2Blood pH Normal levels of pH are 0-14 Below 6- acidic Above 7-alkaline Use pH paper to determine acidity or alkalinityThese pH levels are used for chemicals, body fluids, such as urine, gastric content
3AcidsSubstances that when dissolved in water will ionize into positively charged hydrogen ions and negatively charged ions of some other element.
4Alkali (Bases)Substances that when dissolved in water ionizes into negatively charged hydroxide ions and positively charged ions of metal
5NeutralizationThis is the result when an acid and a base are combined to form a salt and a water.Example: heartburn: give antacids and neutralizes the acid into a salt and a water and the heartburn goes away.
6Arterial BloodArterial Blood gas testing measures the dissolved O2 and CO2 and pH levels in the arterial blood.
7Arterial Blood gasesThe ABG measure the effectiveness of tissue perfusion and when imbalanced several health conditions can occur.
8pH The pH reflects the hydrogen ions in the circulating blood. This complex buffering system exists in the respiratory and cardiovascular mechanisms and keeps the systems in balance.
9RespiratoryThe lungs (respiratory) compensate for the imbalance within 2 to 3 hours.
10MetabolicThe kidneys (metabolic) compensate for the imbalances within 2 to 3 days.
11Health problems that will alter ABG results AsthmaPneumoniaEmphysemaHypoxiaSepsis (infection)ShockAnesthesiaDrug overdose (Aspirin toxicity)
12Arterial Blood pHThis is a useful indicator to determine acid/base balance within the body.Normal range is 7.35 to 7.45
13Intracellular- fluid within the cell HomeostasisIntracellular- fluid within the cellExtracellular-fluid outside the cell
14Arterial blood gas (ABG) Arterial samples provide information about the ability of the lungs to regulate acid/base balance through retention or release CO2. Effectiveness of the kidneys maintaining appropriate bicarbonate levels can also be gauged.
15pH 7.35 to 7.45 CO2- 35-45 (respiratory) HCO3- 24-28 (metabolic) Application of ABGpH to 7.45CO (respiratory)HCO (metabolic)O2 saturation- 80 to100