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Brain Injury 1. Concept Map: Selected Topics in Neurological Nursing PATHOPHYSIOLOGY Traumatic Brain Injury Spinal Cord Injury Specific Disease Entities:

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Presentation on theme: "Brain Injury 1. Concept Map: Selected Topics in Neurological Nursing PATHOPHYSIOLOGY Traumatic Brain Injury Spinal Cord Injury Specific Disease Entities:"— Presentation transcript:

1 Brain Injury 1

2 Concept Map: Selected Topics in Neurological Nursing PATHOPHYSIOLOGY Traumatic Brain Injury Spinal Cord Injury Specific Disease Entities: Amyotropic Lateral Sclerosis Multiple Sclerosis Huntington’s Disease Alzheimer’s Disease Huntington’s Disease Myasthenia Gravis Guillian-Barre’ Syndrome Meningitis Parkinson’s Disease PHARMACOLOGY --Decrease ICP --Disease Specific Meds ASSESSMENT Physical Assessment Inspection Palpation Percussion Auscultation ICP Monitoring “Neuro Checks” Lab Monitoring Care Planning Plan for client adl’s, Monitoring, med admin., Patient education, more…based On Nursing Process: A_D_P_I_E Nursing Interventions & Evaluation Execute the care plan, evaluate for Efficacy, revise as necessary

3 Objectives 3 Recall anatomy and physiology of the brain & cranial nerves Explain pathophysiology of various brain (head) injuries Detail signs, symptoms and prevention of Increased Intracranial Pressure (ICP) Demonstrate effective use of Glasgow Coma Scale Discuss medical & nursing management of brain injuries

4 4 Sometimes: The Lights are on…. But nobody’s home….

5 Anatomy & Physiology Review 5 OOOTTAFAGVSHOOOTTAFAGVSH I II III IV V VI Vii VIII IX X XI XII lfactory ptic culomotor rochlear rigeminal bducens acial coustic lossopharyngeal agus pinal accessory ypoglossal

6 Cranial NerveFunctionStructures Innervated I Olfactory SmellOlfactory Bulb II Optic VisionRetina III Oculomotor Eyeball movement Lens Accomodation Pupil Constriction 4 eyeball muscles 1 eyelid muscle IV Trochlear Eyeball MovementSuperior Oblique Muscles V Trigeminal 1.Sensation 2.General Sensory From Tongue 3.Proprioception 1.Face, scalp, teeth, lips, eyeballs, nose, throat lining 2. Anterior 2/3 of tongue 3.Muscles of mastication VI Abducens Eyeball movementLateral Rectus muscle VII Facial 1.Taste 2.Proprioception 3.Facial Expressions 4.Salivation & Lacrimation 1.Face & Scalp 2.Face & Scalp 3.Muscles of face 4.Salivary & Lacrimal Glands VIII Acoustic 1.Balance 2.Hearing 1.Vestibular apparatus 2.Cochlea IX Glossopharyngeal 1.Taste 2.Proprioception for swallowing 3.Blood pressure receptors 4.Swallowing & gag reflex 5.Tear production 6.Saliva production 1.Posterior 2/3 of tongue 2.Throat muscles 3.Carotid sinuses 4.Throat muscles 5.Lacrimal glands 6.Parotid glands X Vagus 1.Chemoreceptors 2.Pain receptors 3.Sensations 4.Taste 5.Heart Rate & Stroke Volume 6.Peristalsis 7.Air Flow 8.Speech & Swallowing 1.Blood O2 Concentration, Aortic bodies 2.Respiratory & Digestive Tracts 3.External ear, larynx, pharynx 4.Tongue 5.Pacemaker & Ventricular Muscles 6.Smooth muscles of digestive tract 7.Smooth muscles of bronchioles 8.Muscles of larynx & pharynx XI Spinal Accessory 1.Head rotation, upright position 2.Shrugging shoulders 1. Trapezius & sternocleidomastoid muscles XII Hypoglossal Speech & SwallowingTongue & Throat muscles

7 Brain Trauma 7 Brain injury results in more trauma deaths than do injuries to any other body region!

8 Primary Injury 8 moment of impact Mechanical trauma that occurs at the moment of impact and may lead to irreversible cell damage from physical disruption of neurons or axons

9 9 3 Top Causes

10 10

11 Risk Factors 11  Highest in young people and the elderly *Age 65 – 75 has highest incidence of HI of ALL age groups*  Occurs twice as often among males compared with females  Motor vehicle crashes account for the major proportion of head and brain injuries….and involve a disproportionately large number of young persons  Alcohol intoxication is a compounding factor in at least 30% to 50% of head injuries and is a contributing factor in almost ½ of all fatal motor vehicle crashes in the United States

12 Did you Know ? 12 Laws that require helmet use have been shown to reduce deaths in motorcyclists by about 30%

13 13 Boxing: Coup- Contre Coup Injury : “The second collision”

14 “Rear-Ended” – “ Whiplash ” Effect 14

15 - EMS - First Responders At the Scene: - EMS - First Responders 15

16 16 1. Maintain ability to breathe 2. Prevent shock 3. Immobilization to prevent further spinal cord damage (Backboard + C-Collar)

17 EMS type C- Collar 17

18 18 Spinal Injury Assumed With Any Head Injury

19 EMS Back Boards 19

20 Upon Arrival to ER… 20

21 Baseline Assessment 21 Vital Signs Glasgow Coma Score (GCS)

22 22 GCS The GCS is the most widely used method of defining a patient's Level of Consciousness (LOC)

