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Social Studies Gateway Review Packet Content Related material
15 Possible Topics for the Social Studies Gateway Exam 1.Ancient Civilization 2.Greece 3.Rome 4.Byzantine Empire 5.The Mongols 6.The Middle Ages 7.The Renaissance 8.The Age of Exploration & Discovery 9.The Reformation 10.English History 11.Absolute Monarchs 12.Enlightenment & Revolution 13.Industrial Revolution 14.Age of Imperialism 15.World War I
A few things to remember… 1.Along with this information, be sure to include something from your World History class that you learned. 2.Focus your studying on only the areas that you are unsure of. 3.Remember this is just a review, use the documents in the exam to help you too. Good luck!
The Ancient River Valley Civilization
Ancient River Valley Civilizations 1. Mesopotamia: Tigris and Euphrates Rivers 2. Egypt: Nile River 3. India: Indus and Ganges Rivers 4. China: Yellow and Yangtze Rivers
The Growth of Civilization Agricultural Revolution: farming created settled communities The five traits of a civilization –Cities –Writing –Specialized workers –Complex institutions –Technology
Mesopotamia / Fertile Crescent Located between Tigris and Euphrates Rivers Mesopotamia / Fertile Crescent Located between Tigris and Euphrates Rivers
Some Contributions of Ancient Civilizations Some Contributions of Ancient Civilizations Sumer: first civilization, plow, sailboat, wheel, cuneiform, ziggurats, polytheism Babylon: Code of Hammurabi Phoenicians: the alphabet and improved shipbuilding Jews: ethical monotheism, Judaism Persians: well-built empire based on tolerance
Egypt = “Gift of the Nile”
History of pharaohs Around 3200 B.C., King Narmer of Upper Egypt conquered Lower Egypt and united the two kingdoms The Egyptian kinds used the title of “pharaoh” and were considered god/kings
Some contributions of Egyptian civilization Hieroglyphics Egyptian religion (polytheistic) Pyramids Mummification Medicine
Indus Valley Located between Indus and Ganges Rivers
Some of the many contributions of Indus Valley civilizations include... Sanskrit Hinduism Buddhism Reincarnation Caste system
Complex Institutions Religion in the Indus Valley Hinduism Hinduism is a mixture of Aryan and ancient Indian culture The sacred writings are the Vedas that explain the basic philosophy of Hinduism. Beliefs include reincarnation, moksha, and castes.
A second religion of the Indus Valley is Buddhism Founder = Siddhartha Gautama Beliefs = Four Noble Truths, Eightfold Path, Nirvana No complex rituals, as in Hinduism, and it is taught in the everyday language.
China’s River Valley Located between the Yellow (Huang-He) and Yangtze (Chang Jiang) Rivers
Chinese philosophies Confucianism: based on family, respect and education Daoism: based on living simply and harmony with nature Legalism: based on a strict and powerful government
Some of China’s many contributions include... Printing The Great Wall of China Dynastic cycle
Greece The Birthplace of Democracy
Geography affected Greece
Geography ¾ of land is covered by mountains Many peninsulas, islands, coastlines and inlets No navigable rivers Made transportation and travel difficult –People could not form one united government so they created many city-states.
