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EXERCISE EFFECT ON THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM. Exercise is the most influential physiological stress on breathing Exercise increases the breaths/minute Exercise.

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Presentation on theme: "EXERCISE EFFECT ON THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM. Exercise is the most influential physiological stress on breathing Exercise increases the breaths/minute Exercise."— Presentation transcript:

1 EXERCISE EFFECT ON THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

2 Exercise is the most influential physiological stress on breathing Exercise increases the breaths/minute Exercise increases the breaths/minute Exercise increases the amount of air in each breath (tidal volume) Exercise increases the amount of air in each breath (tidal volume) How is increased ventilation accomplished?

3 During light exercise Ventilation increases linearly with oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide production Ventilation increases linearly with oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide production This increase in ventilation is accomplished more by increased tidal volume (breathing deeper in and out) This increase in ventilation is accomplished more by increased tidal volume (breathing deeper in and out)

4 During higher exercise levels Ventilation is increased more by increased breathing frequency Ventilation is increased more by increased breathing frequency This will keep the blood saturated with oxygen because the blood is in the alveoli capillaries long enough for complete diffusion of gases This will keep the blood saturated with oxygen because the blood is in the alveoli capillaries long enough for complete diffusion of gases

5 Steady rate (moderate) exercise sufficient oxygen is supplied to muscles sufficient oxygen is supplied to muscles due to increased oxygen up take, there is little, or no, build up of lactic acid in the muscles due to increased oxygen up take, there is little, or no, build up of lactic acid in the muscles some lactate will be produced and removed by the blood stream some lactate will be produced and removed by the blood stream lactic acid is neutralized in the blood (this reaction produces carbon dioxide as a by- product) lactic acid is neutralized in the blood (this reaction produces carbon dioxide as a by- product) increased carbon dioxide in the blood will stimulate increased ventilation increased carbon dioxide in the blood will stimulate increased ventilation Increased ventilation is accomplished by both increased tidal volume and frequency Increased ventilation is accomplished by both increased tidal volume and frequency

6 How does pulmonary ventilation (breathing) increase during exercise? 1. During light exercise (walking)? By increasing the tidal volume (breathing deeper) 2. During intense exercise (sprinting)? By increasing the frequency of breathing 3. During steady state exercise (jogging)? By increasing both the tidal volume and the frequency of breathing

7 It is the oxygen up take of the muscles that does not keep up with the oxygen demand (of muscles) during strenuous exercises – pulmonary ventilation is usually adequate – usually more than adequate. IMPORTANT!!

8 The Energy Cost of Breathing

9 At rest and with light exercise the energy cost of breathing is minimal (4% of energy) the energy cost of breathing is minimal (4% of energy)

10 During intense exercise the energy use may increase from % of total energy expenditure the energy use may increase from % of total energy expenditure

11 In a person with respiratory disease the work of breathing itself during exercise may be exhausting the work of breathing itself during exercise may be exhausting

12 The Effects of Cigarette Smoking Cigarette smoking has little long term effect on athletes in the initial years Cigarette smoking has little long term effect on athletes in the initial years Cigarettes have an immediate effect of airway resistance (as much as 3 times) that lasts about 35 minutes after only 15 puffs Cigarettes have an immediate effect of airway resistance (as much as 3 times) that lasts about 35 minutes after only 15 puffs This could be significant in vigorous exercise This could be significant in vigorous exercise

13 Ventilation Adaptations with Training

14 Minimal exercise ventilation during exercise improves with training (due to increased alveolar ventilation and increased tissue oxygen uptake) ventilation during exercise improves with training (due to increased alveolar ventilation and increased tissue oxygen uptake)

15 Sub-maximal exercise The percentage of energy used in breathing is reduced after training only 4 weeks Tidal volume increases Tidal volume increases Breathing frequency is reduced Breathing frequency is reduced This results in increased amounts of oxygen extracted from inspired air This results in increased amounts of oxygen extracted from inspired air  Untrained expired air contains 18% oxygen  Trained expired air contains 14-15% oxygen

16 This is important because It reduces the fatiguing of the ventilation musculature It reduces the fatiguing of the ventilation musculature The freed up oxygen (not used by the respiratory muscles) can be available for the exercising muscle The freed up oxygen (not used by the respiratory muscles) can be available for the exercising muscle

17 Specificity of Ventilation Response The improvements in the ventilation were evident only when the athletes performed the specific exercises that they were trained in The improvements in the ventilation were evident only when the athletes performed the specific exercises that they were trained in New exercises did not show any improved ventilation New exercises did not show any improved ventilation Why? Why?  It may be, the ventilation adjustments were signaled by neural and chemical changes in the trained muscles

18 What is Blood Doping? Blood doping is the practice of boosting the number of red blood cells (RBCs) in the bloodstream in order to enhance athletic performance. Because RBC’s carry oxygen from the lungs to the muscles, more RBC’s in the blood can improve an athlete’s aerobic capacity and endurance.


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