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1 I S T HIS A R ELIABLE M ODEL FOR P RODUCING 1000 GAL /A WITH T ODAY S E THANOL P LANTS ? Charles LeRoy Deichman Deichman Consulting Session: Bioenergy.

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Presentation on theme: "1 I S T HIS A R ELIABLE M ODEL FOR P RODUCING 1000 GAL /A WITH T ODAY S E THANOL P LANTS ? Charles LeRoy Deichman Deichman Consulting Session: Bioenergy."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 I S T HIS A R ELIABLE M ODEL FOR P RODUCING 1000 GAL /A WITH T ODAY S E THANOL P LANTS ? Charles LeRoy Deichman Deichman Consulting Session: Bioenergy Production, Modeling, Sustainability, and Policy ASA, CSSA, and SSSA 2010 International Annual Meetings Long Beach, CA October 31 - November 3, 2010

2 Photosynthesis 2 SUNLIGHTCATALYST CHL < CM < GL SS CSAF CO2 H2O CHL – Chloroplast CM – Chlorophyll Molecule GL – Green Leaf SS – Simple Sugars CS – Complex Sugars AF – Alcohol Fuels HPF – High Protein (VM) Feed MDAP – Meat, Dairy, and Animal Products CO2P – CO 2 Sourced Products OF – Organic Fertilizer HPF CO 2 CO2P MDAP OF 360 o Carbon Cycle (kW)

3 3 SUNLIGHT in Corn Production A Paradigm Shift The Solar Corridor Corn rows spaced widely enough apart to enable sunlight to reach the lower leaves for the entire growing season Rows oriented North-South to maximize sunlight falling between the twin row pairs and on the secondary crops Lower leaves are exposed to sunlight Secondary Crop Wheat, then clover Corn Twin Row

4 4 SUNLIGHT in Corn Production A Paradigm Shift Corn rows spaced far enough apart to enable sunlight to reach the lower leaves for the entire growing season Corn rows spaced far enough apart to enable sunlight to reach the lower leaves for the entire growing season Enabling the bio capture of more CO2 for BioSynthesis into more photosynthate derived carbon compounds Enabling the bio capture of more CO2 for BioSynthesis into more photosynthate derived carbon compounds Grow a shorter symbiotic crop on the vacated row that completes its Grow a shorter symbiotic crop on the vacated row that completes its peak demand for sunlight before the corn plant begins its increasing demand for that light Rows oriented North-South to maximize sunlight falling between the twin row pairs and on the secondary crops Lower leaves are exposed to sunlight Secondary Crop Wheat, then clover Corn Twin Row

5 5 The New Paradigm Enables the mature chloroplasts to capture more CO2 and produce more photosynthates Enables the mature chloroplasts to capture more CO2 and produce more photosynthates Enables the highest capacity reproductive sinks to access more photosynthates Enables the highest capacity reproductive sinks to access more photosynthates Enables vegetative sinks to access more photosynthates Enables vegetative sinks to access more photosynthates Cultivar and variety selection is site specific, production inputs then become variety specific Cultivar and variety selection is site specific, production inputs then become variety specific

6 6 Treatments 12 Production Environments 12 Production Environments 4 Hybrids (Designated A, B, C, and D) 4 Hybrids (Designated A, B, C, and D) 4 Plant populations 4 Plant populations 3 Replications 3 Replications Randomized Block Split/Split Plot design Randomized Block Split/Split Plot design 1st split by hybrid, 2nd by plant population 1st split by hybrid, 2nd by plant population 2 Row width entries 2 Row width entries Control: Single rows on 30 or 36 inch centers Control: Single rows on 30 or 36 inch centers Treatment: Twin rows on 60 or 72 inch centers Treatment: Twin rows on 60 or 72 inch centers All treatments were in north/south rows between 40 and 41 degrees North latitude All treatments were in north/south rows between 40 and 41 degrees North latitude Deichman Consulting

7 7 RESPONSE OF HYBRIDS TO ROW SPACING Average Over 12 Environments And 4 Plant Populations Deichman Consulting

8 8 RESPONSE OF HYBRIDS TO ROW SPACING Average Over 8 Highest Yielding Environments And 4 Plant Populations Deichman Consulting

9 9 RESPONSE OF HYBRIDS TO ROW SPACING Average Over 12 Environments At Highest Yielding Plant Population (30,000) Deichman Consulting

