2 Blood pH Normal levels of pH are 0-14 Below 6- acidic Above 7-alkaline Use pH paper to determine acidity or alkalinityThese pH levels are used for chemicals, body fluids, such as urine, gastric content
3 AcidsSubstances that when dissolved in water will ionize into positively charged hydrogen ions and negatively charged ions of some other element.
4 Alkali (Bases)Substances that when dissolved in water ionizes into negatively charged hydroxide ions and positively charged ions of metal
5 NeutralizationThis is the result when an acid and a base are combined to form a salt and a water.Example: heartburn: give antacids and neutralizes the acid into a salt and a water and the heartburn goes away.
6 Arterial BloodArterial Blood gas testing measures the dissolved O2 and CO2 and pH levels in the arterial blood.
7 Arterial Blood gasesThe ABG measure the effectiveness of tissue perfusion and when imbalanced several health conditions can occur.
8 pH The pH reflects the hydrogen ions in the circulating blood. This complex buffering system exists in the respiratory and cardiovascular mechanisms and keeps the systems in balance.
9 RespiratoryThe lungs (respiratory) compensate for the imbalance within 2 to 3 hours.
10 MetabolicThe kidneys (metabolic) compensate for the imbalances within 2 to 3 days.
11 Health problems that will alter ABG results AsthmaPneumoniaEmphysemaHypoxiaSepsis (infection)ShockAnesthesiaDrug overdose (Aspirin toxicity)
12 Arterial Blood pHThis is a useful indicator to determine acid/base balance within the body.Normal range is 7.35 to 7.45
13 Intracellular- fluid within the cell HomeostasisIntracellular- fluid within the cellExtracellular-fluid outside the cell
14 Arterial blood gas (ABG) Arterial samples provide information about the ability of the lungs to regulate acid/base balance through retention or release CO2. Effectiveness of the kidneys maintaining appropriate bicarbonate levels can also be gauged.
15 pH 7.35 to 7.45 CO2- 35-45 (respiratory) HCO3- 24-28 (metabolic) Application of ABGpH to 7.45CO (respiratory)HCO (metabolic)O2 saturation- 80 to100