Three early civilizations Minoans Mycenaeans Dorians
Minoans Lived on the island of Crete Equality for women Advanced society Seafaring
Mycenaeans Used bronzed weapons and tools Warriors Trojan War
Dorians Less advanced Illiterate (Dark Ages) Oral tradition –Homer, The Odyssey Epic poems
Greek Religion Polytheistic Gods took human form and emotions; were immortal Myths taught to understand mysteries of nature/life
Greek city-states City-state: a city and its surrounding areas (polis) Citizens (free adult males) served the polis Citizen armies Public meetings held in the agora (market place) and acropolis (fortified hilltop)
Contrasting two major city states: Athens and Sparta Athens Government –Created democracy Values –Life based on education and culture –Women had few rights Sparta Government –Dual monarchy / military oligarchy Values –Life based around military –Women enjoyed more rights
Athenian democracy Direct democracy: laws voted on and proposed directly by assembly of all citizens Citizens: male, 18 years of age, born of citizen parents Executive branch: composed of council of 500 men
The Persian Wars B.C. Persia versus Greece Persia invaded Athens and the Athenians won Athens emerged as the most powerful city- state Athens became the leader of the Delian League
Golden Age of Greece Classical culture flourished. Pericles, a hero from the Persian Wars, became leader of Athens. –Strengthened democracy –Increased wealth and power of Athens –Beautified Athens
Contributions of the Golden Age Architecture: The Parthenon Sculpture: figures show grade, strength and serenity / bodies in motion / ideal beauty (classical art) Greeks invent drama (tragedy and comedy)
Peloponnesian Wars , B.C. Sparta versus Athens Sparta won Ends the Golden Age
Greek philosophers Socrates –First great Western philosopher –Questioned authority –Socratic Method Plato –Teacher at The Academy –Taught through dialogues Aristotle –Teacher at the Lyceum –Taught by use of logic
Alexander the Great From Macedonia Son of King Philip II Became king at age 20 Student of Aristotle Invaded Greece, Mesopotamia and India Wanted to create single empire Admired other cultures
Hellenism Mixture of Greek and Eastern cultures Koine = common language spoken in Hellenistic cities, dialect of Greek Alexandria (in Egypt) became center of Hellenistic culture –Port city, good for trade –Statues of Greek gods, a beautiful palace, and the famous lighthouse –Center for learning and education –Many contributions in science, math, architecture, art and philosophy
ROME The Republic The Empire
The Origins of Rome 3 founding groups Latin shepherds Greek colonies Etruscan settlements
Geography Excellent location Built on the Tiber River Mountainous Mid-point of Italian peninsula Center of Mediterranean Sea
Roman Religion Polytheistic Blending of Greek and Roman religions
Social Organization Family Gravitas (seriousness) Role of fathers was important Role of women was less important Classes Patricians - upper class, wealthy landowners Plebeians - lower class, farmers, artisans and merchants
Rome had a balanced government *form of democracy called a republic *written law code: the Twelve Tables Magistrate- consuls Aristocracy- Senate Democracy- Election of Senators Dictatorship- crisis times
The plebeians made progress toward equality Tribunes of the “Plebs’ –10 elected officials to represent the plebeians in the Senate –Were granted veto power Twelve tables - codified the laws Citizens’ Assemblies –More democratic form of government –All adult, Roman males could attend and vote
Punic Wars Carthage vs. Rome Control of trade in Mediterranean Three separate wars Rome ultimately won but was weakened Lead to rise of proletariat
Julius Caesar Julius Caesar Military/government leader, gained popularity and power Tried to save the Republic Made many reforms –Grants citizenship, expands senate, creates new jobs, starts colonies, increased pay for soldiers, Became dictator for life, 44 B.C.E. People fear his growing power Assassinated by group of senators Republic collapses at his death
The Roman Empire 1 st emperor, Octavian (Caesar’s nephew) - Ruled as Emperor Augustus for 41 years - Created a strong government Civil service - Many problems after his death Succession crisis religion
Contributions of the Roman Empire Pax Romana: 207 years of peaceful rule Engineering –Aqueducts –Complex sewer system –Thermal baths –Series of highways –Coliseum
The Rise of Christianity Based on the teachings of Jesus Spread rapidly through empire Christians persecuted
Fall of the Roman Empire Economic Problems - three sources of prosperity ended (trade, plunder, farms) Military Problems - Goths over ran legions, soldiers fought for money not patriotism Political Decay - officials were no longer loyal to Rome Social Decay - loss of loyalty for government Weakened empire falls after Barbarian attacks (the Huns)
The Byzantine Empire (The Eastern Roman Empire)
Byzantine Empire Barbarian tribes overran Italy Emperor Constantine moved Rome to Constantinople Excellent location for trade Located between Asia and Europe
Politics in Constantinople Empire Justinian tried to rebuild Roman glory Code of Laws Hagia Sophia
The Church Splits Differences developed between Eastern and Western Church Christian Church splits West = Rome = Pope = icons = Roman Catholic Church East = Constantinople = Patriarch = no icons = Eastern Orthodox Church
