Presentation on theme: "Ergonomics Standard Grade Craft & Design. Ergonomics: A definition Ergonomics is the study of how humans interact with their environments and the products."— Presentation transcript:
Ergonomics Standard Grade Craft & Design
Ergonomics: A definition Ergonomics is the study of how humans interact with their environments and the products in them. It seeks to achieve the most advantageous matches between products, environments, and systems and the capacities, needs and inclinations of the people who use them.
There are three areas for consideration: Anthropometrics Physiology Psychology
Anthropometrics This is the study of the measurements and dimensions of the human body. It is important to realise that the dimensions of any product must have a direct relationship to the dimensions of the user.
Physiology An understanding of how the human body’s capabilities is essential when designing products in order to avoid stress, strain, fatigue and the possibility of injury. Careful consideration must be given to factors as diverse as strength, muscle control, posture, flexibility, joint movement and reaction times.
Psychology Mental and emotional triggers can stimulate human behaviour. It is important to have an understanding of how people receive, perceive and process information in order to design products which are appealing and easy to use.
More information… Well designed products are easy to use and we often become attracted to the efficiency of how they work. The attraction extends beyond aesthetics and is not concerned with visual beauty. The attraction lies in how the product interacts with us and the effect it has on our way of life. All the senses have a role in how we perceive a product and this affects our reaction to it.
Anthropometrics People come in many shapes and sizes. Anthropometrics is the branch of ergonomics which deals with the measurement of the physical characteristics of human beings. The designer’s goal is to cater for as wide a range of people as possible. Every product must interact in someway with people at some stage in its life. So when designing products it makes sense to use the measurements of the people who are to use them as a basis for the products’ dimensions. Products should be designed around the dimensions, capabilities and responses of the people who will use them. This information is available from many sources.
Anthropometrics cont… There is no point in designing the majority of products for the average person. A door is a good example of a product that should not be designed for an average user – the average height of a fully grown adult will be 174 centimetres and if the doors were this height then 50% of people who walk through the door would have to bend to avoid hitting their head.
The 5 th to 95 th Percentile We are all individuals and our body sizes are all different. The graph shows the normal distribution curve for a given number of people against height. Most people fall within the 5 th to 95 th percentile. It is important to think about the different sizes and what would be important to your design when selecting your anthropometrics for your product.
Past Paper practise During the design of a pair of pliers, reference was made to data sheets of human dimensions. State the name of this type of data. The pliers have been designed to be used by adults in the 5 th to 95 th percentile range. Explain what is meant by the term 5 th to 9 5th percentile range. Sketches may be used to illustrate your answer Using the two headings given, write down statements which are likely to have appeared in the design specification for the joystick, Economics and Ergonomics A scooter should be suitable for a range of adults whose height is between the 5 th and 95 th percentile. State what this means. Anthropometric data is used by designers. Explain the term anthropometric data Give one example of anthropometric data that would be used when designing a pot State which part of the design process would be influenced by this data?