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REVIEW: Natural Selection Process of change in populations over many generations Individuals with certain traits survive local environmental conditions.

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Presentation on theme: "REVIEW: Natural Selection Process of change in populations over many generations Individuals with certain traits survive local environmental conditions."— Presentation transcript:

1 REVIEW: Natural Selection Process of change in populations over many generations Individuals with certain traits survive local environmental conditions Pass on favourable alleles to offspring Environment exerts ‘selective pressure’ Assumptions of Natural Selection Variation Competition Fitness Adaptation

2 Mechanisms of Evolution

3 Allele Frequencies When populations change in response to the environment or through predation, we see frequencies of alleles change, too. Eg. More dark coloured pepper moths, fewer tall animals in colder climates, more redheads when they selectively breed and begin to take over the world…

4 FACTORS THAT CHANGE ALLELE FREQUENCIES: 1.Mutation 2.Gene Flow (Migration) 3.Non-Random Mating 4.Genetic Drift 5.Natural Selection

5 1.Mutation Randomly introduces new alleles into pop’n. Changes allele frequencies Eg. Norway rats resistant to warfarin

6 2.Gene Flow (Migration) Occurs between 2 different interbreeding pop’ns with different allele frequencies May change allele frequencies in either or both populations Population A Population B

7 3.Non-random mating Individuals in a pop’n. select mates, often on the basis of their phenotypes Increases proportion of homozygous individuals in a pop’n., but does not change allele frequencies Eg. Caribou females prefer more dominant males

8 Non-Random Mating: Inbreeding When homozygous is more common - harmful recessive alleles more likely to be expressed Pure bred = higher incidence of deformities and health problems Eg. Shar-pei dogs’ wrinkles enhanced through inbreeding

9 4.Genetic drift Random change in genetic variation from generation to generation due to chance More common in smaller populations Changes frequency of alleles Ex. Flip coin 10 times instead of 1000

10 Genetic Drift:

11 The Bottleneck Effect Starvation, disease, natural disasters and severe weather can quickly reduce sizes of large pop’ns. Survivors likely have a fraction of the alleles that were present before the reduction Gene pool loses diversity Eg typhoon devastated tiny island of Pingelap (Pacific Ocean)

12 The Founder Effect Few individuals from a large population leave to establish a new population Eg. Amish (descendants of about 30 people from Switzerland in 1720)

13 5.Natural Selection Result of the environment selecting for individuals with certain traits that make them better suited to survive and reproduce Over many generations, frequency of alleles of many different genes may change, resulting in significant changes


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