Presentation on theme: "Social Studies Gateway Review Packet"— Presentation transcript:
1 Social Studies Gateway Review Packet Content Related material
2 15 Possible Topics for the Social Studies Gateway Exam Ancient CivilizationGreeceRomeByzantine EmpireThe MongolsThe Middle AgesThe RenaissanceThe Age of Exploration & DiscoveryThe ReformationEnglish HistoryAbsolute MonarchsEnlightenment & RevolutionIndustrial RevolutionAge of ImperialismWorld War I
3 A few things to remember… Along with this information, be sure to include something from your World History class that you learned.Focus your studying on only the areas that you are unsure of.Remember this is just a review, use the documents in the exam to help you too.Good luck!
5 Ancient River Valley Civilizations 1. Mesopotamia: Tigris and Euphrates Rivers2. Egypt: Nile River3. India: Indus and Ganges Rivers4. China: Yellow and Yangtze Rivers
6 The Growth of Civilization Agricultural Revolution: farming created settled communitiesThe five traits of a civilizationCitiesWritingSpecialized workersComplex institutionsTechnology
7 Mesopotamia / Fertile Crescent Located between Tigris and Euphrates Rivers
8 Some Contributions of Ancient Civilizations Sumer: first civilization, plow, sailboat, wheel, cuneiform, ziggurats, polytheismBabylon: Code of HammurabiPhoenicians: the alphabet and improved shipbuildingJews: ethical monotheism, JudaismPersians: well-built empire based on tolerance
10 History of pharaohsAround 3200 B.C., King Narmer of Upper Egypt conquered Lower Egypt and united the two kingdomsThe Egyptian kinds used the title of “pharaoh” and were considered god/kings
11 Some contributions of Egyptian civilization HieroglyphicsEgyptian religion (polytheistic)PyramidsMummificationMedicine
12 Indus ValleyLocated between Indus andGanges Rivers
13 Some of the many contributions of Indus Valley civilizations include. . . SanskritHinduismBuddhismReincarnationCaste system
14 Complex Institutions Religion in the Indus Valley Hinduism Hinduism is a mixture of Aryan and ancient Indian cultureThe sacred writings are the Vedas that explain the basic philosophy of Hinduism.Beliefs include reincarnation, moksha, and castes.
15 A second religion of the Indus Valley is Buddhism Founder = Siddhartha GautamaBeliefs = Four Noble Truths, Eightfold Path, NirvanaNo complex rituals, as in Hinduism, and it is taught in the everyday language.
16 China’s River ValleyLocated between the Yellow (Huang-He) and Yangtze (Chang Jiang) Rivers
17 Chinese philosophiesConfucianism: based on family, respect and educationDaoism: based on living simply and harmony with natureLegalism: based on a strict and powerful government
18 Some of China’s many contributions include. . . PrintingThe Great Wall of ChinaDynastic cycle
19 The Birthplace of Democracy GreeceThe Birthplace of Democracy
21 Geography ¾ of land is covered by mountains Many peninsulas, islands, coastlines and inletsNo navigable riversMade transportation and travel difficultPeople could not form one united government so they created many city-states.
