Presentation on theme: "The capitalist city Underlying changes occurring during the Renaissance and baroque periods Socioeconomic transformation reshaped Western Europe Drastic."— Presentation transcript:
1The capitalist cityUnderlying changes occurring during the Renaissance and baroque periodsSocioeconomic transformation reshaped Western EuropeDrastic changes in class structure, economic systems, political allegiances, cultural patterns, and human geographiesChanges occurred from the mid-sixteenth to the mid-eighteenth centuryIntroduction of commercialized and specialized agricultureEnclosure of individual land units
2The capitalist cityPerhaps of greatest significance is how capitalist mind set introduced notion of urban land as a source of incomeProximity to city, center and most pedestrian traffic added economic value to landAreas close to river or harbor or along major thoroughfares in and out of city also increased in land valueFundamental change in value led to gradual disintegration of medieval urban pattern
3The capitalist cityThe city center consisted of buildings devoted to business enterprisesA downtown defined by economic activity emergedWith industrialization would eventually expands and subdivide into specialized districtsA new upper class emergedStatus based on accumulation of economic wealthMade money buying and selling urban landUsed urban land as a basis for expressing their wealthSought newer land on edge of city for their residential enclaves
4The capitalist cityOne of finest wealthy class enclaves was London’s Covent Garden PiazzaDesigned by Inigo Jones in the early 1630sSquare was lined with townhouses edged in arcadesPresence of nobility lent an aristocratic aura to the areaEconomic success of this enclave led to many imitationsThese upper-class squares were transplanted to America throughout the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries
6Class, race, and gender in the industrial city Up to the Industrial Revolution, urbanization rates in Western countries were lowIn 1600, urban dwellers made up only 2 percent in Germany, France, and EnglandAt the same time 13 percent of the Netherlands and Italy were urban
7Class, race, and gender in the industrial city As millions of people migrated to cities urbanization rates skyrocketed in the last 200 yearsBy 1800 England was 20 percent urban, and became the first urban society around 1870By the 1890 census 60 percent of England’s people lived in cities
8Class, race, and gender in the industrial city As millions of people migrated to cities urbanization rates skyrocketed in the last 200 yearsBy 1800 England was 20 percent urban, and became the first urban society around 1870By the 1890 census 60 percent of England’s people lived in citiesThe United States was 3 percent urban in 1800In 1900 it was 40 percentIn 1920 it became an urban country with 51 percentToday, about 75 percent of the population lives in towns and cities
9Class, race, and gender in the industrial city Laissez-faire industrialism did little for the working classesThere was distribution of such utilities as gas and waterNo living improvements beyond that of the seventeenth century were madeIn slum dwelling, direct sunlight was seldom availableOpen spaces were nonexistent
11Class, race, and gender in the industrial city In Liverpool, England, one-sixth of the people lived in “underground cellars”In Manchester, England, only one toilet for every 212 people was availableRunning water was usually available only on the ground floorDisease was pervasive, and mortality rates ran highIn 1893 life expectancy of a male worker was 28 years, his country cousin might live until age 52In 1880, the death rate in New York City was 26 per thousand, in rural areas it was half thatInfant mortality rate rose from 189 in 1850 to 240 in 1870Legislation correcting such ills came in the latter part of the century
12Class, race, and gender in the industrial city American industrial cities relied on a diverse labor forceMany in the labor force came from EuropeAfter the Civil War, many former slaves migrated north to find jobsIn the South, former slaves moved into the industrializing citiesIn both South and North, African-Americans lived in segregated neighborhoodsForced by discrimination and often by law to keep their distance from white neighborhoodsFor the most part services to these neighborhoods were minimal
13Class, race, and gender in the industrial city Some results of a recent study of black Richmond, Virginia, after the Civil WarResidents used public rituals in streets and buildings to carve their own civic representations, as well as challenge dominant white orderBlack militias marched through streets on holidays certified by the black community as their own political calendar
14Class, race, and gender in the industrial city Some results of a recent study of black Richmond, Virginia, after the Civil WarJanuary 1, George Washington’s birthday, April 3 emancipation day, and July 4Whites did not take kindly to this as they watched blacks occupy Capital Square, formerly reserved for white citizensChurches, schools, and beauty shops served as community centers and public statements of an African-American identity
