3 The 5 Defining Characteristics of Minerals Naturally Occurring – this means they form naturally and are not manmade.2. Inorganic – this means they were never alive or living.
4 Definite Composition – this means that we know what they are made of and it can not change. If it does change, then it becomes a different mineral.
5 Distinct Physical and Chemical Properties – this means that every mineral has very specific physical and chemical properties used to identify them.If these properties change, then the mineral becomes a different mineral.
6 Crystalline Structure – this means that every mineral is made up of crystals. Sometimes the crystals are large and visible, other times you can only see them with a microscope.
8 Paper Wood Sulfur Clay Talc Copper Below is a list of objects. Eight of them are minerals. Can you find them all?Sugar Salt DiamondPearl Glass WaterPaper Wood Sulfur Clay Talc CopperBrick Sand Gold
9 What minerals can be found in the following objects What minerals can be found in the following objects? Use your ESRT’s (Earth Science Reference Tables).ToothpasteSand PaperSheetrockCoffee MugSinker (for fishing)PencilMagnetIndian Paint PotMatchesI-pod or cell phoneTable SaltGlassBaby Powder
10 So, what would your life be like without minerals?
12 Review of Elements and Compounds atomAn _______ is the smallest part of and element that can be identified as that element.An __________ is a simple substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by ordinary chemical means.For example: You could have two ________ of the _________ Oxygen (O2).elementatomselement
13 compound molecule molecule compound A __________ is a substance made up of two or more elements that are chemically combined.A ___________ is the smallest part of a substance that has all the properties of that substance.For example: You could have one _________ of the __________ known as water (H2O).compoundmoleculemoleculecompound
14 All Elements and their physical and chemical properties can be found on the Periodic Table of the Elements.
15 How do we read a chemical formula? shorthandA chemical symbol is a _______________ way of writing the name of an element (see the periodic table). Example: The chemical symbol for Oxygen is _____.A chemical formula is a formula that shows the ____________ that make up the ____________. For example: H2O is a chemical formula for the compound water.Oelementscompound
16 Practice: Fe3Al2Si3O12 subscript two (2) one (1) A ____________ is a number in a chemical formula that shows how many of each atom is in one molecule of a compound. For example: in H2O there are ______ atoms of the element Hydrogen (H) and ______ atom of the element Oxygen (O).subscripttwo (2)one (1)Practice: Fe3Al2Si3O12
17 Practice Using page 16 of your ESRT’s, match the following elements to their symbols. Write the letter of the correct symbol in the space provided.________ 1. potassium a. Ca________ 2. sulfur b. Fe________ 3. calcium c. Pb________ 4. iron d. K________ 5. lead e. S
18 Using page 16 of your ESRT’s, complete the following chart. Mineral NameChemical FormulaTotal Number of Elements PresentTotal Number of Atoms PresentTotal Number of Oxygen Atoms PresentMagnetite2CaCO35Potassium Feldspar8
19 How do minerals form? Remember: A mineral is ________________ occurring, _________________ (never been alive and not from a living thing) solid formed from __________ or ___________ and having a definite ________________ makeup and __________________ atomic structure.naturallyinorganicelementscompoundschemicalcrystalline
20 Minerals MUST meet ALL of the following requirements: 1. Be naturally occurring (not manmade) 2. Be the same throughout (homogeneous, like milk) 3. Made of only ONE element or ONE compound (this can be determined by reading the chemical formula) 4. Inorganic (not made of living things) 5. Have a definite chemical formula (We just learned this!)
21 Minerals are formed ________________ by the process of ___________________ as a result of specific environmental conditions. These include three basic ways:inorganicallycrystallization
22 1. __________ and ________________ of magma. Coolingsolidification
23 ______________ from water caused by such processes as ____________ (like salt crystallizing as water evaporates), _____________ and ______________.PrecipitationevaporationChemical reactionsTemperature changes
24 3. ____________ of atoms in existing minerals that are subjected to conditions of high ___________ and __________.Rearrangementtemperaturepressure
25 How do we identify minerals? We identify minerals based on their ________ and ________ properties.physicalchemical
26 1. LUSTER – the mineral can be either ______________ or _______________ Example: galena is metallic, quartz is non-metallicmetallicNon-metallic
27 2. Hardness – how easily the mineral is scratched 2. Hardness – how easily the mineral is scratched. Hardness is measured on a scale from 1 (very soft) to 10 (very hard) called ______________________Mohs’ Hardness Scale
28 Mohs’ Hardness ScaleRemember: You can only scratch a mineral with something that is HARDER than the mineral!184.108.40.206.5
29 3. _________________ and _______________ describe the way a mineral breaks. Cleavage is when the break is _____________ and ________________. Fracture is when the break is _____________ and ________________. Example: Mica has perfect cleavage, Quartz has fractureCleavagefractureevensmoothly flatunevenrough
33 4. ____________ can help to identify a mineral 4. ____________ can help to identify a mineral. But, be careful because the same mineral can come in many different colors! Example: Quartz can be clear, white, black, gray, purple, orange, pink, etc.Color
35 5. The streak is the _____________ of the mineral if it is powdered 5. The streak is the _____________ of the mineral if it is powdered. You powder it by rubbing it on a streak plate. The color of the streak is always the same no matter what the color of the mineral is. Example: hematite can be red or silver, but the streak is ALWAYS brown!color
37 6. The _______________ of a mineral can be used to help identify it 6. The _______________ of a mineral can be used to help identify it. Some minerals are very dense. Example: Magnetitedensity
38 7. The __________ test is used to determine if calcium carbonate is present. The acid will bubble if the mineral contains CaCO3. Example: Calciteacid
39 8. Other Tests Magnetism is another way to help identify a mineral 8. Other Tests Magnetism is another way to help identify a mineral. If the magnet is attracted to the sample, then the sample contains a significant amount of iron. Two minerals that attract a magnet are magnetite and hematite (in its metallic form only).
41 Read through the rest of your notes on how to determine the properties of a mineral sample. Make sure you understand how to do this as you will have to determine several properties of minerals on the NEW YORK STATE Regents Lab Practical in June! Good Luck!
42 What are mineral resources? Except for energy from the Sun, pretty much everything else we need comes from the Earth. Natural resources include all of the things that come naturally from the Earth such as water, air, plants, animals, etc. These natural resources are further broken down into groups. One such group are classified as mineral resources.
43 Mineral resources include ________________, _______________, and ______________. mineralsrocksFossil fuels
44 Mineral resources are ______________________ natural resources which means that once they are used up, they are gone and can not be replaced in a short enough time to be useful to humans. This means there is a ___________________ supply of our mineral resources. Examples include oil, gold, copper, and sulfur.non-renewablelimited
46 Fossil Fuels include __________ (petroleum), ______________, and _____________. oilNatural gascoal
47 They are the result of compaction and organic chemical changes of the remains of dead plants and animals in a sedimentary environment. This is why fossil fuels are only found in _______________rocks.sedimentary
48 At this time fossil fuels provide about __________ of our energy needs, but our resources are dwindling fast. As time passes, it is becoming more important to find alternative forms of energy.90%
49 Possible Energy Alternatives What are some alternative forms of energy? List some alternative forms of energy that could be used for the following necessities.NecessityPossible Energy AlternativesAutomobilesHeatElectricity