22 Three early civilizations MinoansMycenaeansDorians
23 Minoans Lived on the island of Crete Equality for women Advanced societySeafaring
24 MycenaeansUsed bronzed weapons and toolsWarriorsTrojan War
25 Dorians Less advanced Illiterate (Dark Ages) Oral tradition Homer, The OdysseyEpic poems
26 Greek Religion Polytheistic Gods took human form and emotions; were immortalMyths taught to understand mysteries of nature/life
27 Greek city-states City-state: a city and its surrounding areas (polis) Citizens (free adult males) served the polisCitizen armiesPublic meetings held in the agora (market place) and acropolis (fortified hilltop)
28 Contrasting two major city states: Athens and Sparta GovernmentCreated democracyValuesLife based on education and cultureWomen had few rightsSpartaGovernmentDual monarchy / military oligarchyValuesLife based around militaryWomen enjoyed more rights
29 Athenian democracyDirect democracy: laws voted on and proposed directly by assembly of all citizensCitizens: male, 18 years of age, born of citizen parentsExecutive branch: composed of council of 500 men
30 The Persian Wars 490-479 B.C. Persia versus Greece Persia invaded Athens and the Athenians wonAthens emerged as the most powerful city-stateAthens became the leader of the Delian League
31 Golden Age of Greece Classical culture flourished. Pericles, a hero from the Persian Wars, became leader of Athens.Strengthened democracyIncreased wealth and power of AthensBeautified Athens
32 Contributions of the Golden Age Architecture: The ParthenonSculpture: figures show grade, strength and serenity / bodies in motion / ideal beauty (classical art)Greeks invent drama (tragedy and comedy)
33 Peloponnesian Wars 431-404, B.C. Sparta versus Athens Sparta won Ends the Golden Age
34 Greek philosophers Socrates Plato Aristotle First great Western philosopherQuestioned authoritySocratic MethodPlatoTeacher at The AcademyTaught through dialoguesAristotleTeacher at the LyceumTaught by use of logic
35 Alexander the Great From Macedonia Son of King Philip II Became king at age 20Student of AristotleInvaded Greece, Mesopotamia and IndiaWanted to create single empireAdmired other cultures
36 Hellenism Mixture of Greek and Eastern cultures Koine = common language spoken in Hellenistic cities, dialect of GreekAlexandria (in Egypt) became center of Hellenistic culturePort city, good for tradeStatues of Greek gods, a beautiful palace, and the famous lighthouseCenter for learning and educationMany contributions in science, math, architecture, art and philosophy
37 The Republic The Empire ROMEThe RepublicThe Empire
38 The Origins of Rome 3 founding groups Latin shepherds Greek colonies Etruscan settlements
39 Geography Excellent location Built on the Tiber River Mountainous Mid-point of Italian peninsulaCenter of Mediterranean Sea
40 Roman ReligionPolytheisticBlending of Greek and Roman religions
41 Social Organization Family Gravitas (seriousness) Role of fathers was importantRole of women was less importantClassesPatricians - upper class, wealthy landownersPlebeians - lower class, farmers, artisans and merchants
42 Democracy-Election of Senators Rome had a balanced government *form of democracy called a republic *written law code: the Twelve TablesMagistrate-consulsAristocracy-SenateDemocracy-Election of SenatorsDictatorship-crisis times
43 The plebeians made progress toward equality Tribunes of the “Plebs’10 elected officials to represent the plebeians in the SenateWere granted veto powerTwelve tables - codified the lawsCitizens’ AssembliesMore democratic form of governmentAll adult, Roman males could attend and vote
44 Punic Wars Carthage vs. Rome Control of trade in Mediterranean Three separate warsRome ultimately won but was weakenedLead to rise of proletariat
45 Julius Caesar Military/government leader, gained popularity and power Tried to save the RepublicMade many reformsGrants citizenship, expands senate, creates new jobs, starts colonies, increased pay for soldiers,Became dictator for life, 44 B.C.E.People fear his growing powerAssassinated by group of senatorsRepublic collapses at his death
