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Chapter 4 Role and Style of the OD Practitioner An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7 th edition Chapter 4 Slide 1.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 4 Role and Style of the OD Practitioner An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7 th edition Chapter 4 Slide 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 4 Role and Style of the OD Practitioner An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7 th edition Chapter 4 Slide 1

2 An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7 th edition Chapter 4 Slide 2 Learning Objectives  Define role of OD practitioner.  Identify your strengths and areas of improvement as potential practitioner.  Experience and practice your style of intervention and influence in a group.

3 An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7 th edition Chapter 4 Slide 3 You Need a Machete at Sears (part 1 of 2) Sears bought Lands’ End to upgrade its apparel image. Can Sears avoid hurting the image of Lands’ End? Sears is giving apparel operations to Lands’ End management.

4 An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7 th edition Chapter 4 Slide 4 You Need a Machete at Sears (part 2 of 2) Culture clashes between Lands’ End and Sears. “You need a machete” to get through it all, says former VP. Another says, “… to be successful …, you need to work through a culture, not against it.”

5 An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7 th edition Chapter 4 Slide 5 Haphazard Versus Planned Change Change programs do not happen accidentally. Initiated with purpose and require leadership. OD practitioner deals proactively with changing forces.

6 An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7 th edition Chapter 4 Slide 6 Two Types of Change in an Organization 1. Random or haphazard change. Forced on organization by external environment. Not prepared for. 2. Deliberate attempts to modify organization.

7 An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7 th edition Chapter 4 Slide 7 External Practitioner (part 1 of 2) Not previously associated with client system. Advantages:  Different viewpoint and objectivity.  Not dependent upon the organization.

8 An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7 th edition Chapter 4 Slide 8 External Practitioner (part 2 of 2) Disadvantages:  Unfamiliar with organization.  Unfamiliar with culture, communication networks, and power systems.

9 An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7 th edition Chapter 4 Slide 9 Internal Practitioner (part 1 of 3) Member of organization who can be:  A top executive.  Employee who initiates change in work group.  From human resources or OD department.

10 An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7 th edition Chapter 4 Slide 10 Internal Practitioner (part 2 of 3) Advantages:  Familiar with culture and norms.  Knows power structure.  Personal interest in organization.

11 An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7 th edition Chapter 4 Slide 11 Internal Practitioner (part 3 of 3) Disadvantages:  May lack specialized skills.  Lack of objectivity.  Likely to accept organizational system.  May lack necessary power and authority.

12 An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7 th edition Chapter 4 Slide 12 External-Internal Practitioner Team (part 1 of 3) Team combines external practitioner working with internal practitioner. Probably most effective approach.

13 An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7 th edition Chapter 4 Slide 13 External-Internal Practitioner Team (part 2 of 3) Partners bring complementary resources. External practitioner brings expertise, objectivity, and new insights. Internal practitioner brings knowledge of issues and norms, and awareness of strengths and weaknesses.

14 An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7 th edition Chapter 4 Slide 14 External-Internal Practitioner Team (part 3 of 3) Provides support to one another. Achieve greater continuity over OD program. Team combines advantages of both while minimizing disadvantages.

15 An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7 th edition Chapter 4 Slide 15 Our Changing World: One Country’s Resistance to Consulting Grows (part 1 of 2) Management consulting in Germany with public-sector causes a political fight. Involves U.S. and German management firms.

16 An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7 th edition Chapter 4 Slide 16 Our Changing World: One Country’s Resistance to Consulting Grows (part 2 of 2) Contracts legal but effectiveness questioned. Occurring when German economy in poor state. Management consulting new to public sector.

17 An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7 th edition Chapter 4 Slide 17 OD Practitioner Styles Practitioners have variety of styles. View styles as degree of emphasis placed upon 2 dimensions:  Effectiveness - degree of emphasis upon goal accomplishment.  Morale - degree of emphasis upon relationships and participant satisfaction.

18 An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7 th edition Chapter 4 Slide 18 Five Practitioner Styles (part 1 of 6) 1. Stabilizer style 2. Cheerleader style 3. Analyzer style 3. Persuader style 4. Pathfinder style

19 An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7 th edition Chapter 4 Slide 19 Five Practitioner Styles (part 2 of 6) Stabilizer Style Maintains low profile. Tries to survive by following directives.

20 An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7 th edition Chapter 4 Slide 20 Five Practitioner Styles (part 3 of 6) Cheerleader Style Places emphasis on member satisfaction. Does not emphasize organization effectiveness.