15Class, race, and gender in the industrial city Industrialization led to creation of separate spheresFeminine sphere centered on the home and domestic dutiesMale spheres dominated the public spaces and dutiesAlso created the need for mass consumption to keep factories running profitablyWith men as producers, the duties of consumption fell to the women
16Class, race, and gender in the industrial city Location logic of the urban land market meant retailers were located in the central parts of the cityEstablished what some have referred to as a feminized downtownRetailers created spaces considered appropriately “feminine”Interior spaces were well-arranged and orderlyExterior architectural design was heavily ornamented, and streets were paved and well-litToday, many of these places have been replaced by shopping malls
18MegalopolisMovement away from the central city quickened in the last decades of the nineteenth centurySince World War II, new forms of transportation and communication have led to the decentralization of many urban functionsOne metropolitan area blends into another, until supercities are created that stretch for hundreds of milesSupercity of “Boswash” on the Eastern Seaboard of the United States that stretches from Boston to Washington, D.C.Geographer Jean Gottmann coined the term megalopolis to describe itThe term is now used worldwide to describe giant metropolitan regions
19Megalopolis Characteristics of Megalopolis High population density covering hundreds of square milesConcentrations of numerous older citiesTransportation links — freeways, railroads, air routes, and rapid transitVery high proportion of the nation’s wealth, commerce, and political power
20Megalopolis Common problems found in megalopolis Congestion and overcrowdingHigh land pricesFinancial insolvency and deteriorating inner coresPoor and disenfranchised population in contrast to the affluent in the suburbsAir and water pollutionPolitical fragmentation caused by the many smaller towns and counties
21Megalopolis Common problems found in megalopolis Congestion and overcrowdingHigh land pricesFinancial insolvency and deteriorating inner coresPoor and disenfranchised population in contrast to the affluent in the suburbsAir and water pollutionPolitical fragmentation caused by the many smaller towns and countiesProblems are difficult to solve because they are regionwide even crossing state borders
22Edge citiesMany so-called sleeping suburbs of the post-World War II era have been transformed into urban centers with their own retail, financial, and entertainment districtsMost Americans now live, work, play, worship, and study in this type of settlementSuburbs do not offer all the services or work places found in the edge cityThe commuter who used to live in a suburb and work in the inner city has been replaced by the commuter who lives and works in an edge city
24Edge citiesMany scholars are wary of calling these new nodes cities because they do not resemble our nineteenth century version of a cityEdge cities contain all the functions of old downtowns, but are spread out and less denseInterstate highways and truck transportation made it possible for industries to locate outside the downtownComputer and communication technologies have allowed companies to move their headquarters away from downtowns
25Edge cities Edge cities present problems for today’s planners Traffic congestion and planning for mass transitEnvironmental concerns as spreading urban areas consume more landIs it possible to provide mass transit in a system with no center?
26The urban landscapes of the developing world Most of the world’s population lives in the developing worldHere we see the greatest potential for dramatic change in urban patternsHigh natural population growthEnormous rates of migration from rural to urban
27The urban landscapes of the developing world Recent city growth has been staggeringIn 1950 they had only 4 of the 15 largest cities in the worldLatest census shows they have approximately half of the largest 20 citiesWith this growth has come serious economic, political, and social problemsIt is difficult to generalize about cities of the developing world
28The indigenous cityDeveloped without contact with Western colonial influencesMany evolved long before there were cities in northern EuropePrecolonial indigenous cities in the New World are restricted to Mexico, Central America, and the Andean highlandsCities in AfricaCities associated with the Yoruba civilization in present-day NigeriaAlong the Nile River ValleyBand of Islamic empires in the north, and small cities in eastern highlands
29The indigenous cityAsia has the largest number of precolonial indigenous cities — from the Middle East, across present-day Pakistan and India, to China and JapanBasic form of many cities is derived from the cosmomagicalMany cities in Mexico, Central America, China, Japan, Egypt, and India were laid out according to religious principles
31Indigenous City: Jerusalem, Israel Old, walled Jerusalem had Arab, Armenian, Christian, and Greek Quarters. In this Arab Quarter, passageways are narrow with stepped slopes. In earlier times streets could be gated shut.Few openings and high windows ensure privacy in this Muslim area. Note the pipes and wires of the modern era superimposed on the ancient walls.
