet sites, books, magazines, journals, etc. Authentic reading and writing: the reading and writing connected to a particular discipline and the real world Disciplinary Literacy: the focus on the types of reading, writing, thinking, speaking and listening in various disciplines. Common Core State Standards (CCSS): national standards adopted by WI on June 2, 2010. (4MAT – Quadrant Two- WHAT: Deepen the learner’s reflection and understanding. Inform (2L): Deepen the learner’s understanding. Teach the conceptual information.) Here are some terms that you will encounter today, and it’s important that we are all on the same page. Text refers to. . . (read slide)

5 the ELA CCSS standards ELA 6-12 grade CCSS are specifically written for literacy in history/social studies, science and TECHNICAL SUBJECTS (p. 62 & 64) They indicate key READING, WRITING, Speaking/Listening & Language skills Read through the CCSS reading standards. Discussion: What’s the emphasis? (4MAT – Quadrant Two- WHAT: Deepen the learner’s reflection and understanding. Inform (2L): Deepen the learner’s understanding. Teach the conceptual information.) For the first time ever, the Common Core State Standards identify the specific literacy skills that should be a part of our disciplines. It forces us to examine what it really means to “teach reading.” Most people think that teaching reading includes helping students decode words and study phonics. That is not what we are talking about with disciplinary literacy. Our task, as experts in our fields, is to expose students to the authentic literacy activities of the discipline and teach them how to interact with those texts. Literacy looks differently in Family and Child Development classes than it might in American History or in AgricScience. We have always taken it for granted that by high school, students should be able to read what we give them, but research now tells us otherwise. The standards make it clear: We have to teach—not assign—literacy within every classroom, every day. Let’s look at the College and Career Readiness and Literacy Standards for Reading again and identify the key skills required to meet the standards. Together let’s list out the SPECIFIC skills… (flip charts or Smart Board required).

6 CCSS Publisher Criteria/ Priority Areas
Highlight the elements in the reading that are part of your current practice. I. Text Selection and Complexity II. Questions and Tasks III. Academic (and Domain- Specific) Vocabulary IV. Writing to Sources and Research (4MAT – Quadrant Two- WHAT: Deepen the learner’s reflection and understanding. Inform (2L): Deepen the learner’s understanding. Teach the conceptual information.) You’ve had a chance to study the disciplinary literacy standards of the CCSS; of those standards, the “ELA Publisher’s Criteria” document identifies priority areas for us to include in our curricula, including text selection, questions and tasks, academic vocabulary and writing to sources and research. Highlight the elements in the reading that are part of your current practice. What Ah-Ha’s do you have? Share with the person behind you. Today is designed to provide some instructional strategies that allow you to incorporate these priority areas into your current practice. Let’s dig into this document and explore exactly what they mean. See handout, “ELA Publisher’s Criteria”

7 Begin with the Text Teach “THE REAL THING”
Select AUTHENTIC TEXTS used in your field Authentic Texts increase students' motivation for learning, and expose them to 'real' language and problems in the field of study. Make a list of authentic texts used in your discipline. (4MAT – Quadrant Three - How: Learners actively practice, make choices, explore, manipulate, and experiment Practice (3L): Practicing what is learned, Trying out something new, and manipulate materials How do you get our students to read, write and think like the experts in our respective fields? This relates largely to the kind of texts we ask students to read in our classes. Are they reading the real thing—authentic texts that are commonplace in our discipline? Here are some samples that we’ve collected that aren’t necessarily traditional “school reading,” but they are discipline-specific. (Show various texts on document camera). Find a partner or join a small group of teachers in your discipline, brainstorm a list of text types that are commonly used by practitioners in your field. (Have participants write on sticky notes the text examples and add to a larger group list). Authentic materials is significant since it increases students' motivation for learning, makes the learner be exposed to the 'real' language as discussed by Guariento & Morley (2001, p. 347).  The main advantages of using authentic materials are that they They have a positive effect on learner motivation. They provide authentic cultural information. They provide exposure to real language. They relate more closely to learners ' needs. They support a more creative approach to teaching. (Philips and Shettlesworth 1978; Clarke 1989; Peacock 1997, cited in Richards, 2001):