21 An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7 th edition Chapter 4 Slide 21 Five Practitioner Styles (part 4 of 6) Analyzer Style Places emphasis on efficiency. Little attention to satisfaction of members.

22 An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7 th edition Chapter 4 Slide 22 Five Practitioner Styles (part 5 of 6) Persuader Style Seeks compromise between cheerleader and analyzer styles. Achieves average performance.

23 An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7 th edition Chapter 4 Slide 23 Five Practitioner Styles (part 6 of 6) Pathfinder Style Seeks high organization efficiency and high member satisfaction. Desired style for OD practitioner.

24 An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7 th edition Chapter 4 Slide 24 Pathfinder Practitioner Focuses on Six Processes: 1. Communication. 2. Member roles in groups. 3. Group problem- solving. 4. Group norms and growth. 5. Leadership and authority. 6. Intergroup cooperation.

25 An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7 th edition Chapter 4 Slide 25 Figure 4.1 Practitioner Styles

26 An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7 th edition Chapter 4 Slide 26 OD in Practice: Bain & Co. (part 1 of 2) Bain one of largest consulting firms. 30+ years old, offices in 19+ countries. Clients include governments, businesses, and nonprofit organizations. Known for shrewd, suave people it employs.

27 An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7 th edition Chapter 4 Slide 27 OD in Practice: Bain & Co. (part 2 of 2) Employees secretive about Bain and clients. Builds close relationship with clients. Works directly with chief executive. Focuses on total system. Works collaboratively with clients.

28 An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7 th edition Chapter 4 Slide 28 Readiness of Organization for OD Key personnel first decide if change needed. Learning goals of OD appropriate? Cultural state of client ready for OD? Key people involved? Members prepared and oriented to OD?

29 An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7 th edition Chapter 4 Slide 29 The Intervention Intervention is coming between members of organization for purpose of change. Planned activities. External practitioner usually intervenes through top manager.

30 An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7 th edition Chapter 4 Slide 30 Who Is Client? Who client is becomes complex as practitioner intervenes. Client may be organization, certain divisions, or an individual.

31 An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7 th edition Chapter 4 Slide 31 Practitioner Role in Intervention Operates on belief that team is basic building block. Concerned with how processes occur. Believes that assisting client, not taking control, will lead to lasting solution.

32 An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7 th edition Chapter 4 Slide 32 OD Practitioner Skills and Activities Team development. Corporate change. Strategy development. Management development. Employee development. Technology integration.

33 An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7 th edition Chapter 4 Slide 33 Table 4.1 OD Practitioner Skills and Activities

34 An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7 th edition Chapter 4 Slide 34 Six Key Skill Areas Critical to Success of Practitioner 1. Leadership. 2. Project management. 3. Communication. 4. Problem-solving. 5. Interpersonal. 6. Personal.

35 An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7 th edition Chapter 4 Slide 35 Figure 4.2 Practitioner Skills Profile

36 An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7 th edition Chapter 4 Slide 36 Forming Practitioner-Client Relationship A system of interacting elements. Consists of:  Practitioner.  Client contact.  Client target system.

37 An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7 th edition Chapter 4 Slide 37 Figure 4.3 System’s View of Change Relationship

38 An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7 th edition Chapter 4 Slide 38 Initial Perceptions Initial intervention an evaluation by client and practitioner of each other. First impressions important. Relationship based on mutual trust and openness.

39 An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7 th edition Chapter 4 Slide 39 Concepts of Perception Process whereby individuals give meaning to environment by interpreting and organizing sensory impressions. People behave on basis of what is perceived versus what really is.

40 An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7 th edition Chapter 4 Slide 40 Perception The process individuals use to interpret and organize sensory impressions. What one perceives can be different from reality.

41 An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7 th edition Chapter 4 Slide 41 Selective Perception Selectivity of information that is perceived. Process in which people tend to ignore information that conflicts with their values. Accepts other information that agrees with their values.

42 An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7 th edition Chapter 4 Slide 42 Closure Tendency of individual to fill in missing information in order to complete perception. A person perceives more in the situation than is really there.

43 An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7 th edition Chapter 4 Slide 43 Figure 4.4 Perception Formation and Effect on Relationships

44 An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7 th edition Chapter 4 Slide 44 Dilemma Interactions Include:  Questions about client’s definition of problem.  Client’s awareness of need for change.  Client’s unrealistic expectations.  Client’s misuse of power.  Value differences with client and practitioner.

