3 Special thanks to:Kristy Lee Park, Chris Borgmeier, Kathleen Strickland-Cohen, &Rob Horner
4 Concern Basic Message: Any time you feel overwhelmed the answer is likely to include investing in the training of others.As schools adopt Tier 2 and Tier 3 supports, the behavior specialists in the district are often overwhelmed with requests to conduct functional behavioral assessments and building behavior support plans.
5 GoalsPropose an approach for making FBA/BSP a practical part of behavior support in all schools.Define how to teach typical school personnel to conduct “Practical FBAs and BSPs”Present documentation that basic FBAs are valid for use in building behavior support plans.Present preliminary data on the efficacy of a practical training of function-based interventionsPresent How Schools are Using these Practical Approaches
6 A primary goal of FBA is to…. guide the development of effective positive interventions based on the function of the behavior (e.g. tangible, escape, attention, automatic; Horner, 1994).
7 FBA is….an empirically supported practice that has been demonstrated to improve both the effectiveness & efficiency of behavioral interventions in schoolsBlair, Umbreit, & Bos, 1999; Carr et al., 1999; Ingram, Lewis-Palmer, & Sugai, 2005; Lee, Sugai, & Horner, 1999; Newcomer & Lewis, 2004.
11 Challenges schools face today are not finding what works, but implementing what works. Fixsen, Naoom, Blase, Friedman, & Wallace, 2005Since 1997 FBA has not been implemented widely in schools.Not due to lack of knowledge, but to practicality of use
12 District Behavior Support Specialist Train and coach PBIS at all three tiersSupport Teams building behavior support plans from Assessment informationTrain 1-2 people per school to conduct “basic”FBA & BSP
13 “Logical Flaws” of FBA use in public schools (Scott et al., 2005) FBA is used mainly as a reactionary approach.opportunity is lost to utilize FBA technology to develop interventions that address minor behaviors that usually precede more serious problems.FBA is restricted to set of procedures used by “experts”The rich supply of information from people with whom the student interacts with the most is lost.FBA is restricted to rigorous procedures that are unrealistic for public school settings.Disincentive for using FBA technology.Cynicism as to the practicality of FBA .
14 “Scaling Down to Scale up” Scott, Alter, & McQuillan (2010)In order for FBA to be applied in typical classrooms we need to simplify the practices associated with effective FBAIt is essential to use straightforward language, rationale, and examples of how FBA can be applied in the context of classroom
15 Proactive…Parsimonious…Practical FBA in schools Proactive parsimonious procedures required to create an effective behavior support plan.Given the time & resource constraints in schools, we must encourage schools to “work smarter” to develop capacity to implement technology to effectively support more students.Use Practical FBA procedures to develop capacity within a school to utilize FBA technology.
16 Practical FBA Logic Model Individualized Supports5% ofStudentsOverwhelmed Behavior SpecialistAKA: “Fire-fighter”Personnel with “flexible” roles conduct proactive Practical FBA to expand the scope of FBA, prevent intensive problem behaviors, & decrease reliance on specialist.Secondary Group Supports10-15% of StudentsSchool-wide Positive Behavioral Supports80% of Students
17 Current Issues and Needs in Your District… Do people already know how to do FBA in your schools?Can a district leader teach FBA procedures in a reasonable amount of time?Are the basic FBAs developed by school personnel valid for building behavior support plans?Do our school teams understand the CRITICAL FEATURES of function-based interventions ?Do we have materials that are practical and effective for use by district specialists?
18 Training Series4 training sessions on conducting functional behavioral assessments (FBA) for students with mild to moderate behavioral problems in schools.The training series teaches participants to conduct interviews and observations in such a way as to precisely determine the relationship between student problem behavior and the context:What the problem behaviors are.When, Where, & Why a student’s problem behaviors occur.A summary of this information will help an individual student team develop effective behavioral supports that:-prevent problem behaviors from occurring-teach alternative behaviors-& effectively respond when problem behaviors occur.