The Islamic Faith Created by the prophet Mohammed Monotheistic = Allah Holy city = Mecca Religious text = Koran (Qur’ an) Based on the Five Pillars of Islam
The Spread of Islam Spread through jihad, trade and empire expansion Divided into two sects –Shi’ites (minority) –Sunni (majority)
Contributions of the Arabic World Translated Greek books into Arabic First chemical laboratories Treatment of disease (diagnosed smallpox and wrote an encyclopedia of medicine) Created algebra Arabic numerals Wrote the Arabian Nights
The Mongols Nomadic, Fierce Warriors, and Expert Horsemen
The Mongols From the steppe in Asia (dry, grassy region) Lived in kinship groups called clans Around 1200, leader named Temujin (Genghis Khan) united Mongols under his leadership. Campaign of terror across Central Asia, destroying cities and slaughtering people
Genghis Khan Title means “universal ruler” Brilliant organizer and warrior Used cruelty and fear as weapons Died in 1227, but his successors continued to expand empire
The Mongol Empire 4 regions or khanates –Mongolia and China –Central Asia –Persia –Russia
Mongol rulers Tolerant rulers in times of peace Imposed stability, law and order across Eurasia (Pax Mongolica) Provided safety for trade between Europe and Asia Mongol rulers relied on foreigners to help rule the government
Kublai Khan Grandson of Genghis Khan, took power in 1260 Founded the Yuan Dynasty United China for first time in 300 years Opened China to foreign contacts and trade Tolerated Chinese culture and government Lived luxurious life of Chinese emperor Failed to conquer Japan Restored the Grand Canal, built paved highway Encouraged trade
The End of Mongol rule Succession crisis after death of Kublai Khan Many rebellions in 1300’s Chinese overthrew Mongols in 1368 Other Khanates declined, except for Russia
The Middle Ages
Invasion of Barbarian tribes caused end of Roman Empire Changed way of life in Europe Changed way of life in Europe – Disruption of trade – Downfall of cities – Decline in learning
The Rise of Feudalism Feudalism = political system –Based on loyalty and the exchange of land for services Hierarchy of power –King>lord>vassal> knight>serf Fief = land
Manor System Manor = small estate Lord = owner Serf = worker; tied to the land Peasants = freemen; could leave the land All inhabitants had duties to perform
The Church in the Middle Ages Center for education and organization Christendom = idea of one kingdom under God Centered around the holy city of Jerusalem
The Crusades The “Holy Land” was invaded by Muslims The Church called for military aide Crusades: “journeys to recapture the “Holy Land” Overall, not successful
Results of the Crusades The Pope and the feudal nobility both suffered a loss of power. Religious tolerance decreased. Hatred between Muslims and Christians remained high. An increase in trade sparked European expansion.
The plague hit Europe in 1496 Expanded trade and increase in population caused diseases Bubonic plague: carried to Europe by fleas via trading ships 2/3 of European population died
The Renaissance The Renaissance Rebirth of classical culture and learning
The Renaissance Begins Where? –In Florence, Italy (later spread north) When? –Around 1300 Why? –Urban centers, power of the merchants and influence of the de Medici family What? –New styles in art, writing and thought
Influence of the Crusades Brought back learning and new ideas from the Middle East New values: –Artists and writers were eager to be known as individuals –Love of classical learning flourished –Enjoyment of worldly pleasures –Idea of the ideal man changed –Idea of the ideal women changed
Renaissance Art Artists began painting and sculpting lifelike images Often art would glorify the human body Discovered techniques to use perspective
Renaissance Artists Michelangelo –David, the Sistine Chapel Da Vinci –Mona Lisa, the Last Supper, –scientific experiments and inventions Rembrandt –the Flemish School of Art
Writers and the printing press helped spread the Renaissance spirit to the rest of Europe.
The Age of Exploration and Discovery God, Gold and Glory!
The Age of Exploration and Discovery Spread ChristianitySpread Christianity Find richesFind riches FameFame –Renaissance thirst for knowledge
Portuguese Exploration Portuguese explorers –Prince Henry the Navigator* –Dias –da Gama –Cabral Portuguese colonies –Brazil –Parts of Africa
Spanish Exploration Spanish Explorers –Christopher Columbus –Amerigo Vespucci –Magellan –Balboa –Cortez –Pizarro –De Soto Spanish colonies –South America (except for Brazil) –Mexico –Southwestern United States –Florida
Land Disputes between Portugal and Spain 1493: Pope Alexander IV Line of Demarcation 1494: Treaty of Tordesillas
English Exploration English explorers –Sir Walter Raleigh –John Cabot –Francis Drake English colonies –Jamestown –New England
French Exploration French explorers –Verrazano –Cartier –Champlain –LaSalle –Marquette and Joliet French colonies –Louisiana –Canada –Parts of Northern America
The Reformation Conflicts in the Catholic Church Conflicts in the Catholic Church Abuses in the Church Abuses in the Church – Worldliness of Renaissance popes – Poorly educated lower clergy—some illiterate – Lower clergy having semi-official wives – Selling of indulgences (pardons for sin)
Conflict in the Catholic Church Reasons for Reform: *The printing press allows the printing of the Bible and other literature that allowed people to read and interpret for themselves. *The people began to see abuses and wanted higher standards for clergy. Reform was demanded.