45 An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7 th edition Chapter 4 Slide 45 Practitioner Style Model Practitioner brings knowledge, skills, values, and experience. Client system has own subculture and readiness for change. Together determine practitioner’s style and approaches.

46 An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7 th edition Chapter 4 Slide 46 Figure 4.5 Practitioner Style Model

47 An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7 th edition Chapter 4 Slide 47 Developing Trust Relationship Openness and trust between practitioner and client essential. Basic responses to build trust:  Questions.  Advising.  Reflection.  Interpretation.  Self-disclosure.  Silence.

48 An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7 th edition Chapter 4 Slide 48 Creating Climate for Change Practitioner “practice what he or she preaches.” Create climate of openness, authenticity, and trust.

49 An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7 th edition Chapter 4 Slide 49 Practitioner-Client Relationship Modes (part 1 of 5) 1. Apathetic 2. Gamesmanship 3. Charismatic 4. Consensus

50 An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7 th edition Chapter 4 Slide 50 Practitioner-Client Relationship Modes (part 2 of 5) Apathetic Mode Keeps quiet about true ideas with practitioner. Skeptical about change.

51 An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7 th edition Chapter 4 Slide 51 Practitioner-Client Relationship Modes (part 3 of 5) Gamesmanship Mode Keeps quiet about true ideas with practitioner. Manipulates strategic factors.

52 An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7 th edition Chapter 4 Slide 52 Practitioner-Client Relationship Modes (part 4 of 5) Charismatic Mode View of changes taken from leaders’ cues.

53 An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7 th edition Chapter 4 Slide 53 Practitioner-Client Relationship Modes (part 5 of 5) Consensus Mode Both client and practitioner share perceptions. Differences are worked through. OD practitioner attempts to operate from this mode.

54 An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7 th edition Chapter 4 Slide 54 Figure 4.6 Four Practitioner-Client Relationship Modes

55 An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7 th edition Chapter 4 Slide 55 The Formalization of Operating Ground Rules Formalization of obligations in contract advisable for external practitioner. Internal practitioner does not need contract, but ground rules should be formalized.

56 An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7 th edition Chapter 4 Slide 56 Contract with External Practitioner Specifies Items Point of contact. Role of practitioner. Fees. Schedule. Anticipated results. Operating ground rules.

57 An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7 th edition Chapter 4 Slide 57 Red Flags in Practitioner-Client Relationship Level of commitment to change of client. Degree of power to influence change. Client’s manipulative use of practitioner power.

58 An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7 th edition Chapter 4 Slide 58 Key Words and Concepts  Analyzer style - high on effectiveness, low on morale.  Apathetic mode - follows established routine, avoids responsibility.  Charismatic mode - relies on leaders to determine if change desirable.

59 An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7 th edition Chapter 4 Slide 59  Cheerleader style - high on morale, low on effectiveness.  Client sponsor - person or group within organization that requested practitioner’s help.  Client target system - organization needing help in change.

60 An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7 th edition Chapter 4 Slide 60  Closure – tendency to fill in missing information to complete perception.  Consensus mode - decisions made through sharing viewpoints.  Dilemma interactions - result from questions from practitioner regarding client’s problem definition and value differences.

61 An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7 th edition Chapter 4 Slide 61  External-internal team - change agents from outside and inside organization.  External practitioner - change agent from outside organization.  Gamesmanship mode - sees life as if playing a game and goal is to win.

62 An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7 th edition Chapter 4 Slide 62  Internal practitioner - change agent from within organization.  Interpretation - responses used by practitioner to explain something in terms client can understand.  Intervention - entrance into client system and includes variety of roles and activities.

63 An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7 th edition Chapter 4 Slide 63  OD practitioner - change agent or person helping client to adapt and plan change.  Operating ground rules - can include point of contact, confidentiality, requirements from organization, and other items.  Pathfinder style - high on effectiveness, high on morale.

64 An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7 th edition Chapter 4 Slide 64  Perception - process individuals use to give meaning to environment by interpreting sensory impressions.  Persuader style - moderate emphasis on morale and effectiveness.

65 An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7 th edition Chapter 4 Slide 65  Selective perception - selectivity of information that is perceived.  Stabilizer style - low on effectiveness, low on morale.

66 An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7 th edition Chapter 4 Slide 66 Preparations for Next Chapter  Read Chapter 5.  Prepare for OD Skills Simulation 5.1.  Read and analyze Case: The Old Family Bank.


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