19 Practical FBA process D.A.S.H. Session #1Define behavior in observable & measurable termsAsk about behavior by interviewing staff & student-specify routines where & when behaviors occur-summarize where, when, & why behaviors occurSee the behavior-observe the behavior during routines specified-observe to verify summary from interviewsHypothesize: a final summary of where, when & why behaviors occurSession #2Session #3Session #4
20 Format of Practical FBA Training Sessions ObjectivesReviewActivitiesChecks for UnderstandingComments/QuestionsTasksKey Points
21 Practical FBA vs Comprehensive FBA Focus of this training seriesPractical FBA vs Comprehensive FBAPractical FBAComprehensive FBAFor:Students with mild to moderate problem behaviors (behaviors that are NOT dangerous or occurring in many settings)Students with moderate to severe behavioral problems; may be dangerous and/or occurring in many settingsWhat:Relatively simple and efficient process to guide behavior support planningTime-intensive process that also involves archival records review, family-centered planning, and collaboration with agencies outside of schoolConducted by whom:School-based personnel (e.g., teachers, counselors, administrators)Professionals trained to conduct functional assessments with students with severe problem behaviors (e.g., school psychologists, behavior specialists)
23 Session #1: Defining & Understanding Behavior Overview of the Practical FBA training series and introduces concepts, examples, and practice opportunities for participants to learn how to:(a) Define behavior (WHAT),(b) Identify events that predict WHEN & WHERE the specific behavior occurs(c) Identify the function of behavior (WHY), and(d) Construct functional behavioral summary statementsTASK: Find someone at their site whom they may conduct a practice interview with next week.
24 Always start with the Behavior 1- Once you have defined the behaviors (the What) 2- & know the Where & When the behaviors occur #2 (Routine & Antecedents) 3- Then want to find out WHY (the outCome of the behavior…what happens right afterwards)2Antecedent/Trigger:When _____ happens….1Behavior:the student does (what)__3Consequence/OutCome..because (why) ______
25 Rules for Defining Behavior Definitions of behaviors need to be:Observable: The behavior is an action that can be seen.Measurable: The behavior can be counted or timed.Defined so clearly that a person unfamiliar with the student could recognize the behavior without any doubts!
26 Functions that behaviors serve What is the pay-off of the problem behavior?
27 Create a Hypothesis Statement for Johnny’s Behavior After interviewing Mr. Smith and conducting several observations of Johnny in the third grade classroom, the team determined that during less structured class time (free time, cooperative group art projects, etc.), Johnny tears up his paper and stomps his feet. After Johnny engages in this behavior his peers laugh at him.Routine: During __(some routine e.g.: _______________Third grade classroomConsequence/OutCome:“Because..”Peers laugh at himTherefore, the function of the behavior is to: get/avoidPeer AttentionAntecedent/Trigger:“When ..”Behavior:“Student does..”Less structured class timeTears up paper & stomps feet
28 Session #2: Investigating Behavior Review content from the first sessionInstruction, modeling, and practice opportunities in conducting FACTS interviews with staff and students(modified from Borgmeier, 2005)Practice constructing behavioral summary statements from each interview.TASK: Complete a practice FACTS interview with a staff member at school site.
29 Hypothesis/Summary Statement 4 terms ofHypothesis/Summary StatementSetting Events/“Set ups”Antecedent/TriggerProblemBehaviorConsequence/OutcomeInfrequent events that affect value of outcomeFollowing events that maintain behaviors of concernPreceding events that triggerObservable behaviors of concern
31 Select #1 Ranked Answers to Insert into Summary Have Teacher Rate the Statement
32 Follow-upMake sure to ask follow-up questions in the right column of Antecedents & Consequences sectionANTECEDENT(s): Rank Order the strongest triggers/predictors of problem behavior in the routine above. Then ask corresponding follow-up question(s) to get a detailed understanding of triggers ranked #1 & 2.Environmental Features (Rank order strongest 2)Follow Up Questions – Get as Specific as possible1 X a. task too hard ___ g. large group instruction___ b. task too easy ___ h. small group work_X_ c. bored w/ task ___ i. unstructured time_X_ d. task too long ___ j. transitions___ e. physical demand 2_X k. independent work3_X f. correction/reprimand ___ l. with peers___ m. Other, describe _____________________________________________________________If a,b,c,d or e - describe task/demand in detail __writing sentences, paragraphs, letters, journals, etc. student cannot write because they don’t know how to read or spell fluently______________________If f - describe purpose of correction, voice tone, volume etc. _________________________________________________If g, h, I, j or k - describe setting/activity/content in detail ____Independent work involving writing or reading; works better in small groups if he doesn’t have to read or write_____________________________________________________________If l – what peers?
33 Session #3: Observing & Summarizing Behavior Review content from previous training sessions & practice interviews from week beforeInstruction & practice opportunities (using videos) for participants to conduct ABC observations of students within routines identified as settings in which the problem behavior occurs most frequently (based upon the staff FACTS interviews).Participants practice constructing summary statements based upon data from their observations to verify or modify summary statements derived from their FACTS interviews.TASK: Complete a practice ABC observation at school site.