8 Text Resources BadgerLink (www.badgerlink.net/) (Create Login)
NEED MORE TEXT SOURCES? TRY ONE OF THE FOLLOWING SITES… PICK 2 TO INVESTIGATE AND REPORT BACK TO GROUP. BadgerLink (www.badgerlink.net/) (Create Login) “Article of the Week” (www.kellygallagher.org) Time Magazine (http://www.time.com/time/) The Week Magazine (http://theweek.com/) The New Yorker (http://www.newyorker.com/) The New York Times (http://www.nytimes.com/) (4MAT – Quadrant Three - How: Learners actively practice, make choices, explore, manipulate, and experiment Practice (3L): Practicing what is learned, Trying out something new, and manipulate materials There are many places where you can find interesting articles for your students—short texts that are relevant and interesting for students. In addition to Badgerlink, we’ve listed several more—and you are probably familiar with others connected directly to your discipline. One of the reasons we asked that you bring your laptops today is so you could explore these sites and perhaps find others, that are relevant resources for text in your classes. (Give them time to play)

9 It’s More Than Reading—it’s Thinking!
You can find a list of Kelly Gallagher’s “Articles of the Week” at There are many articles relevant to multiple disciplines. We will use several today to practice classroom strategies. (4MAT – Quadrant Three - How: Learners actively practice, make choices, explore, manipulate, and experiment Practice (3L): Practicing what is learned, Trying out something new, and manipulate materials By now, I think it’s clear that it’s more than reading—it’s THINKING. The kind of thinking that is required by the new standards and assessment tools IS NOT VISIBLE, so we have to find ways for students to show us their thinking as they interact with text. This short video of national literacy expert and high school teacher Kelly Gallagher illustrates several important instructional practices that you can use in your classroom: First, he uses ONE text for the whole class, but in a way that supports all learners. Second, he asks students to show evidence of their thinking, and Third, he uses the text as a mentor text—an example of what students themselves will eventually create. This is not passive reading, where students read the text on their own and answer a few questions at the end. Students must be actively engaged with the reading and interacting with the text. Play video. Afterwards, pose the question, “What did you notice?”

10 Get Students Thinking Students must INTERACT with the text, not just passively read and answer questions Are QUESTIONS you ask fact based/simple recall, or do they advance up “Revised” Bloom’s Taxonomy to get students thinking at higher levels? (See Revised Blooms HO) Are your student tasks useful, authentic, and rigorous? Are they tasks experts in your field do on a regular basis? (4MAT – Quadrant Three - How: Learners actively practice, make choices, explore, manipulate, and experiment Practice (3L): Practicing what is learned, Trying out something new, and manipulate materials Bloom’s Taxonomy plays an important part of the Common Core State Standards. The “Revised” Bloom’s Taxonomy follows on the next slide. A good web link for Revised Bloom resources is The CCSS authors and assessment creators make it very clear that students are expected to think critically, cite evidence, evaluate and complete performance tasks that combine several standards in one. It is important to think about the questions we ask, the questions we want our students to ask, and the tasks we ask them to complete. Handout the “Revised Bloom Question. Project” reference sheet. We are moving into a time where fill-in-the-blank worksheets and fact-based questions at the end of the chapter are tasks of the past, with homework, assessments and grading moving to the forefront. Standards-based grading and standards-based IEP’s are being discussed in schools throughout the state. Are those conversations happening at your school? (Facilitate a brief group discussion).

11 Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy
(4MAT – Quadrant Three - How: Learners actively practice, make choices, explore, manipulate, and experiment Practice (3L): Practicing what is learned, Trying out something new, and manipulate materials The graphic of the “revised bloom’s taxonomy” is helpful for some learners. The one clear change is that the ORIGINAL DOMAINS were NOUNs and the NEW DOMAINs are VERBS.

