Presentation on theme: "Impact of Industrialization and Urbanization"— Presentation transcript:
1Impact of Industrialization and Urbanization SSWH15 The student will be able to describe the impact of industrialization, the rise of nationalism, and the major characteristics of worldwide imperialism.a. Analyze the process and impact of industrialization in England, Germany, and Japan, movements for political reform, the writings of Adam Smith and Karl Marx, and urbanization and its affect on women.
2The Industrial Revolution Began in Great Britain in the 1780’s and took several decades to spread to other Western nationsSeveral factors contributed to make GB the starting placeChanges in agriculture & increased food supplyIncreased populationReady supply of money to investPlentiful natural resourcesSupply of markets for manufactured goods
3Changes in Cotton Production In 18th century, cotton was made by individuals in their homesA series of technological advances including the spinning jenny, water powered loom, and steam engine made this inefficient.In 1760, Britain imported 2.5 million pounds of raw cotton to produce clothBy 1840, Britain imported 366 million pounds each year
4Coal & Iron IndustriesSteam engine crucial to Britain’s industrial revolutionEngine depended on coal which led to an expansion in coal productionNatural resources included large supplies of iron oreBurned away impurities on crude iron to improve the quality
6Railroads Particularly important to the success of the Revolution 1804 – first steam powered locomotiveBy 1850 able to reach 50 mph and more than 6000 miles of railroad tracks crisscrossed Great BritainBuilding railroads meant new jobs for farm laborers and peasantsLess expensive transportation meant larger markets, more sales, more factories, and more machinery.
7New Factories Another important element in the Industrial Revolution This new labor system led to shift workEarly workers came from rural areas so employers had to create a system of work discipline.
9Spread of Industrialization By mid nineteenth century, GB had become the world’s first and richest industrial nationThey produced one half of the world’s coal and manufactured goodsSpread to the rest of Europe at different times and speedsBelgium, France, and the German states were the first to be industrializedBy 1850, a network of railroads spread across Europe
10Social Impact in Europe Industrial Revolution changed the social life of Europe and the worldChange was evident in the growth of cities and the emergence of two new social classes-The Industrial Middle ClassThe Industrial Working Class
11Growth of Population & Cities In 1750, population in Europe was approximately 140 millionBy 1850, it had grown to 266 millionOver 50% lived in towns & citiesLed to pitiful living conditions which would prompt urban reformers in the second half of the century
13Industrial Middle Class The Industrial Revolution led to industrial capitalism, an economic system based on industrial productionIndustrial middle class were made up of the people who built factories, bought the machines, and figured out where the markets were
14Industrial Working Class Wretched working conditionsWork hours hrs/ 6 days a weekNo minimum wageWorst conditions in the cotton mills- dirty, dangerous, and unhealthyIn coal mines dangerous conditions including cave ins, explosions, and gas fumes were a way of life
15Impact on Women & Children By 1830 in Britain, women & children made up 2/3 of the cotton industry’s work forceFactory act of 1833, set 9 as the minimum age and limited hours a child could workAs children declined, women would make up 50% of the labor force by 1870Paid half or less than half of men’s wages.Eventually, laws that limited work hours of women & children would lead to a new pattern of work. Men outside the home and women at low paying jobs in the home.
16Early SocialismSystem in which society, usually in the form of the government, owns and controls some means of the production, such as factories & utilitiesEarly socialism believed in the equality of all people & wanted to replace competition with cooperation in industryLater socialists, such as the followers of Karl Marx, labeled earlier theorists as utopian socialists
17Karl Marx 1848, The Communist Manifesto, was published. Written by two Germans, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, who were appalled at the horrible working conditions in factoriesBlamed industrial capitalismFelt the working class- the proletariat- would overthrow the oppressors- the middle class and form a dictatorshipBelieved this revolution would result in a classless society
18New Urban EnvironmentBy the end of the 19th century, new industrial world led to the emergence of a mass society in which the concerns of the lower classes were centralBy 1890, urban dwellers increased to 60% in EnglandCities also grew because living conditions improved
19Reforms Boards of health were formed Building inspectors required new regulations such as running water & internal drainage systemsGas heaters made hot baths availableSewer systems were built to dispose of waster
20Impact of Urbanization on Women New job opportunities in industrial plants, retail shops, government services, education, health, and social services.Decline in the birth rateBy 1840’s and 50’s, the women’s movement expanded from earning property rights, access to universities and jobs, into political life and the right to vote.Between 1890 and 1914, family patterns began to change as working class mothers could afford to stay at home with their children rather than working