34 Videos used in training available from Sopris West: Scott, T. M., Liaupsin, C., & Nelson, C. M. (2005). Team-based Functional Assessment and Intervention Planning: A Simplified Teaming Process. Longmont, CO: Sopris West.
37 Practical FBA ABC FAQHow many times should I observe the student in the routine?Observe until you are convinced (about 5 to10 occurrences of behavior OR 3 to 1 ratio verifying FACTS summary).You may have to go in on more than one day or period….but make sure you are going during identified routine.Need to be convinced your observation data are accurately representing situation
38 Session #4: Function-based Behavior Support Planning Review of concepts, skills from first three sessionsReview practice ABC observations & summarizing resultsProvide opportunities for participants to practice the skills that they have learned in conducting interviews, observations, and constructing behavioral summary statementsIntroduce the Competing Behavior Pathway and ideas for helping individual student support teams in designing function-based behavioral supports.
40 Neutralize/eliminatesettingeventsAdd relevant& removeirrelevanttriggersTeachalternativethat is moreefficientAdd effective && removeineffectivereinforcers
41 Summary of Behavior - Shane Setting EventAntecedentBehaviorConsequenceTeacher/Staff Interview Summary StatementAcademic Failure in previous class that dayDifficult tasks, any word problems & most math operationsWork refusal, doodling, not follow directives, yells at teacher, disruptiveAvoid math task, doodling, work refusal, sent to officeABC Observation Summary StatementNegative relationship w/ teacher???Teacher confrontationWork refusal, doodling, yells at teacher, disruptiveAvoid teacher confrontation, avoid math task, to officeFinal Summary of Behavior (move to Behavior Plan)Negative relationship w/ teacher & previous academic failureMath taskAvoid math task & teacher confrontation
42 Examination of Efficacy of Practical FBA To determine if staff with flexible roles in schools (e.g., counselors, administrators) can be trained to conduct FBA for students with mild to moderate behavior problems (i.e., students with recurring problems that do not involve physical aggression or violent behaviors).To determine the efficacy and acceptability of Practical FBA methods and tools with school personnel.
43 Methods: 3 Phases of the Study Phase 1- Practical FBA training on FBA tools & methods provided to 12 school professionals. -Pre- & Post-Tests of FBA knowledge Phase of the 12 Trained participants conducted an FBA according to procedures they were taught for one student within their school. -Using Practical FBA tools: interviewed, observed, and hypothesized summary of student behavior. Phase 3- Functional analyses conducted by researcher to test each participant’s hypothesis/summary statement -Experimental manipulations to determine the efficacy of the Practical FBA training .
44 Pre/Post Training FBA Knowledge Results: Phase 1Pre/Post Training FBA Knowledge39%N=1299% Inter-rater Total Agreement on 25% of tests.Overall Pretest M= 39.50% (SD=18.82%)Overall Posttest M= 92.55% (SD=7.22%)
46 Comparison of Summary Statements Generated from Interviews Results: Phase 3Comparison of Summary Statements Generated from Interviews9 out of 10 of the summary statements hypothesized by the FACTS interviews with teachers were verified by results of experimental functional analysis.The one FACTS summary statement that was not verified by FA actually resulted in further clarification from the direct observation.The school participant decided to use the results from the direct observation which resulted in a function that was verified by experimental functional analysis.