Martin Luther Luther is angered over the sale of indulgences. In anger he writes the 95 Theses: *Salvation by faith alone *The Bible is the only authority for Christian life not the church *The priesthood of all believers; meaning that all people can communicate with God as the priests do
Someone took Luther’s ideas and printed them with the printing press. The document was spread across Germany. The church was not happy with Luther’s ideas and he was asked to recant his beliefs. Luther refused and was excommunicated. Charles V tried Luther at the Diet of Worms. The result was the Edict of Worms which declared him a heretic and an outlaw. In spite of this, Luther’s ideas took hold and began to spread across Germany. More on Luther…
John Calvin-- Switzerland Beliefs: –Everyone is sinful, but God can save you –Predestination - God knows when you are born whether you will be saved or not- - those who are saved are called “The Elect” –Wanted a theocracy - government ruled by the Church –Followers are known as Calvinists
John Knox-- Scotland Knox put Calvin’s ideas into practice. His followers overthrew their Catholic Queen (Mary Stuart) and set up a working theocracy. –Followers were known as Presbyterians
Henry VIII Henry broke from the church when the Pope refused to give him a divorce from his wife, Catherine of Aragon. Catherine could not produce a male heir and Henry wanted to remarry. Henry created the Church of England and named himself head of the new church.
Counter-Reformation (Catholic Reformation) Catholics were concerned about Protestants leaving the church so they began their own reforms. These reforms are called the “counter” reforms because they come in response to the Protestants. Pope Paul III called a meeting in Trent. The Council of Trent decided... –1. To end the sale of illegal indulgences –2. To clarify church rules, practices, and beliefs –3. To set up more education for priests and clergy
St. Ignatius of Loyola Founded the Society of Jesus –Members were known as Jesuits. –The society was run like an army. –Their mission was to win Protestants back to the Catholic Church.
The Royalties The Tudors Henry VIII (P) Edward VI (P) Mary I “Bloody Mary” (C) Elizabeth I (P) The Stuarts Mary “Queen of Scots” (C) James I (C) Charles I (C) (P) Charles II (C/P) James II (C) William III and Mary II (P) ** C = CATHOLIC ** P = PROTESTANT **<>= NON ROYAL
The Tudors Henry VIII dies, 1547 Edward VI – young, sickly, Protestant, rules with help of advisors Mary I – succeeds at Edward’s death, cruel, “Bloody Mary”, Catholic
Elizabeth I: The “Virgin Queen” Faces many problems –Religious conflicts (Protestant vs. Catholic) –A rival queen (Mary Stuart) –Competition from Spain (Philip II) –Money problems –Issues with Parliament Known as the most powerful English monarch
Solutions to Religious Problems Declared the Act of Uniformity –This act created one legal church in England. People must attend or pay a fine. Services were held in English. Some rituals of the Catholic Church were kept to make the Catholics happy.
Stopping the Rival Queen Elizabeth’s cousin (Mary Stuart) challenged the throne Because Elizabeth had no heirs, Mary was her successor Mary and Philip II of Spain planned to overthrow her The plot failed and Elizabeth ordered Mary’s execution
The Spanish Threat Philip attacked England with the Spanish Armada –Angered at rejected marriage proposal and raiding of “Sea Dogs” England was victorious Spain’s power declined
Financial and Religious problems with Parliament Financial: –Elizabeth started to build an empire in the Americas with money from investors –These investors were part of joint-stock companies Religious: –Towards the end of her reign, Puritan members of Parliament began asking for religious changes –Puritans were a strong group in Parliament but Elizabeth refused to change
James I of England James VI (of Scotland) (son of Mary Stuart) inherits English throne from Elizabeth and becomes James I of England Clashes with Parliament over money and the Church Believes strongly in idea of divine right
Charles I of England Son of James I Was strong believer in divine right Spent excess of money on wars Dissolved Parliament for 11 years Problems lead to English civil war
Civil War! Charles I began to persecute the Puritans. Many left for the Americas. Charles I also tried to make the Scots worship in the Church of England. The Scots began to form an army. War was coming. Charles I has to recall Parliament to get money for war.