12 Supporting Struggling Readers
Teach one text with support (Model) Most textbooks are written at least 2 grade levels above where they are taught. Offer choices of text that relate to the same topic Text Selection is extremely important. Differing the levels of the text honors ALL learners. Select high, medium, and low-leveled reading material. The Lexile framework is a common leveling formula to guide teachers with text selection. (Flesch-Kincaid grade level formula may also be used for an informal tool.) Tell your neighbor something you are good at doing… How did you improve your skills? (4MAT – Quadrant Three - How: Learners actively practice, make choices, explore, manipulate, and experiment Practice (3L): Practicing what is learned, Trying out something new, and manipulate materials Ask participants to describe a skill that they are good at. It doesn’t matter what it is…make the point…How did you improve your skills and get better in your interest area – ANSWER = PRACTICE. The CCSS hold ALL students accountable for the kind of thinking they expect, and the testing preview makes it a point to address what they call struggling or “novice” readers. To put it simply, the only way for a struggling reader to get better is for them to READ. Much like a 3-point shot in basketball, readers need practice. Anytime that you can put text in front of them that they can read independently, that’s important practice for them to get better. An easy way to accomplish this is to select three texts of varying difficulty for students to choose from—a high, a medium, and a low reading level—all related to the same topic.

13 What is a Lexile? Measurement of text difficulty
Primarily based on word syllables & sentence length, Lexiles are assigned numbers to text than can be compared to grade level expectations Students are expected to be at 1200L when they graduate (4MAT – Quadrant Three - How: Learners actively practice, make choices, explore, manipulate, and experiment Practice (3L): Practicing what is learned, Trying out something new, and manipulate materials The Lexile Framework was developed by a company called Metametrics; it is a measurement of text difficulty that is quite popular. Many assessment tools include a Lexile reading range for each student—Scholastic Reading Inventory (SRI) and Measures of Academic Progress (MAP) are two of the most common. Teachers can use the Lexile number to help them match text to their students. It should be used as a guide—a starting point—as there are many other factors to consider when helping a child choose a book to read, but for classroom purposes, Lexiles are a great tool. Many of the resources in Badgerlink have a lexile referenced to them and you can search for materials using just the lexile.

14 Grade Level Equivalents
(4MAT – Quadrant Three - How: Learners actively practice, make choices, explore, manipulate, and experiment Practice (3L): Practicing what is learned, Trying out something new, and manipulate materials This chart is taken directly from the Common Core State Standards, and it lists grade level ranges and the corresponding Lexile levels. It is interesting to notice that the Lexile Framework has been adjusted to accommodate the increased expectations of the CCSS. You can see that Lexile ranges have increased for each grade band. Determine the Lexile range of one of the texts used in your classroom. When choosing text for your classroom, use varying Lexile levels to honor all students reading abilities. Selecting several pieces of text to teach one topic is called building a TEXT SET, which is a term that is very common in for reading specialists and literacy coaches, but it is likely a new term for you. Use the higher Lexile ranges for alignment with the CCSS.

15 Harvard’s “Self Help Guide”
Skim through the Harvard document to learn about these six reading habits. Now compare these habits with those of YOUR students. “Interrogating Texts: 6 Reading Habits to Develop in Your First Year at Harvard”: Previewing Annotating Outline, Analyze, Summarize Look for repetitions and patterns Contextualize Compare & Contrast (4MAT – Quadrant Three - How: Learners actively practice, make choices, explore, manipulate, and experiment Practice (3L): Practicing what is learned, Trying out something new, and manipulate materials Using the Harvard paper, “Interrogating Texts…” Now that we’ve explored many ways to find text, we’re going to get into some strategies of how to USE text in your classroom to get your students thinking. It is essential that students INTERACT with text. The document “Interrogating Texts: 6 Reading Habits to Develop in Your First Year at Harvard,” is published by HARVARD University; it is sent to every incoming freshman to help them handle the high expectations and the reading load. It provides simple strategies that can pay off big for students. These include… (Read slide). We’re going to practice several of these today. First—take out the Harvard handout and skim through to get the gyst of each of the habits. Then lay the standards next to the Harvard handout. How do they compare?

16 Comprehension Processes for Proficient Readers
Doug Buehl, 2009 Classroom Strategies for Interactive Learning SEE PAGES 4-6 1. Making Connections to Prior Knowledge 2. Generating Questions 3. Creating Mental Images 4. Making Inferences 5. Determining Importance 6. Synthesizing 7. Monitoring Reading /Fix Up Strategies (4MAT – Quadrant Three - How: Learners actively practice, make choices, explore, manipulate, and experiment Practice (3L): Practicing what is learned, Trying out something new, and manipulate materials Using the reading strategies of Doug Buehl, retired teacher with Madison School District & adolescent literacy consultant, we will begin to practice a variety of reading strategies for the classroom. Read each strategy out loud…each strategy will be discussed and learners will decide which to use in their classrooms. Read beginning at page 4 in book “Comprehension Processes for Proficient Readers” stopping on page 6 “Constructing Meaning”. There are three principles that summarize reading as an interactive process between reader, text and context. Teachers who embody these practices are more likely to develop effective reading skills in their students: Students learn best when they have background knowledge on a topic Strategies that ask students to actively think about, apply what they learn, and interact with other increase motivation to learn Strategies that allow students to discover which ones work best for them and when to apply them will become more successful lifelong readers Citation: Buehl, Doug. Classroom Strategies for Interactive Learning. Newark, Delaware: International Reading Association, Print.