47 Participant 2 Hypothesis: Access Adult Attention All 10 of the FAs confirmed the Hypothesis Statements
48 Contributions of Study Use of Basic FBA v. Comprehensive FBAProactive, Parsimonious, PracticalSchool personnel can conduct “valid” FBAs for students with mild to moderate behavioral problems.Usefulness & acceptability of training/toolsUtility of FACTS interview tool, but implications of essential direct observation validationIdeas on how to organize personnel within a school/district to implement best practices
49 How has Practical FBA been used? Designed to be used by someone well-versed in FBA and behavioral principles (e.g., behavior specialist, school psychologist) to train school personnel.Springfield Public Schools trained instructional assistants, teachers, principals, vice principals, counselors, and specialists from elementary, middle, and high schools (over 40 in attendance).Rural Virginia K-8 School District (20 teachers and staff)
50 Different Formats Used Middle and High School Administrators and Counselors4 sessions, 1.5 hours, 2 weeks apartK-12 educators – general education teachers, special education teachers, title reading teachers, classified employees5 sessions, 2 hours, 2 weeks apartElementary teams – principals, counselors, school psychologists, special education teachers3 sessions, 1 half day followed by 2 sessions, 1. 5 hours, 1 week apart
51 District in Virginia 2011 – 2012 Plan for District-Wide Behavior Support Provide Practical FBA Training for all teachers within the districtFrom teacher self-nominations, provide coaching and feedback to complete function-based interventions
52 Practical FBA Training Day 1Part 1: Defining BehaviorsPart 2: AssessmentsPart 3: Summarizing Behavior Information
54 Beyond Training to Professional Development Teacher self nominationsFBA supportWalked through DASH assessment proceduresProvide feedback on data assessment1-3 hours of direct coaching
55 From Practical FBA to Practical Training on Function-based Interventions The most important purpose of conducting FBA is to inform the development of Behavior Support Plans that directly address the FUNCTION of student behavior
56 What the Research saysBSP’s in schools are not function-based, they are rarely related to the function of behavior identified in FBABlood & Neel, 2007; Etscheidt, 2006; Scott, et al., 2005; Van Acker, et al., 2005We need to continue to examine how we train school personnel and their ability to develop function-based interventions with fidelityBlood and Neil, 2007; Scott, & Kamps, 2007
57 Steps in Behavior Support Planning Step 1: Develop Competing Behavior PathwayStep 2: Develop Behavior Support PlanStep 3: Implementation PlanStep 4: Evaluation PlanStep 5: Follow-up Meetings to Review Progress
59 In One Hour Can We Train You to Identify Effective Behavioral Interventions for Challenging Students?Borgmeier & Loman,NWPBIS conferences in Oregon & Washington
60 Participants (n=361) NorthWest PBIS Conference Attendees Oregon (n=150 & n=51)Washington (n=46)Vancouver, British Columbia Training (n=22)School District in Washington (n=20)Portland State University Students (n=72)
62 Pre-Test/ Post-Test Design 1 hour training + 15 min for Pre & Post-test
63 Training format Identify function-based interventions for: Alternate BehaviorAntecedent-Behavior-Consequence InterventionsTraining SequenceProvide RationalePresent Critical Features of InterventionModel selection of Best intervention option w/ think-aloud applying critical featuresPractice w/ Partner & ReviewTest (Forms Counterbalanced between groups)
65 Behavior Support Planning Identify a range of interventions that address prevention (A), teaching (B) & consequences (C)You may not use them all, but it is good to identify multiple interventions options across A, B & C
66 Start w/ Summary of Behavior from FBA Targeted RoutineAntecedentMaintaining Consequence & FunctionProblem Behavior
67 FBA: Summary of Behavior Targeted RoutineMaintaining Consequence & FunctionAntecedentProblem BehaviorFUNCTIONFUNCTION is where student behavior intersects with the environmentFunction = LearningStudent learns…. When (A), if I (B), then (C)… Function = how I benefit so I keep doing B
68 Function Based Interventions When generating interventions we use Function to develop ideasto change A, B & CTargeted RoutineMaintaining Consequence & FunctionAntecedentProblem BehaviorFUNCTIONFunction should guide selection of alternative/ replacement behaviors
69 Develop the Competing Behavior Pathway Desired BehaviorNatural ConsequenceTargeted RoutineAntecedentMaintaining Consequence & FunctionProblem BehaviorAlternate BehaviorStart by identifying the Alternate Behavior … and then the Desired Behavior
70 Why the Alternate Behavior Why the Alternate Behavior? Why can’t we go right to the Desired Behavior?4. The student is going to need to gain the math skills before being able to do this like peers3. Look how different this is from what’s happening now1. This is what we’re asking the student to do.Complete math problemSuccess, another problemGiven double digit addn problemsSent back to table (escape task)None identifiedThrows a Tantrum2. This is what the student wants now.Raise hand & ask for break5. So… in the meantime we use the alternate behavior
71 Critical Features of a Replacement / Alternate Behavior An appropriate Replacement Behavior:Serves the same function as the problem behaviorIs easier to do & more efficient than the problem behaviorAlternate Behaviors require less physical effort & provide quicker, more reliable access to desired outcome/response than problem behaviorIs Socially acceptable71
72 Which of the Following are Appropriate Replacement Behaviors? Leslie is 12, has severe intellectual disabilities, does not use words, and hits her head. Head hitting is maintained by adult attention during work periods.Which is the best Replacement Behaviorhide under her desk and be ignoredsign for “more” to another studenttake completed work up to show the teachermove to sit by another studentUse picture communication system to request teacher helpStart w/ the Function1. Serve same Function? Does it provide adult attn?2. Is Behavior easier to do than problem behavior?3. Is Behavior socially acceptable?72
73 Then, must explicitly TEACH alternative behavior & desired behaviors
74 Then, move to preventing the problem behavior & prompt alternative
76 Antecedent Interventions When generating interventions we use Function to develop ideasto change A, B & CTargeted RoutineMaintaining Consequence & FunctionAntecedentProblem BehaviorFUNCTIONFunction should guide selection of prevention strategiesFunction should guide selection of alternative/ replacement behaviors
77 Antecedent Interventions Critical features of Antecedent Interventions to prevent the Problem Behavior?Does the intervention directly address:the antecedent?the Function of the problem behavior?Yes or No?Why?