46 The Roman Empire 1st emperor, Octavian (Caesar’s nephew) - Ruled as Emperor Augustus for 41 years- Created a strong governmentCivil service- Many problems after his deathSuccession crisisreligion
47 Contributions of the Roman Empire Pax Romana: 207 years of peaceful ruleEngineeringAqueductsComplex sewer systemThermal bathsSeries of highwaysColiseum
48 The Rise of Christianity Based on the teachings of JesusSpread rapidly through empireChristians persecuted
49 Fall of the Roman Empire Economic Problems - three sources of prosperity ended (trade, plunder, farms)Military Problems - Goths over ran legions, soldiers fought for money not patriotismPolitical Decay - officials were no longer loyal to RomeSocial Decay - loss of loyalty for governmentWeakened empire falls after Barbarian attacks (the Huns)
50 The Byzantine Empire (The Eastern Roman Empire)
51 Byzantine Empire Barbarian tribes overran Italy Emperor Constantine moved Rome to ConstantinopleExcellent location for tradeLocated between Asia and Europe
52 Politics in Constantinople Empire Justinian tried to rebuild Roman gloryCode of LawsHagia Sophia
53 The Church SplitsDifferences developed between Eastern and Western ChurchChristian Church splitsWest = Rome = Pope = icons = Roman Catholic ChurchEast = Constantinople = Patriarch = no icons = Eastern Orthodox Church
54 The Islamic Faith Created by the prophet Mohammed Monotheistic = Allah Holy city = MeccaReligious text = Koran (Qur’ an)Based on the Five Pillars of Islam
55 The Spread of Islam Spread through jihad, trade and empire expansion Divided into two sectsShi’ites (minority)Sunni (majority)
56 Contributions of the Arabic World Translated Greek books into ArabicFirst chemical laboratoriesTreatment of disease (diagnosed smallpox and wrote an encyclopedia of medicine)Created algebraArabic numeralsWrote the Arabian Nights
57 Nomadic, Fierce Warriors, and Expert Horsemen The MongolsNomadic, Fierce Warriors, and Expert Horsemen
58 The Mongols From the steppe in Asia (dry, grassy region) Lived in kinship groups called clansAround 1200, leader named Temujin (Genghis Khan) united Mongols under his leadership.Campaign of terror across Central Asia, destroying cities and slaughtering people
59 Genghis Khan Title means “universal ruler” Brilliant organizer and warriorUsed cruelty and fear as weaponsDied in 1227, but his successors continued to expand empire
60 The Mongol Empire 4 regions or khanates Mongolia and China Central AsiaPersiaRussia
61 Mongol rulers Tolerant rulers in times of peace Imposed stability, law and order across Eurasia (Pax Mongolica)Provided safety for trade between Europe and AsiaMongol rulers relied on foreigners to help rule the government
62 Kublai Khan Grandson of Genghis Khan, took power in 1260 Founded the Yuan DynastyUnited China for first time in 300 yearsOpened China to foreign contacts and tradeTolerated Chinese culture and governmentLived luxurious life of Chinese emperorFailed to conquer JapanRestored the Grand Canal, built paved highwayEncouraged trade
63 The End of Mongol rule Succession crisis after death of Kublai Khan Many rebellions in 1300’sChinese overthrew Mongols in 1368Other Khanates declined, except for Russia
65 The Middle AgesInvasion of Barbarian tribes caused end of Roman EmpireChanged way of life in EuropeDisruption of tradeDownfall of citiesDecline in learning
66 The Rise of Feudalism Feudalism = political system Hierarchy of power Based on loyalty and the exchange of land for servicesHierarchy of powerKing>lord>vassal>knight>serfFief = land
67 Manor System Manor = small estate Lord = owner Serf = worker; tied to the landPeasants = freemen; could leave the landAll inhabitants had duties to perform
68 The Church in the Middle Ages Center for education and organizationChristendom = idea of one kingdom under GodCentered around the holy city of Jerusalem
69 The Crusades The “Holy Land” was invaded by Muslims The Church called for military aideCrusades: “journeys to recapture the “Holy Land”Overall, not successful
70 Results of the Crusades The Pope and the feudal nobility both suffered a loss of power.Religious tolerance decreased.Hatred between Muslims and Christians remained high.An increase in trade sparked European expansion.
