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1 The Digital Divide: Historical Perspective Kim Zaletta Deborah Higgins Matthew Chew February 18, 2007 Presentation for UVM Course EDFS200 February 2007.

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Presentation on theme: "1 The Digital Divide: Historical Perspective Kim Zaletta Deborah Higgins Matthew Chew February 18, 2007 Presentation for UVM Course EDFS200 February 2007."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 The Digital Divide: Historical Perspective Kim Zaletta Deborah Higgins Matthew Chew February 18, 2007 Presentation for UVM Course EDFS200 February 2007

2 2 Topic: Legacy of Plessy Given Lenski's Assertion, "IT Literacy Increases Cultural Capacity" Presentation for UVM Course EDFS200 February 2007 To make the interactive parts work, this presentation must be run as a slide show. Press F5, or click “View - Slide Show” or “Slide Show – View”.

3 3 Investigating the Digital Divide Impact of IT on Schooling Government and the "Digital Divide" Access to Information Technology IT Literacy Increases Cultural Capacity Click on a Topic to go to that slide Aspects of the Digital Divide Conclusions

4 4 Aspects of the “Digital Divide”? Back to Choices Digital Divide refers to the gap between those who can make use of information technology and those who have obstacles Some causes of the Digital Divide IT literacy Access to information technology Government policy (Plessy). Johnson (2002), pg. 147 IT literacy increases cultural capacity. Lenski (2005), pg. 67. Digital Divide also affects public schools The above topics are discussed in this presentation Other causes of the Digital Divide are from our readings, but not further discussed here  Technological Aptitude  Access to Technology  Racial advantages or disadvantages  Economic advantages or disadvantages Digital Divide

5 5 IT Literacy Increases Cultural Capacity Back to Choices Information Technology (IT) literacy is familiarity with: Hardware (our focus is on using computers) Software (our focus is internet and databases) Cultural Capacity includes success in … Performance in and Graduation from School Career opportunities Personal growth and networking Keeping current and satisfying personal interests Technology is used to satisfy human needs and desires. (Click to see proof text, Lenski, (2005), page 63)(Click to see proof text, Lenski, (2005), page 63) IT Literacy

6 6 IT Literacy Increases Cultural Capacity - continued Back to Choices Encouraging expansion of technology Rural businesses need technology to compete in global and urban markets Businesses and education will fail without technology Using technology for research -questionable sources IT Literacy

7 7 IT Literacy Increases Cultural Capacity - continued Back to Choices Some Consequences of Technological Advance Click to see proof text, Lenski (2005), page 67) Technological Advance Population growth Increased contact with other societies More positive attitude toward change = Feedback IT Literacy

8 8 IT Literacy Increases Cultural Capacity - continued Back to Choices IT Literacy: improves productivity, leisure options, and our remaining informed provides access to benefits of technology The Digital Divide separates those with and without IT literacy can use society to close the digital divide Computers help us do more. IT Literacy

9 9 What experts say... Back to Choices Lenski – Technology meets human desires and needs (pp.63) Change occurs in most stable societies (pp. 71) Technology plays an important role in society’s advances (pg. 72) Johnson – Education promotes communication and accuracy in business (pg. 75) Tannenbaum – “Educators and other interested citizens need to convince our governments of the importance and value of providing both training and education to help eliminate inequality.” (para. 30) “The Web offers the potential to reach countless people who otherwise are effectively cut off from higher education and other sources of training.” (para. 28) Click here for citation of Johnson sourceClick here for citation of Johnson source Click here for citation of Tannenbaum sourceClick here for citation of Tannenbaum source IT Literacy

10 10 Impact of IT on Schooling. Back to Choices Studies show that computers at home can assist youth in reaching the goal of high school graduation. “Click for citation of “Study: Digital Divide affects school success”, Kozol (1995) Impact on Schooling

11 11 Socialization of Student – Teacher Relationship Back to Choices. Students are empowered as they rate professors (para. 14) Students want to learn something important from their teacher (para. 31) Impact of IT on Schooling - continued Dilemmas on student-teacher relationship is easier on students – Time demand and stress from face to face meetings removed but creates higher volume of work for teacher (para. 10) Literature Search is a Google search away (para. 30) no longer waiting in line at library or publication access (para. 3) easy to copy text verbatim and uncited (para. 14) much of the available material is questionable (para. 14) Click here for citation of Crawford source Impact on Schooling

12 12 Issues of Access to Information Technology- Habits and Traditions Back to Choices Current differences emerging from habits of social traditions and policies Not all traditions are worth preserving Not all policies rectify inequalities Generally accepted policies and habits contributing to lasting social conditions Plessy gives a reminder of "separate but equal" institutional conditions In spite of the law providing for citizen's to have rights to education, the social condition refusing to provide this to black citizens was supported by the law's interpretation that these were not citizens, and therefore did not have the right to this law's being enforced on their behalf. (pg. 146) When this was acknowledged, the law school for Negroes, to open in 1947, was given only 4 faculty whose offices were located at the Univ. of Texas law school, limited lirbrary inventory with no full time librarian, and the school lacked acredidiation. (pg. 148) Access to IT

13 13 Social Divisions and Intelligence Back to Choices Gordon states, "A society is organized to serve the needs of its members," (pg. 22) People of privilege structure the social order to protect themselves while presenting it as serving the good of the community (pg. 22) Social divisions posed by authors reviewed by Gordon demonstrate their desire to “deliver a political message” (pg. 27) No evidence exists that shows genetic differences reduce intelligence Click here for citation of Gordon source Access to IT

