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SOCIAL WEB MEDIA Digital Divide(s) and Barriers to Participation Al Larsen 4/16/09 includes slides from Preconditions for Participation presentation by.

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Presentation on theme: "SOCIAL WEB MEDIA Digital Divide(s) and Barriers to Participation Al Larsen 4/16/09 includes slides from Preconditions for Participation presentation by."— Presentation transcript:

1 SOCIAL WEB MEDIA Digital Divide(s) and Barriers to Participation Al Larsen 4/16/09 includes slides from Preconditions for Participation presentation by Trebor Scholz

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3 The Digital Divide

4 divisions

5 Networked Society Online Public Sphere

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7 Aspects of Participation in the Social Web time relaxation social capital emotional support access to information software architecture translation intellectual property identification friendship group belonging individual vs. network value format of contributions signal-to-noise ratio embodied and networked sociality job reciprocity mobile computing permanency and privacy of content low threshold engagement gender transparency of rules and power dynamics challenge I give because I am great (agonistic giving) feedback trust sharing the experience of ones time & place scale archiving memory pleasure of creation hormones tone, passion, humor, personality type of content contributing to the greater good Trebor Scholz 2007

8 Preconditions for participation within the US (and beyond) include: access to technology, Internet access, ability to read, write, author in a digital environment (i.e. knowing how to use a wiki), remembering the URL of a website, bandwidth, cost of equipment, the ease of use of the technological infrastructure, time management, and vast issues of age, race, gender

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10 Participation in the Social Web is yet another thing to do for already busy people. It takes time to consider the issues, to figure out the software, and author a contribution. In addition, it takes time to go through a large number of posts from high- participation mailing lists, for example. Worldwide, for the people who have the time and who are highly motivated there still exists the problem that most sociable media environments online are predominantly in English and the basic rules of most systems (i.e., having to register in order to participate.)

11 For non-native speakers it is hard to retain subtleties such as ironic connotations of certain expressions. Flaws in translated texts may also make the author appear less educated, which prevents some people from contributing. Apart from time and language concerns, the politics of the software architecture is an equally crucial parameter of participation. Just like moving around in a physical building, the software code regulates the behavior in an online environment.

12 What kind of access? What are the barriers to participation?

13 using the internet consistent access to broadband cell phone use

14 Degrees of Access (May 2008) Pew Internet Project

15 US Adults

16 - 73% go online

17 US Adults - 73% go online 55% have broadband at home

18 US Adults - 73% go online 55% have broadband at home 78% have a cell phone

19 US Adults - 27% don't go online

20 US Adults - 27% don't go online 45% don't have broadband at home

21 US Adults - 27% don't go online 45% don't have broadband at home 22% don't have a cell phone

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23 Income

24 Language Barriers

25 National

26 Urban/Rural

27 Age

28 Disabilities

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30 Income

31 Income and Broadband yearly income and having broadband at home 2005 13% less than $20,000 year 62% over $100,000 year

32 Income and Broadband yearly income and having broadband at home 2005 13% less than $20,000 year 62% over $100,000 year 2008 25% less than $20,000 year 85% over $100,000 year

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34 Language Barriers

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37 use DBI; my $dbh = DBI->connect('DBI:Oracle:payroll') or die "Couldn't connect to database: ". DBI->errstr; my $sth = $dbh->prepare('SELECT * FROM people WHERE lastname = ?') or die "Couldn't prepare statement: ". $dbh->errstr; print "Enter name> "; while ($lastname = <>) { # Read input from the user my @data; chomp $lastname; $sth->execute($lastname) # Execute the query or die "Couldn't execute statement: ". $sth->errstr; # Read the matching records and print them out while (@data = $sth->fetchrow_array()) { my $firstname = $data[1]; my $id = $data[2]; print "\t$id: $firstname $lastname\n"; } if ($sth->rows == 0) { print "No names matched `$lastname'.\n\n"; } $sth->finish; print "\n"; print "Enter name> "; } $dbh->disconnect;

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40 National

41 social political economic

42 United States 208,000,000 Internet users in 2006 http://tinyurl.com/34tgja

43 Countries where Internet access is available to the majority of the population

44 http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/technology/7063682.stm

45 A list of 13 "enemies of the Internet" has been released by human rights group Reporters Without Borders (RSF). Belarus, Burma, China, Cuba, Egypt, Iran, North Korea, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Tunisia, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Vietnam http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/technology/6124420.stm

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48 According to OpenNet Initiative [...] there are about 30 countries in which government filters Web sites with political content, conflict/security content and Internet tools such as e-mail and translation. Nearly 50 countries filter social content. - WIA World Information Access – University of Washington http://www.wiareport.org/index.php/56 /blogger-arrests

49 World Information Access – University of Washington http://www.wiareport.org/index.php/56/blogger-arrests

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52 Distribution of the Users of Social Networking Sites

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54 http://tinyurl.com/32r66t

55 The Digital Divide Is Not What It Used To Be The growth of cell phone use in Africa is indeed explosive: the lack of an extensive landline telephony infrastructure makes mobile phones a good alternative. But consider this: In 2006, the Washington Post published an article showing that "worldwide, there are more than 2.4 billion cell phone users... and [a]bout 59 percent of these users are in developing countries, making cell phones the first telecommunications technology in history to have more users there than in the developed world." [1] Cell phone usage in Africa, the article continued, is growing faster than in any other region and jumped from 63 million users two years ago to about 152 million. This is not some kind of mobile business evangelism: life in Africa is changed drastically for those with access.

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57 Internet and India 100 millon people in India most people get access through Internet cafes many people access the net first on a cell phone, not a PC most investment goes into telecom development even small villages have cell phone signal http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_Censorship_in_India Censorship

58 70% of under 23 Iranians send over 10 SMSes daily Tehran, Feb 28, 2007 Taliya News – 78% of those that send more than ten SMSes per day are singles, and in other words the singles use this service more than married people in Iran. According to ILNA, based on the findings of a research work conducted by a graduate student, the majority of SMS senders are the university students and they mainly do so to have fun, including sending jokes and messages related to other recreational activities. This journalism major graduate student has surveyed the method of taking advantage of SMS as a communicational means among 435 university student and come up with interesting results. Among them, more than 70% of Iranians under 23 send more than ten SMSes daily. Meanwhile, the unemployed individuals send more SMSes than the employed people. According to the research results, jokes, making appointments, expressing feelings, information dissemination, inquiring about friends and relatives' health, sending congratulation and consolation massages, notes related to work and academic affairs, and finally, ads, are the highest tanking SMSes sent by Iranians respectively.

59 Africa is in the grip of a mobile phone revolution. "The number of mobile phone lines in Africa rose from 15.6 to 135 million between 2000 and 2005" OhmyNews reported how women in South Africa fight for their human rights with cell phones. [2] This report continued: In a culture where people travel long distances to find work, the mobile has become the most useful and ubiquitous piece of technology since the bicycle. Just as bicycles are used in rural Africa to transport bananas or paying passengers, the mobile is changing lives in ways unimagined in the developed world. It links distant families and allows the poor to communicate. References: [1] http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp- dyn/content/article/2006/07/08/AR2006070801063.htmlhttp://www.washingtonpost.com/wp- dyn/content/article/2006/07/08/AR2006070801063.html [2] http://english.ohmynews.com/articleview/article_view.asp?no=339544&rel_no=1

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61 Urban/Rural

62 wiring the last mile

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64 Last mile... India

65 Last mile... Indiana

66 http://tinyurl.com/2rxta5 Minority youth and people in rural areas access the WWW in libraries

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68 Age

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70 OLPC Project http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UvpP3F arb2g

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