71 The plague hit Europe in 1496 Expanded trade and increase in population caused diseasesBubonic plague: carried to Europe by fleas via trading ships2/3 of European population died
72 Rebirth of classical culture and learning The RenaissanceRebirth of classical culture and learning
73 The Renaissance Begins Where?In Florence, Italy (later spread north)When?Around 1300Why?Urban centers, power of the merchants and influence of the de Medici familyWhat?New styles in art, writing and thought
74 Influence of the Crusades Brought back learning and new ideas from the Middle EastNew values:Artists and writers were eager to be known as individualsLove of classical learning flourishedEnjoyment of worldly pleasuresIdea of the ideal man changedIdea of the ideal women changed
75 Renaissance Art Artists began painting and sculpting lifelike images Often art would glorify the human bodyDiscovered techniques to use perspective
76 Renaissance Artists Michelangelo Da Vinci Rembrandt David, the Sistine ChapelDa VinciMona Lisa, the Last Supper,scientific experiments and inventionsRembrandtthe Flemish School of Art
77 Writers and the printing press helped spread the Renaissance spirit to the rest of Europe.
78 The Age of Exploration and Discovery God, Gold and Glory!
79 The Age of Exploration and Discovery Spread ChristianityFind richesFameRenaissance thirst for knowledge
80 Portuguese Exploration Portuguese explorersPrince Henry the Navigator*Diasda GamaCabralPortuguese coloniesBrazilParts of Africa
81 Spanish Exploration Spanish Explorers Spanish colonies Christopher ColumbusAmerigo VespucciMagellanBalboaCortezPizarroDe SotoSpanish coloniesSouth America (except for Brazil)MexicoSouthwestern United StatesFlorida
82 Land Disputes between Portugal and Spain 1493: Pope Alexander IV Line of Demarcation1494: Treaty of Tordesillas
83 English Exploration English explorers English colonies Sir Walter RaleighJohn CabotFrancis DrakeEnglish coloniesJamestownNew England
84 French Exploration French explorers French colonies Verrazano Cartier ChamplainLaSalleMarquette and JolietFrench coloniesLouisianaCanadaParts of Northern America
85 Dutch ExplorationDutch explorersHenry HudsonDutch coloniesNew York
86 Changes in the Catholic church The ReformationChanges in the Catholic church
87 The Reformation Conflicts in the Catholic Church Abuses in the Church Worldliness of Renaissance popesPoorly educated lower clergy—some illiterateLower clergy having semi-official wivesSelling of indulgences (pardons for sin)
88 Conflict in the Catholic Church Reasons for Reform:The printing press allows the printing of the Bible and other literature that allowed people to read and interpret for themselves.The people began to see abuses and wanted higher standards for clergy. Reform was demanded.
89 Martin Luther Luther is angered over the sale of indulgences. In anger he writes the 95 Theses:Salvation by faith aloneThe Bible is the only authority for Christian life not the churchThe priesthood of all believers; meaning that all people can communicate with God as the priests do
90 More on Luther…Someone took Luther’s ideas and printed them with the printing press. The document was spread across Germany.The church was not happy with Luther’s ideas and he was asked to recant his beliefs.Luther refused and was excommunicated.Charles V tried Luther at the Diet of Worms. The result was the Edict of Worms which declared him a heretic and an outlaw.In spite of this, Luther’s ideas took hold and began to spread across Germany.
91 John Calvin-- Switzerland Beliefs:Everyone is sinful, but God can save youPredestination - God knows when you are born whether you will be saved or not-- those who are saved are called “The Elect”Wanted a theocracy - government ruled by the ChurchFollowers are known as Calvinists
92 John Knox-- ScotlandKnox put Calvin’s ideas into practice. His followers overthrew their Catholic Queen (Mary Stuart) and set up a working theocracy.Followers were known as Presbyterians
93 Henry VIIIHenry broke from the church when the Pope refused to give him a divorce from his wife, Catherine of Aragon. Catherine could not produce a male heir and Henry wanted to remarry.Henry created the Church of England and named himself head of the new church.
