# Periodic Table Determining Shells and Valence Electrons

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Periodic Table Determining Shells and Valence Electrons
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Periods Each row is called a “period”
The elements in each period have the same number of shells 1st Period = 1 Shell 2nd Period = 2 Shells 3rd Period = 3 Shells 4th Period = 4 Shells

Groups Group 8 = 8 electrons Group 1 = 1 electron
Except for He, it has 2 electrons Group 2 = 2 electrons Each column is called a “group” 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 Each element in a group has the same number of electrons in their outer orbital, also known as “shells”. The electrons in the outer shell are called “valence electrons”

Transition Metals Transition Metals have slightly different rules for shells and valence electrons. This is something you will learn about in your Chemistry course later on.

2nd Period = how many shells?
Determine the number of shells and the number of valence electrons for: Carbon - C 2nd Period = how many shells? 4th Group = How many valence electrons

Determine the number of shells and the number of valence electrons for:
Sodium - Na 3rd Period = ? 1st Group = ?

Ne Name the element. Number of shells ? Valence electrons ?

Ne Name the element. Number of shells ? Valence electrons ? Neon 2nd Period = 2 shells 8th Group = 8 valence electrons

Name the element. Number of shells ? Valence electrons ?

Name the element. Number of shells ? Valence electrons ? Hydrogen 1st Period = 1 shell 1st Group = 1 valence electron

Be Name the element. Number of shells ? Valence electrons ?

Be Name the element. Number of shells ? Valence electrons ? Beryllium 2nd Period = 2 shells 2nd Group = 2 valence electrons

Name the element. Number of shells ? Valence electrons ?

Name the element. Number of shells ? Valence electrons ? Sulfur 3rd Period = 3 shells 6th Group = 6 valence electrons

K Name the element. Number of shells ? Valence electrons ?

K Name the element. Number of shells ? Valence electrons ? Potassium 4th Period = 4 shells 1st Group = 1 valence electron

He Name the element. Number of shells ? Valence electrons ?

He Name the element. Number of shells ? Valence electrons ? Helium 1st Period = 1 shell 8th Group = 2 valence electrons Helium is the exception in Group 8. Since it has just one shell, that shell can only fit 2 electrons instead of 8. It is in this group because all the elements have a full outer shell.

The valence electrons travel further from the nucleus and have a higher energy

Because these electrons are further away from the nucleus, the attraction is weaker and more easily broken This is why the valence electrons determine the behavior or reactivity of an element with other elements

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