17 1. Making Connections to Prior Knowledge
Prompting students to activate what they already know about a topic, subject and text structures are called “frontloading” activities “Frontloading” activities are especially important for struggling readers to help them in understanding an author’s message. (Chapter 2, page 15) “Anticipation Guide” p.45 (4MAT – Quadrant Three- How: Engaging the learner in practice and application. Practice (3L): Skills and concepts that were taught are now practiced.) Discuss the importance of background knowledge and frontloading activities. See Doug Buehl’s packet on “Making Connections” or Book p.45 **Estimates are that any use of pre-reading strategies will increase reading comprehension over 20% .

18 Frontloading… “Cleaning Up the Trash in Space”
Page 45 (Anticipation Guide: “Frontloads”/Forecasts major ideas & activates thoughts) Read the following statements. Check each you agree with. Talk to a partner & discuss responses. Read article Determine how thinking has changed (4MAT – Quadrant Three - How: Learners actively practice, make choices, explore, manipulate, and experiment Practice (3L): Practicing what is learned, Trying out something new, and manipulate materials Let’s begin practicing to build background knowledge/connections by using the “Anticipation Guide” strategy. Handout article “Cleaning up the Trash in Space” Follow strategy steps on page 45 in Buehl book. How did “previewing” the concepts of the article help prepare you to read it? Did both you are your partner have the same questions or predictions? How is highlighting your confusion helpful? How often do your students say, “I don’t get it” about text? How might teaching them to highlight their specific confusion help them?

19 2. Generating Questions K-W-L (or K-W-H-L) p.107
Self questioning is an attribute of independent learners. Students need to be taught to pose good questions themselves rather than finding answers to questions others pose. Readers use questions to focus their attention on ideas and events, and then generate new questions. K-W-L (or K-W-H-L) p.107 (4MAT – Quadrant Three - How: Learners actively practice, make choices, explore, manipulate, and experiment Practice (3L): Practicing what is learned, Trying out something new, and manipulate materials Asking questions is the art of carrying on an inner conversation with an author, as well as an internal dialogue within one’s self. Applying the “Question Stems” is a good way to use Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy of thinking to the classroom. See slide 11 and the HO that went with it. Also use the “Text Frames” (Questions) to help look at the text from different points of view and write questions accordingly. (Book pages 23-24)

20 Generating Questions… “New Obesity Campaigns”
Page 107 (K-W-L helps activate prior knowledge, generate questions & organize what they learn) Use K-W-L chart – What do you know about the obesity campaigns? (If there’s no knowledge, preview text) What do you want to know? (Use Text Frames p to generate new types of questions) Read the article. (Using a highlighter, note the words, phrases, or portions of the article that you connect to or are confusing to you) Return back to K-W-L chart – Note true/false in K, Add to W Complete the last column – What did I learn (4MAT – Quadrant Three - How: Learners actively practice, make choices, explore, manipulate, and experiment Practice (3L): Practicing what is learned, Trying out something new, and manipulate materials Continue to practice to build background knowledge/connections by using the “K-W-L” strategy. Use article “New Obesity Campaigns Have It All Wrong” Follow strategy steps on page 107 in Buehl book. Discussion Questions for the group: How did discussion of prior knowledge help prepare you to read the article? Would it more beneficial to complete “What do you Know” and “What do you Want to Know” individually or as a group? How is highlighting your confusion helpful? How often do your students say, “I don’t get it” about text? How might teaching them to identify “What did I learn” increase their comprehension of the text?