94 Counter-Reformation (Catholic Reformation) Catholics were concerned about Protestants leaving the church so they began their own reforms. These reforms are called the “counter” reforms because they come in response to the Protestants.Pope Paul III called a meeting in Trent.The Council of Trent decided. . .1. To end the sale of illegal indulgences2. To clarify church rules, practices, and beliefs3. To set up more education for priests and clergy
95 St. Ignatius of Loyola Founded the Society of Jesus Members were known as Jesuits.The society was run like an army.Their mission was to win Protestants back to the Catholic Church.
97 The Royalties The Stuarts The Tudors Henry VIII (P) Edward VI (P) Mary “Queen of Scots” (C)James I (C)Charles I (C)<Oliver Cromwell> (P)<Richard Cromwell> (P)Charles II (C/P)James II (C)William III and Mary II (P)The TudorsHenry VIII (P)Edward VI (P)Mary I “Bloody Mary” (C)Elizabeth I (P)** C = CATHOLIC ** P = PROTESTANT **<>= NON ROYAL
98 The Tudors Henry VIII dies, 1547 Edward VI – young, sickly, Protestant, rules with help of advisorsMary I – succeeds at Edward’s death, cruel, “Bloody Mary”, Catholic
99 Elizabeth I: The “Virgin Queen” Faces many problemsReligious conflicts (Protestant vs. Catholic)A rival queen (Mary Stuart)Competition from Spain (Philip II)Money problemsIssues with ParliamentKnown as the most powerful English monarch
100 Solutions to Religious Problems Declared the Act of UniformityThis act created one legal church in England.People must attend or pay a fine.Services were held in English.Some rituals of the Catholic Church were kept to make the Catholics happy.
101 Stopping the Rival Queen Elizabeth’s cousin (Mary Stuart) challenged the throneBecause Elizabeth had no heirs, Mary was her successorMary and Philip II of Spain planned to overthrow herThe plot failed and Elizabeth ordered Mary’s execution
102 The Spanish Threat Philip attacked England with the Spanish Armada Angered at rejected marriage proposal and raiding of “Sea Dogs”England was victoriousSpain’s power declined
103 Financial and Religious problems with Parliament Elizabeth started to build an empire in the Americas with money from investorsThese investors were part of joint-stock companiesReligious:Towards the end of her reign, Puritan members of Parliament began asking for religious changesPuritans were a strong group in Parliament but Elizabeth refused to change
104 James I of EnglandJames VI (of Scotland) (son of Mary Stuart) inherits English throne from Elizabeth and becomes James I of EnglandClashes with Parliament over money and the ChurchBelieves strongly in idea of divine right
105 Charles I of England Son of James I Was strong believer in divine rightSpent excess of money on warsDissolved Parliament for 11 yearsProblems lead to English civil war
106 Civil War!Charles I began to persecute the Puritans. Many left for the Americas.Charles I also tried to make the Scots worship in the Church of England.The Scots began to form an army. War was coming.Charles I has to recall Parliament to get money for war.
107 More on Charles I… Charles I was executed! Charles I tried to have key leaders arrested.War began!The Cavaliers (loyal to the King) vs. the Roundheads (Puritans).Oliver Crowell led the Roundheads.The Roundheads won.Charles I was executed!
108 Oliver Cromwell: “Lord Protector” Cromwell declared himself “Lord Protector”.He sent Parliament home and created a republic.The republic was really a dictatorship.People lost many freedoms.When Cromwell died his son took over. This gave England a chance to bring back the monarchy.
109 The RestorationTired of Puritan rule, England “restores” the monarchy by inviting Charles (son of Charles I) to be King Charles IICharles II (the “Merry Monarch”) did not rule by divine rightAllowed “habeas corpus”Charles II died and left no heirCatholic brother, James succeeded as King James IIRuled under belief of divine rightForced to abdicate<Charles IIJames II>
110 William and Mary: The Glorious Revolution The British people were desperate for change.They asked the Protestant daughter of James II’s first wife and her husband to come take over the throne.William and Mary were able to take over without a war.They allowed many positive changes to protect the rights of the people.These changes included:The end of the “divine right of kings.”The people had more power and representationMost importantly…..They signed the Bill of Rights!
