Presentation on theme: "By Jeffery M. Puryear Inter-American Dialogue. Educational Technology Print Audio Cassettes Programmed Learning Radio Broadcast Television Personal Computers."— Presentation transcript:
By Jeffery M. Puryear Inter-American Dialogue
Educational Technology Print Audio Cassettes Programmed Learning Radio Broadcast Television Personal Computers Encompasses Slide Projectors Blackboards Chalk Low Tech Elements
Blackboard and Chalk The most important innovation in the 20 th century: Cheap, readily available, portable Low to no maintenance Mastered by anyone who possesses basic literacy Useful at all levels of education Primary Secondary Post-Secondary
Fixed Costs of Educational Technology Very low printed material, chalk, blackboards Higher radio, TV, personal computers KEY Serve more students to maximize: A + B = Fixed Costs C = # of students The larger the C value, the greater the A+B can be.
Variable Costs of Educational Technology: Definition: what it costs to add students to the system after it has been set up. Textbooks (very low, especially when you reuse) Radio (very low, batteries, electricity) Television (10 times, purchase and maintenance) Computers (100 times, purchase, maintenance, training programs) Low High
What does this mean? High Fixed + Low Variable Inexpensive if large # of students served. Example: radio and TV High Variable + Conventional Teaching Expensive, no cost advantage Example: teaching with PCs Technology Replacing Teaching Cost effective once as # of students increase Example: distance education Self Contained Technology May have cost advantage Example: programmed learning
Effectiveness Nearly all of the new educational technologies can be effective in improving learning Does not have to be implemented large scale in order to be successful and sustainable More expensive/complex technologies producing better educational outcomes is inconclusive What is cost effective? 1.Distance Education 2.Interactive Radio instruction
Surrounding Conditions needed for successful implementation of Educational Technology Political and Institutional Framework Motivated Teachers Sophisticated Management Flexibility Infrastructure (cable/ telephone)
GOALS Economics/Technology do not establish objectives, governments usually do Things to consider: Effective Efficient Equity TECHNOLOGY AND ECONOMICS ARE MEANS NOT ENDS!