21 3. Creating Mental Images
Proficient readers use visual, auditory and other sensory connections to bring the text to life. Teaching students to create mental images helps them visualize what is being suggested, connects the reading to background knowledge, assists in processing information, and enhances vocabulary. Mental Imaging is a form of inference. Mind Mapping p.118 (4MAT – Quadrant Three - How: Learners actively practice, make choices, explore, manipulate, and experiment Practice (3L): Practicing what is learned, Trying out something new, and manipulate materials Mind Maps are more compact than conventional notes, often taking up one side of paper. This helps you to make associations easily, and generate new ideas. If you find out more information after you have drawn a Mind Map, then you can easily integrate it with little disruption. More than this, Mind Mapping helps you break large projects or topics down into manageable chunks, so that you can plan effectively without getting overwhelmed and without forgetting something important. By using Mind Maps, you can quickly identify and understand the structure of a subject. You can see the way that pieces of information fit together, as well as recording the raw facts contained in normal notes.

22 Mind mapping – New Obesity Campaigns
Page 118 Continue using the article “New Obesity Campaigns Have It All Wrong” for mind mapping. A visual representation helps students connect “bits” of information to the larger picture. Label the center of the map. Identify the key facts/points of the author and place on the “Spider Map”. This is a helpful strategy with text that have several points of view or a variety of information. 4MAT – Quadrant Three - How: Learners actively practice, make choices, explore, manipulate, and experiment Practice (3L): Practicing what is learned, Trying out something new, and manipulate materials You can decide what you want students to mind map…big ideas, new vocabulary, points of view, key statements of a research article, data & facts, etc… Mind Maps are useful for: Brainstorming - individually, and as a group. Summarizing information, and note taking. Consolidating information from different research sources. Thinking through complex problems. Presenting information in a format that shows the overall structure of your subject. Studying and memorizing information. You can find different graphic organizers at and

23 4. Making Inferences Text Coding p.180
Inference is the heart of the comprehension process. When readers apply the skills of inference and prediction, they are able to reach a deeper meaning from their reading and have a greater appreciation of writing. Inference is just a big word that means a conclusion or judgment. You “Infer” that something will happen by making an educated guess. Text Coding p.180 4MAT – Quadrant Three - How: Learners actively practice, make choices, explore, manipulate, and experiment Practice (3L): Practicing what is learned, Trying out something new, and manipulate materials Definition of Inference: A conclusion reached by reasoning from data or premises; speculation; suggestion; or presumption. Inference is just a big word that means a conclusion or judgement. If you infer that something has happened, you do not see, hear, feel, smell, or taste the actual event. But from what you know, it makes sense to think that it has happened. 

24 Making Inferences – Trash in Space-
Page 180 Use “Cleaning up the Trash in Space” and annotate the article. Annotating is show evidence of your thinking by marking up the article—write questions, comments, A-ha’s on it. Model annotation and think out-loud Add text coding to indicate thinking: ?=question, !=New, X=Not expected *=Important, =Expected 4MAT – Quadrant Three - How: Learners actively practice, make choices, explore, manipulate, and experiment Practice (3L): Practicing what is learned, Trying out something new, and manipulate materials The goal of an annotated text is to facilitate reading and comprehension. The following is a list of some techniques that you can use to annotate text: Underline important terms. Circle definitions and meanings. Write key words and definitions in the margin. Signal where important information can be found with key words or symbols in the margin. Write short summaries in the margin at the end of sub-units. Write the questions in the margin next to the section where the answer is found. Indicate steps in a process by using numbers in the margin. The website has a good reference on annotation and text coding. Text coding is adding a symbol to indicate thinking. These can be used later in writing about the article or orally summarizing.

25 Annotations 4MAT – Quadrant Three - How: Learners actively practice, make choices, explore, manipulate, and experiment Practice (3L): Practicing what is learned, Trying out something new, and manipulate materials Text annotation is the practice and the result of adding a note to a text, which may include highlights or underlining, comments, footnotes, tags, and links. Text annotations can include notes written for a reader's private purposes, as well as shared annotations written for the purposes of collaborative writing and editing, commentary, or social reading and sharing. Chances are, your text looked something like this. Imagine that THIS would be your students’ homework—their task simply to show you evidence of their thinking.