111 Milestones of Democracy: England 1689 Limited power of the monarchy.The monarchy could not act above the law or collect taxes without permission.Only male property owners could vote.Individual rights were protected by the law.Some limitations on freedom still existed for non-Protestants.
112 Absolute Monarchsa king of queen who has unlimited power and seeks to control all aspects of history
113 Absolute Monarchs Spain: Philip II (Hapsburg) France: Louis XIV (Bourbon)Russia: Peter the Great (Romanov)Prussia: Frederick the Great (Hohenzollern)
114 Philip II Defender of Catholicism Spanish wealth used to annihilate Protestants and MuslimsLaunched Spanish armada against England, defeated by Elizabeth I, weakened Spanish power
115 Louis XIV, the “Sun King” French Catholic kingMost powerful ruler in French historyWeakened power of the noblesHelped France attain economic, political and cultural brilliancePatron of the artsAttempted to expand France’s boundariesHis many wars brought ruin to France
116 Peter the Great Russian genius Wanted to Westernize Russia Established St. PetersburgMany successes in governmental and cultural reformsRussia becomes a major European power
117 Frederick the Great Loved music, philosophy and poetry An aggressor in foreign affairsPushed to extend Prussian territoryEncouraged religious toleranceSupported legal reformEarned the title “the Great” by achieving his goals for Russia
118 Enlightenment and Revolutions: Europe and the Americas A Time of Change
119 The Enlightenment Europe 1720-1790 Changes in thinking led to reforms in government
120 Enlightenment Thinkers Thomas HobbesIdeas of a social contractLeviathanMan is evil, must have a strong governmentJohn LockeIdeas regarding natural rightsTwo Treatises on GovernmentMan has rights to life, liberty, property
121 The Philosophers advocate reason VoltaireUsed satireWrote many essaysDefended tolerance, reason, freedom of speech and religionMontesquieuPolitical libertyAdmired Britain’s balanced governmentSeparation of powersRousseauCommitted to individual freedomSocial contractGovernment by consent of the governed
122 Impact of the Enlightenment SalonsSecular outlook on lifeImportance of the individualIdeas of freedom and rightsEnlightened despotsDemocracy
123 The Road to Revolution People were dissatisfied with governments. Citizens often did not have a voice in government.People decided to fight for their freedom.Wars for freedom were called revolutions.
124 Most of the revolutions occurred between 1775 and 1826. = American Revolution= French Revolution(1799 – 1815) = Napoleon’s rule= Latin American Revolution
125 The American Revolution 1775-1781 Great Britain’s King George III ruled the American coloniesThe 13 colonies paid taxes to England but had no representation in ParliamentColonists were angryWrote the Declaration of IndependenceBroke ties with Great BritainGeorge Washington led the American troops to victory!
126 The French Revolution 1789-1799 French people were angry over high taxes, unfair class systems (3 estates), and poor standard of livingInfluenced by ideas of Enlightenment and American independence, the French people revolt!
127 Revolution!The Third Estate creates a series of new, unsuccessful governmentsMany innocent people died in the bloody violenceBoth King Louis XVI and Queen Marie Antoinette were guillotined during the reign of terror“Liberty, Equality and Fraternity!” was the slogan of the revolution
128 Napoleon’s new government 1799-1815 Napoleon Bonaparte, a national hero, leads the new government and appoints himself Emperor of France.Napoleon wants to conquer the world.Becomes very powerful and makes his brother king of Spain.After a series of wars with Europe, Napoleon is defeated and exiled.