Charles I tried to have key leaders arrested. War began! The Cavaliers (loyal to the King) vs. the Roundheads (Puritans). Oliver Crowell led the Roundheads. The Roundheads won. Charles I was executed! More on Charles I…
Oliver Cromwell: “Lord Protector” Cromwell declared himself “Lord Protector”. He sent Parliament home and created a republic. The republic was really a dictatorship. People lost many freedoms. When Cromwell died his son took over. This gave England a chance to bring back the monarchy.
The Restoration Tired of Puritan rule, England “restores” the monarchy by inviting Charles (son of Charles I) to be King Charles II Charles II (the “Merry Monarch”) did not rule by divine right Allowed “habeas corpus” Charles II died and left no heir Catholic brother, James succeeded as King James II Ruled under belief of divine right Forced to abdicate
William and Mary: The Glorious Revolution The British people were desperate for change. They asked the Protestant daughter of James II’s first wife and her husband to come take over the throne. William and Mary were able to take over without a war. They allowed many positive changes to protect the rights of the people. These changes included: –The end of the “divine right of kings.” –The people had more power and representation –Most importantly…..They signed the Bill of Rights!
Milestones of Democracy: England 1689 Limited power of the monarchy. The monarchy could not act above the law or collect taxes without permission. Only male property owners could vote. Individual rights were protected by the law. Some limitations on freedom still existed for non-Protestants.
Absolute Monarchs a king of queen who has unlimited power and seeks to control all aspects of history
Absolute Monarchs Spain: Philip II (Hapsburg) France: Louis XIV (Bourbon) Russia: Peter the Great (Romanov) Prussia: Frederick the Great (Hohenzollern)
Philip II Defender of Catholicism Spanish wealth used to annihilate Protestants and Muslims Launched Spanish armada against England, defeated by Elizabeth I, weakened Spanish power
Louis XIV, the “Sun King” French Catholic king Most powerful ruler in French history Weakened power of the nobles Helped France attain economic, political and cultural brilliance Patron of the arts Attempted to expand France’s boundaries His many wars brought ruin to France
Peter the Great Russian genius Wanted to Westernize Russia Established St. Petersburg Many successes in governmental and cultural reforms Russia becomes a major European power
Frederick the Great Loved music, philosophy and poetry An aggressor in foreign affairs Pushed to extend Prussian territory Encouraged religious tolerance Supported legal reform Earned the title “the Great” by achieving his goals for Russia
Enlightenment and Revolutions: Europe and the Americas A Time of Change
The Enlightenment Europe Changes in thinking led to reforms in government
Enlightenment Thinkers Thomas Hobbes –Ideas of a social contract –Leviathan –Man is evil, must have a strong government John Locke –Ideas regarding natural rights –Two Treatises on Government –Man has rights to life, liberty, property
The Philosophers advocate reason Voltaire –Used satire –Wrote many essays –Defended tolerance, reason, freedom of speech and religion Montesquieu –Political liberty –Admired Britain’s balanced government –Separation of powers Rousseau –Committed to individual freedom –Social contract –Government by consent of the governed
Impact of the Enlightenment Salons Secular outlook on life Importance of the individual Ideas of freedom and rights Enlightened despots Democracy
The Road to Revolution People were dissatisfied with governments. Citizens often did not have a voice in government. People decided to fight for their freedom. Wars for freedom were called revolutions.
Most of the revolutions occurred between 1775 and = American Revolution = French Revolution (1799 – 1815) = Napoleon’s rule = Latin American Revolution
The American Revolution Great Britain’s King George III ruled the American colonies The 13 colonies paid taxes to England but had no representation in Parliament Colonists were angry Wrote the Declaration of Independence Broke ties with Great Britain George Washington led the American troops to victory!