14 14 Social Divisions and Intelligence...continued Gordon reviewing Herrnstein and Murray’s book The Bell Curve: – finds many of the book’s issues troubling, questions how Herrnstein and Murray can then use this distinction to classify individuals into groups and thus determine their intelligence “…I am unable to embrace the notion that ethnicity and race are appropriate indicators of group membership for purposes of studying intelligence,” (p.37). – Gordon states “Individual variability in expression means that heredity is outcomes,” (p. 30) – Blacks do not score as well on standardized tests as Whites do…low IQ is associated with low socioeconomic status, low educational achievement, low occupational status, low income, low-level family functioning, high crime and welfare dependency, and low levels of civility and citizenship,” (p. 24) Click here for citation of Gordon source Access to IT

15 15 Kozol on Access Back to Choices Statistics for Motts Haven, Bronx are shocking (p.373): Population 100% minority - 2/3 Hispanic, 1/3 Black 7 out of 800 students do NOT qualify for free lunch Depression and asthma common, many cannot sleep Basic needs are not met 91% of babies born with AIDS are Black or Hispanic. Technology last thing on minds of residents - fight to survive Neighborhoods -deadliest blocks in deadliest precinct of city Division of races between 96th Street and 97th Street -below 96th Street and the impoverished above it and “No one in New York, in any case expects the racial isolation of these neighborhoods to lessen in the years ahead (p.375) Click here for citation of Kozol source Access to IT

16 16 Garcia on Access Back to Choices Urban versus Rural Issues Garcia states "information and communication alone cannot sustain development" (pg. 117). The challenge of the rural based business is to design technology based networks to meet their needs (pg. 118).  “…networks can be specifically designed to reinforce local strengths while compensating for local weaknesses,” (p. 118). Mass media made more apparent the division between the rural and urban markets (pg. 125). Utilizing the self-dependent, networking strengths of the rural business field, sharing of information can assist the rural business in "reducing the time involved in product development and lead to higher quality products". (pg. 126) Society replaces the use of humans in creating goods with computers and machines, where humans are still needed, these jobs are exported for inexpensive labor (pg. 137) Click here for citation of Garcia source Access to IT

17 17 Government and the “Digital Divide” Back to Choices Necessity of Government Policy and Involvement Required to reduce "Digital Divide" in Schools Required to reduce differences Rural Versus Urban How Government Policy Affects Schools Attempt toward equality Avoid racial inequality (Click to see proof text, Johnson (2002), page 147) Role of Government

18 18 Government and the “Digital Divide” - continued Effecting Change Ideals represented through development of public schooling Not all members of community will agree on nature of problems Not all members of community will agree on means to improve conditions Role of Government Back to Choices

19 19 Government and the “Digital Divide” - continued Back to Choices Dilbert’s comments on the wrong type of policy makers. Modern technology is complicated The wrong policy can quickly cause lots of little problems Policy makers have to be responsive and knowledgeable The rote management approach will not work here Role of Government

20 20 In Conclusion IT literacy improves the quality of life and unifies through education IT educational opportunities are not made available equally Society has a responsibility to its citizens to meet its needs Government, state and local agencies have disparate methods on a standardized method to meet the needs of those they govern Conclusions Back to Choices

21 21 Proof Text Back to Choices Proof text references give the summary text (bullet text) and its supporting proof text, with abbreviated reference by name of author and date of publication. The “Sources” slide gives the full citation for the abbreviated reference. Click here for full citations (Sources slides) Slide Title: IT Literacy Increases Cultural Capacity (Slide 5) ”Technology is information about the ways in which resources of the environment may be used to satisfy human needs and desires.” Lenski (2005), pg. 63.IT Literacy Increases Cultural Capacity Slide Title: IT Literacy Increases Cultural Capacity - continued (Slide 7) Figure caption: “Some components of technological advances”, Lenski (2005), pg. 67.IT Literacy Increases Cultural Capacity - continued Slide Title: Government and the "Digital Divide“ - continued (Slide 17) “…common government of all shall not permit the seeds of race hate to be planted under the santion of law.” Johnson (2002), pg Government and the "Digital Divide“ - continued Proof Text

22 22 Source Materials Back to Choices Crawford, M. (2005). “The Computerized Academy”, The New Atlantis, 9 (pp ). Garcia, D. L. (2005). "Cooperative Networks and the Rural-Urban Divide". In Digital Formations: IT and New Architecture in the Global Realm (pp ). Gordon, E. W. (1999). “Human Social Divisions and Human Intelligence: Putting Them in Their Place”. In Education and justice: A View from the Back of the Bus” (pp ). New York, NY: Teachers College Press. Johnson, T. W. (2002). "Plessy & Beyond: Separate but Equal Doctrine". In Historical Documents in Education (pp ). Boston: Allyn & Bacon. Jones-Kavalier, B. and Flannigan, S. (2006). Connecting the Digital Dots: Literacy of the 21st Century. Educause Quarterly 29(2), (pg. 2). Sources

23 23 Source Materials (Cont’d) Kozol, J. (1995). Amazing grace: The Lives of children and the conscience of a nation. [excerpt] Crown Publishers. Lenski, G. (2005). “Determinants of the Characteristics of Individual Societies: The Independent Variables”. In Ecological- Evolultionary Theory: Principles and Applications (pp ). Study:'Digital Divide' affects school success. (December 12, 2005) Retrieved February 5, 2007 from Tannenbaum, R. S. (2006). “Education or Training: Reflections of a Life in Computing.” Educause Review 34(1) (pp ). Back to Choices Sources


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