23 23 Everybody Check Hand Grasps for Motor Strength byCROSSING

24 24

25 25

26 Oculocephalic Reflex (Doll’s Eye) 26

27 OCR 27

28 C – Spine Before C – Spine X-Ray “Cross-Table Lat” Before removal of ANY immobilization devices 28

29 As Much as Possible In ER 29 Instruct client to avoid sneezing or coughing Provide calm environment Maintain immobilization Avoid meds the decrease LOC such as analgesics

30 Severity of Head Injury 30 Severe GCS 3 – 8 : Severe Head Injury Moderate GCS9 – 12: Moderate Head Injury Mild GCS : Mild Head Injury GCS SCORE < 8 = COMA

31 31 The best guide to the severity of head injury is the level of consciousness

32 32

33 History of Injury 33 Loss of Consciousness? Other victims seriously hurt? Mechanism of injury?  Driver / passenger / seatbelt ?  Fall height / what caused fall?  Hit where and with what?  Gunshot / impaled object ?

34 Open or Closed Injury ? 34

35 Diagnostics 35 glucose Damaged areas of the brain have a reduced or no blood flow or glucose metabolism. This can be seen in the images below where there has been a blow to the head by a rock

36 Skull Fractures 36 Present on CT scans in about two thirds of patients after head injury Skull fractures can be linear, depressed, or diastatic and may involve the cranial vault or skull base

37 Depressed Skull Fractures 37 A portion of the skull is extending into the intracranial space Often results in pressure on the brain or direct injury to the brain In addition, the bone fragment may cause a laceration of the dura mater resulting in a cerebrospinal fluid leak Outcome is based upon the underlying brain injury. If no brain injury is present the surgery represents a cosmetic procedure and the outcome is generally quite good

38 38 Frontal Lobe- associated with reasoning, planning, parts of speech, movement, emotions, and problem solving Parietal Lobe- associated with movement, orientation, recognition, perception of stimuli Occipital Lobe- associated with visual processing Temporal Lobe- associated with perception and recognition of auditory stimuli, memory, and speech

39 Basal Skull Fractures 39 Clinical Clues may include:  CSF leakage through the ear or nose (otorrhea or rhinorrhea)  Hemotympanum (blood behind the eardrum)  Bruising behind the ears (postauricular ecchymoses)  “Battle Sign”  Bruising around the eyes (periorbital ecchymoses)  “Raccoon Eyes” “Panda Eyes” Injury to cranial nerves:  VII Facial nerve - weakness of the face  VIII Acoustic nerve - loss of hearing  I Olfactory nerve - loss of smell  II Optic nerve - vision loss  VI Abducens nerve - double vision

40 40

41 Basal Skull Fractures 41 1 frontal 2 ethmoid 3 sphenoid 4 temporal 5 parietal 6 occipital Involve the floor of the skull and include fractures of the cribriform plate, frontal bones, sphenoid bones, temporal bone and occipital bones

42 42 1. Frontal sinus 2. Crista galli 3. Cribriform plate 4. Lesser wing of sphenoid 5. Superior orbital fissure 6. Superior border of petrous part of temporal bone 7. Dense shadow of petrous part of temporal bone 8. Perpendicular plate of the ethmoid 9. Vomer 10. Maxillary sinus 11. Inferior concha 12. Ramus of mandible 13. Body of mandible

43 CSF Leakage 43 Rhinorrhea and otorrhea are clinical signs of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage in patients with skull fracture Presence ofglucose Beta-2 transferrin Presence of glucose (CSF) in otorrhea and rhinorrhea detected by Beta-2 transferrin. Nasal/ear discharge (glucostix) was traditionally used to diagnose CSF leak at the bedside, but has fallen into disuse as it has poor positive predictive value infection CSF leakage opens the brain & spinal canal to infection CSF is needed to cushion the brain, maintain pressure within the eye and cleanse the CNS (like the lymphatic system serves the same function in the rest of the body)

44 44 Halo Effect of CSF

45 Prevent Infection ! 45 Cover any suspected source of CSF leakage with a Sterile Dressing STAT !

46 Infection CSF Infection 46 Nuchal Rigidity CSF has WBCs Increased Temperature

47 Basal Skull Fractures 47 Most basal skull fractures do not require treatment and heal themselves Persistent CSF leakage may warrant operative repair of the leakage, particularly CSF leaks related to frontal bone and cribiform plate fractures

48 Associated with Brain Injury 48 Blood on Ocular Surface Blood in the anterior chamber of the eye (hyphaema) as a complication of blunt trauma. Eyes with hyphaema may show other signs of damage

49 Another Clue…. 49 Avulsed eye and lacerations to the forehead

50 Penetrating Brain Injury 50

51 Head Injury Assessment 51 Obvious Skull Fractures? Lacerations? Deformities? (bumps / indentations) Facial Injuries? Blood and/or CSF drainage from nostrils? (rhinorrhea) Blood and/or CSF drainage from ear canals? (otorrhea) Blood and/or CSF drainage from mouth? Blood and/or CSF drainage from eyes? Pain? Headache?

52 Collaborative Treatment Goals 52 M aintain Airway Breathing Circulation M aintain cerebral perfusion M aintain electrolyte balance M aintain fluid balance M aintain cognitive function HOW ????

53 53 Prevent Secondary Injury !!! IF Meaningful recovery of function after head injury is possible IF secondary injuries are prevented or minimized


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