The French Revolution French people were angry over high taxes, unfair class systems (3 estates), and poor standard of living Influenced by ideas of Enlightenment and American independence, the French people revolt!
Revolution! The Third Estate creates a series of new, unsuccessful governments Many innocent people died in the bloody violence Both King Louis XVI and Queen Marie Antoinette were guillotined during the reign of terror “Liberty, Equality and Fraternity!” was the slogan of the revolution
Napoleon’s new government Napoleon Bonaparte, a national hero, leads the new government and appoints himself Emperor of France. Napoleon wants to conquer the world. Becomes very powerful and makes his brother king of Spain. After a series of wars with Europe, Napoleon is defeated and exiled.
Congress of Vienna: European countries needed to restore stability and restructure pre-Napoleonic boundaries Austria’s conservative foreign minister Metternich, led a meeting in Vienna His goals were to: –Restore legitimacy of the monarchs –Restore the balance of power –Weaken France –Compensate severely damaged countries (reparations)
The Congress of Vienna was successful; however, democratic ideas could not be erased New political philosophies were born –Conservatism: keep the old ways –Radicalism: violent changes –Liberalism: small reforms, no violence –Nationalism: love of one’s country More on the Congress of Vienna…
Latin American Revolutions Spain had colonies in Latin America. Latin America includes the countries south of the United States. The people of Latin America wanted their freedom from Spain Napoleon lost power in Europe. The people of Latin America chose this time to revolt.
Latin American colonies win independence Haiti was the first colony to win independence in 1804 Father Miguel Hidalgo helped Mexico win its freedom from Spain Simon Bolivar fought for the freedom of Venezuela and many other colonies Jose de San Martin fought for Argentina’s freedom Peru was the last colony to gain independence in 1826
The Industrial Revolution
The Industrial Revolution: Factors aiding industrial growth Changes in farming Changes in farming Rise in population Rise in population Geographic advances Geographic advances New inventions New inventions Effective banking system Effective banking system Politically stable Politically stable
Great Britain, birthplace of industry Great Britain, having all the necessary factors was the birthplace of the Industrial Revolution Textiles, the major industry, had been produced in the homes (cottage industry)
One invention leads to another... Six Major Inventions Change the Textile Industry –John Kay - Flying Shuttle –James Hargreaves - Spinning Jenny –Richard Arkwright - Water Frame –Samuel Crompton - Spinning Mule –Edmund Cartwright - Power Loom –Eli Whitney - Cotton Gin
Transportation Improves To help transport goods faster from place to place engineers built: Better roads (John Mc Adams) Canals (human-made waterway) Railroads (The Rocket)
Industrial Revolution Changed Lives The Industrial Revolution spread to other countries. The growth of factories brought people to the cities. The working conditions in factories began to improve. The middle class social structure grew. Social tensions began to build between the different classes.
New political systems evolve Socialism: –Robert Owens –Wealth of country to be shared equally –Share ownership of certain properties such as factories and the railroad Communism –Karl Marx –Communist Manifesto –Wealth and power to be shared by all –In reality, state controls everything
The Age of Imperialism
Imperialism: the act of extending one’s rule over others European countries needed raw materials to supply their industries. Prestige was associated with owning many or large territories. Missionaries wanted to spread Christianity. New markets were needed for European products.
Britain’s Lead is Challenged Up until the late 1800’s Britain was the most powerful nation in the world. Germany and the United States begin to challenge Britain for economic power. Countries begin to tax imported British goods to protect their own industries. Britain has few sources of raw materials and desperately needs them for production.
Rivalries Competition among the European nations for territories was strong. Just as Britain saw the advantages of colonies, so did other European countries. Almost every European country competed for colonies as did Japan and the US.
European Superiority Europeans believed that the new technology developed during the Industrial Revolution proved their superiority. They would be able to successfully manage colonies from far away by railroads, telegraph cables, and steamers. Europeans also believed that their religion and morals were the right way to live and felt a strong sense of duty to show others “the right way.”
Imperialism in Africa Competition for colonies in Africa was so fierce that European countries feared war. A meeting in Berlin in 1884 was called to settle land disputes. (No African rulers were invited) European countries agreed that any European country could claim land by sending in troops to occupy that area. Border lines were drawn without regard to the native cultures.