129 Congress of Vienna:European countries needed to restore stability and restructure pre-Napoleonic boundariesAustria’s conservative foreign minister Metternich, led a meeting in ViennaHis goals were to:Restore legitimacy of the monarchsRestore the balance of powerWeaken FranceCompensate severely damaged countries (reparations)
130 More on the Congress of Vienna… The Congress of Vienna was successful; however, democratic ideas could not be erasedNew political philosophies were bornConservatism: keep the old waysRadicalism: violent changesLiberalism: small reforms, no violenceNationalism: love of one’s country
131 Latin American Revolutions 1810-1826 Spain had colonies in Latin America.Latin America includes the countries south of the United States.The people of Latin America wanted their freedom from Spain.Napoleon lost power in Europe.The people of Latin America chose this time to revolt.
132 Latin American colonies win independence Haiti was the first colony to win independence in 1804Father Miguel Hidalgo helped Mexico win its freedom from SpainSimon Bolivar fought for the freedom of Venezuela and many other coloniesJose de San Martin fought for Argentina’s freedomPeru was the last colony to gain independence in 1826
134 The Industrial Revolution: Factors aiding industrial growthChanges in farmingRise in populationGeographic advancesNew inventionsEffective banking systemPolitically stable
135 Great Britain, birthplace of industry Great Britain, having all the necessary factors was the birthplace of the Industrial RevolutionTextiles, the major industry, had been produced in the homes (cottage industry)
136 One invention leads to another. . . Six Major Inventions Change the Textile IndustryJohn Kay - Flying ShuttleJames Hargreaves - Spinning JennyRichard Arkwright - Water FrameSamuel Crompton - Spinning MuleEdmund Cartwright - Power LoomEli Whitney - Cotton Gin
137 Transportation Improves To help transport goods faster from place to place engineers built:Better roads (John Mc Adams)Canals (human-made waterway)Railroads (The Rocket)
138 Industrial Revolution Changed Lives The Industrial Revolution spread to other countries.The growth of factories brought people to the cities.The working conditions in factories began to improve.The middle class social structure grew.Social tensions began to build between the different classes.
139 New political systems evolve CommunismKarl MarxCommunist ManifestoWealth and power to be shared by allIn reality, state controls everythingSocialism:Robert OwensWealth of country to be shared equallyShare ownership of certain properties such as factories and the railroad
141 The Age of ImperialismImperialism: the act of extending one’s rule over othersEuropean countries needed raw materials to supply their industries.Prestige was associated with owning many or large territories.Missionaries wanted to spread Christianity.New markets were needed for European products.
142 Britain’s Lead is Challenged Up until the late 1800’s Britain was the most powerful nation in the world.Germany and the United States begin to challenge Britain for economic power.Countries begin to tax imported British goods to protect their own industries.Britain has few sources of raw materials and desperately needs them for production.
143 RivalriesCompetition among the European nations for territories was strong.Just as Britain saw the advantages of colonies, so did other European countries.Almost every European country competed for colonies as did Japan and the US.
144 European SuperiorityEuropeans believed that the new technology developed during the Industrial Revolution proved their superiority.They would be able to successfully manage colonies from far away by railroads, telegraph cables, and steamers.Europeans also believed that their religion and morals were the right way to live and felt a strong sense of duty to show others “the right way.”
145 Imperialism in AfricaCompetition for colonies in Africa was so fierce that European countries feared war.A meeting in Berlin in 1884 was called to settle land disputes. (No African rulers were invited)European countries agreed that any European country could claim land by sending in troops to occupy that area.Border lines were drawn without regard to the native cultures.
146 European Countries in Africa The following countries all had colonies in Africaduring the 1900’s.BritainFranceGermanyItalyPortugalBelgiumSpain
147 Africa became a continent of colonies By the 1900s only two countries remained free from colonial rule; the rest of Africa had been carved into colonial territories.Liberia – A country set up by former U.S. slaves with American support.Ethiopia – Benefited from its mountainous geography, strategic position between three major colonial powers and its own strong leader.