79 Function Based Interventions When generating interventions we use Function to develop ideas tochange A, B & CTargeted RoutineMaintaining Consequence & FunctionAntecedentProblem BehaviorFUNCTIONFunction should guide selection of consequences: (+) and (-)Function should guide selection of prevention strategiesFunction should guide selection of alternative/ replacement behaviors
80 Consequence Intervention: Reinforcing Positive Behavior Steps in Identifying Reinforcers?Critical features of Reinforcers?1. Identify an intervention to Reinforce the Alternate BehaviorIs reinforcer valued? (start w/ function of behavior)b) Are expectations & timeframes reasonable for the student?Yes or No?Why?2. Identify an intervention to Reinforce the Desired Behavior
81 Consequence Intervention Responding to Problem Behavior Steps in Identifying Responses to Problem Behavior?Yes or No?Why?1. Prompt the Alternate Behavior at earliest signs of problem behavior2. Identify a response to problem behavior that does not reinforce the Problem Behavior
88 ImplicationsWe can improve the ability of school personnel to select function-based interventions from a list of interventions using a vignettePrevious to training, participants had the most difficult time:Identifying Alternative BehaviorsTeaching Alternative BehaviorsReinforcing Alternative BehaviorsBoth Before and After Training participants had difficulty with:Interventions for Responding to Attention Maintained Behavior
89 Limitations Continue to develop the assessment tools Reliability & Validity testingValidity study: Experts indicating logic for identifying function-based interventions.Continue to explore features of Function-based interventions
90 Next StepsExpand training to be more comprehensive (not confined to 1 hour)Train beyond choice selectionAssess maintenance of skillsAssess generalization of skills to real casesMove beyond choice selection to intervention identificationKathleen Strickland-Cohen DissertationEfficacy of Training School Personnel to Build Behavioral Interventions from Functional Assessment Information
91 Four 1-Hour Training Sessions Session #1: Using FBA data to build competing behavior pathwaysSession #2: Identifying and selecting function- based prevention, teaching, and consequence strategiesSession #3: Contextual fit, implementation and evaluation planningSession #4: Leading a BSP team
92 Methods by PhasePhase 1: From “Practical FBA” to BSP training series – 13 BSP Team LeadersPretest of behavioral knowledgePre- & Post-tests of BSP development knowledgePreliminary Results: From 62% to 88%Phase 2: Nine participants from Phase I lead behavior support teams in development of BSP for 1 studentBSPs assessed for technical adequacy and contextual fitPhase 3: Seven Student BSPs implementedDirect observation data to assess:Impact on student behaviorFidelity of Implementation
94 ReferencesBlood, E., & Neel, R. S. (2007). From FBA to Implementation: A Look at What Is Actually Being Delivered. Education and Treatment of Children, 30(4),Etscheidt, S. (2006). Behavioral Intervention Plans: Pedagogical and Legal Analysis of Issues. Behavioral Disorders, 31(2),Scott, T. M., & Kamps, D. M. (2007). The Future of Functional Behavioral Assessment in School Settings. Behavioral Disorders, 32(3),Scott, T. M., McIntyre, J., Liaupsin, C., Nelson, C., Conroy, M., & Payne, L. (2005). An Examination of the Relation between Functional Behavior Assessment and Selected Intervention Strategies with School-Based Teams. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 7(4),Van Acker, R., Boreson, L., Gable, R. A., & Potterton, T. (2005). Are We on the Right Course? Lessons Learned about Current FBA/BIP Practices in Schools. Journal of Behavioral Education, 14(1),
95 Slides are available on-line at: www.practicalfba.pbworks.com Questions? Contact:
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