European Countries in Africa The following countries all had colonies in Africa during the 1900’s. Britain France Germany Italy Portugal Belgium Spain
Africa became a continent of colonies By the 1900s only two countries remained free from colonial rule; the rest of Africa had been carved into colonial territories. 1.Liberia – A country set up by former U.S. slaves with American support. 2.Ethiopia – Benefited from its mountainous geography, strategic position between three major colonial powers and its own strong leader.
Three types of imperialistic rule Colony = total rule Protectorate = military presence / self rule Sphere of influence = pay taxes to preserve self-rule
The importance of South Africa Location of the Cape of Good Hope Discovery of diamonds
The reality of Imperialism in Africa African were expected to work and pay taxes Many were forced to work against their will Africans were treated as second class citizens and faced discrimination Europeans found a wealth of mineral resources in Africa Europeans also used the land for cash crops They also introduced Christianity to Africans
Imperialism in South Asia Britain found in India what it did not in Africa. –A supplier of raw material for European factories –A large market for British goods –A large workforce for factories built in India The British East India Company set up trading posts in India in the 1600’s. India became a sphere of influence under the British East India Company. Even though the company was under the control of the British Crown, the company was free to govern India as it saw fit. It even had its own army. The British Crown did not intervene until it had to suppress an uprising called the Sepoy Rebellion.
The Sepoy Rebellion Sepoy – Indian soldiers working for the British East India Company Angered by deception of the British East India Company, led a rebellion. The British East India Company could not control the revolt, so the British troops set up a colony
Britain controls India Britain built transportation and communication systems Projects built and funded by Indians and their taxes Indians were treated as second class citizens and faced discrimination
Imperialism in China China was a self-sufficient country which meant it did not need to trade with other countries. It had little interest in European goods. English merchants smuggled opium into China and created a demand. The Opium War was fought to try to end the British control of the substance but China was defeated. The Treaty of Nanking was signed which allowed Britain to establish spheres on influence in China.
Open Door Policy China was carved into spheres of influence Americans saw what was happening in China and feared they would lose their trading opportunities in China. The Open-Door Policy was established to enforce an “open-door” or the freedom to trade and sell to China for all merchants of all nations. This prevented China from being colonized but its fate lay in hands of other nations.
Chinese Nationalism Many Chinese citizens also felt like second class citizens in their own country. Most of their major cities were controlled by outsiders. Nationalist groups such as the Boxers begin to form and protest foreign occupancy.
Japan’s isolation Like China, Japan had practiced isolation for a long time Fearing loss of independence, Japan conceded to trade with the U.S. and agreed to demands of Mathew Perry Japan began to industrialize and modernize its country Japanese studied the ways of Westerners and adopted the best ones Japan was smart with its finances and stayed out of debt
Imperialism in the western hemisphere A demand for Latin American goods began to grow. Latin American countries borrowed money from American and European banks to fund enterprises. Unable to repay their debts, many of the lending nations began to take over the industries in Latin America and influence the countries politically. –Roosevelt Corollary
The Pacific Islands The Pacific Islands were rich in resources and had military advantages. The U.S. was interested in Hawaii and made it a territory in The U.S. acquired the Philippines and Guam as a result of the Spanish- American War.
World War I
Underlying causes: MilitarismMilitarism Alliance systemAlliance system ImperialismImperialism NationalismNationalism
Militarism The belief that the use of force is an acceptable way to decide political problems Built large armies and stockpiled weapons Developed war plans War fought on two fronts
Alliance system Fear leads nations to seek out friends Triple Alliance– Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy Triple Entente– Great Britain, France, Russia Promise to assist if ally is under attack
Imperialism Competition creates tension between European nations Competing for: colonies, new markets, sources of raw materials Imperialized areas: Africa, India, parts of the Middle East, China
Nationalism Love of one’s country Influenced the Great Powers to make their nation “the best” Power includes money, land and control of trade markets Minor countries sought independence
WAR! Archduke Franz Ferdinand was murdered Austria declares war on Serbia Both alliances mobilize for fighting Battle zones include: Europe, Asia and Africa New weapons include: machine guns, tank, poison gas, flame throwers
The War Ends Both sides suffer from loss of life and widespread destruction U.S. enters war in 1918 on the side of the allies November 9 th, 1918: Germany surrenders Armistice signed November 11– end of fighting Treaty of Versailles League of Nations