148 Three types of imperialistic rule Colony = total ruleProtectorate = military presence / self ruleSphere of influence = pay taxes to preserve self-rule
149 The importance of South Africa Location of the Cape of Good HopeDiscovery of diamonds
150 The reality of Imperialism in Africa African were expected to work and pay taxesMany were forced to work against their willAfricans were treated as second class citizens and faced discriminationEuropeans found a wealth of mineral resources in AfricaEuropeans also used the land for cash cropsThey also introduced Christianity to Africans
151 Imperialism in South Asia Britain found in India what it did not in Africa.A supplier of raw material for European factoriesA large market for British goodsA large workforce for factories built in IndiaThe British East India Company set up trading posts in India in the 1600’s.India became a sphere of influence under the British East India Company.Even though the company was under the control of the British Crown, the company was free to govern India as it saw fit. It even had its own army.The British Crown did not intervene until it had to suppress an uprising called the Sepoy Rebellion.
152 The Sepoy RebellionSepoy – Indian soldiers working for the British East India CompanyAngered by deception of the British East India Company, led a rebellion.The British East India Company could not control the revolt, so the British troops set up a colony
153 Britain controls India Britain built transportation and communication systemsProjects built and funded by Indians and their taxesIndians were treated as second class citizens and faced discrimination
154 Imperialism in ChinaChina was a self-sufficient country which meant it did not need to trade with other countries. It had little interest in European goods.English merchants smuggled opium into China and created a demand.The Opium War was fought to try to end the British control of the substance but China was defeated.The Treaty of Nanking was signed which allowed Britain to establish spheres on influence in China.
155 Open Door Policy China was carved into spheres of influence Americans saw what was happening in China and feared they would lose their trading opportunities in China.The Open-Door Policy was established to enforce an “open-door” or the freedom to trade and sell to China for all merchants of all nations.This prevented China from being colonized but its fate lay in hands of other nations.
156 Chinese NationalismMany Chinese citizens also felt like second class citizens in their own country.Most of their major cities were controlled by outsiders.Nationalist groups such as the Boxers begin to form and protest foreign occupancy.
157 Japan’s isolationLike China, Japan had practiced isolation for a long timeFearing loss of independence, Japan conceded to trade with the U.S. and agreed to demands of Mathew PerryJapan began to industrialize and modernize its countryJapanese studied the ways of Westerners and adopted the best onesJapan was smart with its finances and stayed out of debt
158 Imperialism in the western hemisphere A demand for Latin American goods began to grow. Latin American countries borrowed money from American and European banks to fund enterprises.Unable to repay their debts, many of the lending nations began to take over the industries in Latin America and influence the countries politically.Roosevelt Corollary
159 The Pacific IslandsThe Pacific Islands were rich in resources and had military advantages.The U.S. was interested in Hawaii and made it a territory in 1898.The U.S. acquired the Philippines and Guam as a result of the Spanish- American War.
161 Underlying causes: Militarism Alliance system Imperialism Nationalism World War IUnderlying causes:MilitarismAlliance systemImperialismNationalism
162 MilitarismThe belief that the use of force is an acceptable way to decide political problemsBuilt large armies and stockpiled weaponsDeveloped war plansWar fought on two fronts
163 Alliance system Fear leads nations to seek out friends Triple Alliance– Germany, Austria-Hungary, ItalyTriple Entente– Great Britain, France, RussiaPromise to assist if ally is under attack
164 Imperialism Competition creates tension between European nations Competing for: colonies, new markets, sources of raw materialsImperialized areas: Africa, India, parts of the Middle East, China
165 Nationalism Love of one’s country Influenced the Great Powers to make their nation “the best”Power includes money, land and control of trade marketsMinor countries sought independence
166 WAR! Archduke Franz Ferdinand was murdered Austria declares war on SerbiaBoth alliances mobilize for fightingBattle zones include: Europe, Asia and AfricaNew weapons include: machine guns, tank, poison gas, flame throwers
167 The War EndsBoth sides suffer from loss of life and widespread destructionU.S. enters war in 1918 on the side of the alliesNovember 9th, 1918: Germany surrendersArmistice signed November 11– end of fightingTreaty of VersaillesLeague of Nations