26 5. Determining Importance
Determining importance is especially critical when reading informational or nonfiction materials. Proficient readers striver to differentiate key ideas, themes and information from details so that they are not overwhelmed by facts. Use a “Time Out” to think/save new ideas Paired Reviews - 3 Minute Pause p. 121 4MAT – Quadrant Three - How: Learners actively practice, make choices, explore, manipulate, and experiment Practice (3L): Practicing what is learned, Trying out something new, and manipulate materials Students realize that learning does not happen all in one step, but that they need to visit new material several times as they continue to explore it. Merely hearing, viewing or reading is not enough. They have to pause to think about what they are experienceing.

27 Determine Importance – new obesity Campaigns
Page 121 3-Minute Pause: Create analogy related to “storing new knowledge” (Sport event, Time out, Computer back up,…) Partner A – Summarize text, identify important points, generate questions, state something interesting, tell what you learned,… Teacher or students can identify discussion topics. Partner B comments Roles reverse 4MAT – Quadrant Three - How: Learners actively practice, make choices, explore, manipulate, and experiment Practice (3L): Practicing what is learned, Trying out something new, and manipulate materials Students are encouraged by classmates to help construct personal meaning from important content, as well as to clarify and remember new information using the 3-Minute Pause. Continued practice in reducing what they are learning to meaningful summaries, which emphasis key ideas is critical to determining importance.

28 6. Synthesizing Understanding
Synthesizing allows a student to make a generalization, create an interpretation, draw a conclusion & develop an explanation. A necessary step to summarizing is asking students to PERSONALIZE THE INFO - retell, restate and /or paraphrase “in their own words” using both speaking and writing. Quick Writes p.141 4MAT – Quadrant Three - How: Learners actively practice, make choices, explore, manipulate, and experiment Practice (3L): Practicing what is learned, Trying out something new, and manipulate materials Instructional activities that engage students in summarizing what they read into personal understandings are necessary if learners are to reduce a mass of material into a manageable amount that they can remember and/or use. Synthesis is the “aha” moment which allows readers to develop their own interpretation of the author's message. Synthesis means combining a number of different parts or ideas to come up with a new idea or theory. (noun)An example of synthesis is when you read several books and use all of the information to come up with a thesis on the subject. (An idea that you can defend.)

29 Synthesizing – New Obesity Campaign
Page 141 Quick writes allow students an allocated period of time to quickly gather their thoughts and do informal writing (that is not polished or edited). Writing is timed and usually lasts about one minute. Prompts are provided by the teacher and are essential to the process, as they jumpstart thinking and provide focus. Prompts can be open ended or specific. Requests to respond to quotes, verses and vocabulary can be introduced in the quick write. 4MAT – Quadrant Three - How: Learners actively practice, make choices, explore, manipulate, and experiment Practice (3L): Practicing what is learned, Trying out something new, and manipulate materials Essential to comprehension is synthesizing…it involves processing a message so that it has personal meaning. Students need ongoing practice in reformulating what they learn in to their own world. Quick writes allow students to allocate a period of time to quickly gather their thoughts and do informal writing (that is not polished or edited). Writing is timed and usually lasts about one minute. P

30 Strategies from the CCSS Authors
Split grade-level reading passages into smaller, meaningful chunks Reduce the total number of passages read and/or the length of the passages. Locate “hint boxes” near items that remind students of definitions or appropriate/useful strategies (e.g., “go back and re-read this section before you answer”). Reduce language load/simplify language in the question stems. Substitute more familiar words in question stems and distracters if that is not the vocabulary /construct being assessed. Here are some strategies that the assessment consortium list as potential ways to support struggling learners within the new test itself. You also have a handout of this as the text is pretty small on this slide. It very clear that the expectations for struggling readers are the same—higher level thinking is the focus—but this list suggests supports to help students get there. If these strategies will be used on the test, then they have a place in everyone’s classroom.

31 Strategies from the CCSS Authors
Provide consistent icons and phrasing of question stems throughout the test. Use bulleted lists and increased white space in place of longer dense texts. Color coding to help students to organize information. Provide sub-questions to break up multi-step tasks. Place inferential and analysis questions after literal questions have been asked. Provide graphic organizers to help students organize information before answering more complex questions

32 ACTE Resources & Others
ACTE Videos, power points and handouts on CTE and Literacy with Linda Moyer: teracy How Do You Expect Me to Teach Reading & Writing? /literacy/handbook.pdf. CTE’s Role in Adolescent Literacy s/Literacy_Issue_Brief.pdf


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