10 10 Plant Population and Row Width Brenton Sil – Hybrid B Deichman Consulting

11 11 Plant Population and Row Width Brenton Sil – Hybrid D Deichman Consulting

12 12 HYBRID B – AT 30,000 POPULATION Site 1 Site 2 Deichman Consulting

13 13 HYBRID C – AT 30,000 POPULATION Site 1 Site 2 Deichman Consulting

14 14 HYBRID D – AT 30,000 POPULATION Site 1 Site 2 Deichman Consulting

15 HARVESTING OPTIONS FOR THE SOLAR CORRIDOR FLOOR CROP 15 MITSUBISHI VM7 Combine fits 60 rows MITSUBISHI MB220 Binder MITSUBISHI VS281 Combine fits 72 rows

16 16 Floor Crops and Effective Yields As specifically demonstrated in Solar Corridor Floor Experiments (Deichman, and US Patent # , claims 2 and 4), we can produce other specifically chosen crops between the corn twin rows without a reduction in corn yield. Our approach has always been to select crops that had no negative impact on corn yield. We have concluded that: Soybeans are not a viable floor crop because of their effect on corn yields. Soybeans are not a viable floor crop because of their effect on corn yields. Wheat is a viable floor crop. If careful attention is given to the swath width of the wheat crop, a full yield (per wheat acre) of what can be produced without affecting corn yield (per crop acre). Wheat is a viable floor crop. If careful attention is given to the swath width of the wheat crop, a full yield (per wheat acre) of what can be produced without affecting corn yield (per crop acre). Therefore ½ of the Solar Corridor crop acre can be assigned to corn, and the other ½ to a viable floor crop such as wheat. Therefore ½ of the Solar Corridor crop acre can be assigned to corn, and the other ½ to a viable floor crop such as wheat. The effective yields per corn acre are therefore exactly double the yields per crop acre reported on the previous charts. The effective yields per corn acre are therefore exactly double the yields per crop acre reported on the previous charts. 1 Deichman, C. L., Solar Corridor Floor Crop Experiments, ASA-CSSA-SSSA International Annual Meetings, November 6-10, 2005, Salt Lake City, 147-9

17 1x Wheat and Clover 1x Corn 17 2x Corn 2x Corn+ 1x Wheat and Clover Comparison of Crop Yields Achieving The Goal of 1000 gal/A Ethanol Conventional Planting The Solar Corridor System Corn FieldWheat and Clover Field Wheat and Clover Planted Between Widely-spaced Twin Rows of Corn Using the Solar Corridor System, each of the hybrids B, C, & D yielded 192 or more bushels per crop acre (384 bushels per effective corn acre), enough for today's ethanol plants to produce 1000 gallons of ethanol (assuming 2.65 gallons/bushel yield).

18 18 Summary and Conclusions Increased productivity can be achieved through the utilization of the Solar Corridor System Increased productivity can be achieved through the utilization of the Solar Corridor System Sunlight is made available to more chloroplasts to produce more carbohydrates to meet sink demands through physiological maturity Sunlight is made available to more chloroplasts to produce more carbohydrates to meet sink demands through physiological maturity Appropriately selected site specific supporting practices maximize Solar Corridor benefits Appropriately selected site specific supporting practices maximize Solar Corridor benefits Increased Yield, Reduced Lodging Increased Yield, Reduced Lodging Increased Sequestration of CO2 Increased Sequestration of CO2 Solar Corridor floor crop harvest options do exist Solar Corridor floor crop harvest options do exist We need to further develop and refine these options We need to further develop and refine these options

19 19 Summary and Conclusions (cont.) Can produce another 30bb annual gal of anhydrous equivalent alcohol fuels, Can produce another 30bb annual gal of anhydrous equivalent alcohol fuels, Plus significant quantities of clean substitutes for diesel fuel, glycerol, methane to power electric generators, high energy protein, etc., Plus significant quantities of clean substitutes for diesel fuel, glycerol, methane to power electric generators, high energy protein, etc., Without using any of our current food supply, cellulosic feedstock, or increasing corn (or total crop) acres, Without using any of our current food supply, cellulosic feedstock, or increasing corn (or total crop) acres, While increasing sequestration of CO2. While increasing sequestration of CO2. Based on the performance data presented, the increased biosynthesis of the atmospheric CO2 currently available in the US heartland resulting from the full deployment of the proposed new paradigm:


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