32The indigenous cityBeijing kept its basic cosmomagical landscape until the early twentieth centuryDeviations from the strict pattern arose to accommodate everyday functions of business and cultureSmall alleyways and houses were built in irregular patterns not in accord with sacred principlesUntil the abdication of the last emperor in 1912, the city was generally maintained as the celestial capitalIn 1959, the Socialist government chose to build its symbolic center, Tiananmen Square, on the site of the sacred axis mundi of Imperial Beijing
33The indigenous city Indigenous cities of the Islamic world In the city center is the primary mosque, representing the religious coreNear the mosque is the bazaar, or market placeHomes of the elite, government or municipal buildings surround the coreMoving from the core, areas of decreasing wealth and social status are foundThe city is further divided in occupational districts much like that of the medieval city — decreasing in prestige nearer the city edge
34The indigenous city Indigenous cities of the Islamic world Ethnic groups dominate certain areas or formalized “quarters”Cities commonly reserved one quarter for Jews, another for ChristiansHave a very irregular Street plan, with narrow, winding streetsUneven building pattern, and few open spacesResidences are usually humble, in keeping with religious dictates
35The indigenous city Indigenous cities of the Islamic world Housing arrangements often structured around segregation of the sexesDictated by religionTwo sectors organized around separate courtyardsFemale half more private, therefore at rear of houseMore public male half near entranceWhen men are gone, whole house become women’s domain
37The colonial cityAdministrative, commercial, and often military outpost for an external powerMany established to economically or militarily subdue local peopleWhen built near indigenous cities, Europeans would either weld their city onto the existing settlement or, in a few extreme cases, build a whole new citySeen as guardians of the homeConsidered more moral and spiritual than menImperative women should move to colonies to civilize and bring order to “backward” landsIn South Africa, for example, women could fill their patriotic and feminine dutiesBring visual evidence of women enlightening those who needed it
39Colonial City: Salvador, Brazil Salvador, established by the Portuguese in 1549 to deter French and Dutch encroachment, was Brazil’s capital until The city grew as a center of sugar production, trade, and religion. Eventually, the original core, with its narrow, winding streets and slave market on the acropolis became linked with port functions on the shore below.
40Colonial City: Salvador, Brazil European architectural styles here date from the 17th through the 20th century. At the left of the Ciudad Alta is the Palacio Rio Branco, now housing tourism offices. At the right of the Ciudad Baixa is one of Salvador’s dozens of Roman Catholic churches.
41The colonial cityOverseas emigration would provide an alternative source of scarce work opportunities for womenBetween 1862 and 1914, more than 20,000 women emigrated to British coloniesPresence of women in the colonies was fraught with difficultiesIt was thought women needed protection from physical dangerDangers were considered more threatening than those in London because they were “foreign”Specific spaces were set up to keep them from direct contact with foreign dangerLived in the newly built colonial citiesHill stations — fairly small residential compounds in the hills of India
42The colonial city Separating women from native peoples did not work They could not civilize from a distanceIndian servants often lived within or close to BritishIndian soldiers were stationed nearbyWomen performed missionary and benevolent work in the Indian cityIndian servants, cooks, and gardeners were present in hill stationsHousing designed in an open fashion to let in cool breezes; also allowed native people to view private parts of the house
43The colonial city Separating women from native peoples did not work They could not civilize from a distanceIndian servants often lived within or close to BritishIndian soldiers were stationed nearbyWomen performed missionary and benevolent work in the Indian cityIndian servants, cooks, and gardeners were present in hill stationsHousing designed in an open fashion to let in cool breezes; also allowed native people to view private parts of the house
45The emerging cityWith the end of colonialism and movement toward political and economic independence, developing countries entered a period of rapid changeCities have often been a focal point of this changeMillions have migrated to cities in search of a better lifeEconomic activities have often changed their orientation from external to local marketsCities have been centers of political and social unrest
46The emerging cityBecause the emerging city model is a fluid one, results cannot be predicted accuratelySome think cities in developing countries will undergo the same changes found in industrializing cities of the nineteenth century
47The emerging cityWilliam Hance has written on the differences between today's emerging cities and those of the pastOften 25 percent of the urban labor force is without workIn the 1800s, people could migrate to the New World to find land and jobsEmerging cities have weaker ties with their hinterlands than did European citiesLocal rural areas excluded from development that could offer employmentIt will be difficult to develop rural employment as long as economic activities continue to cluster around cities
49Emerging City Homeless: Bombay, India This woman is one of Bombay’s homeless millions. About 75% of Bombay’s almost 13 million residents live in one-room tenements, 15% in squatter shacks, and 2% in the streets.Family abandonment for a variety of reasons such as failure to pay a
50Emerging City Homeless: Bombay, India a promised dowry, death of a husband, or divorce, forces many women into a life of prostitution or begging to survive.Most of Bombay’s homeless are migrants from the countryside and many are low caste and scheduled caste (untouchable).
51The emerging cityAlejandro Portes argues large internal migration from rural to city can be traced back to colonial timesIn colonial Latin America, the city was essentially home to Spanish eliteWhen preconquest farm patterns were disrupted, peasants came to the cityThese migrants usually lived on the margins of the cityThey were completely disenfranchised, because only landowners had the right to hold officeElite attitude was a mixture of tolerance and indifferenceThis pattern continues today in emerging cities
52The emerging cityHigh numbers of migrants and widespread unemployment lead to pressure for low-rent housingMost common folk solution is construction of illegal housing, or squatter settlementsIn Linia, Peru, the barriadas house fully a quarter of the urban populationIn Caracas, Venezuela, it is about 35 percentSimilar figures are found in emerging cities in Africa and Asia
54The emerging city The evolution of squatter settlements Usually begin as collections of crude shacks constructed from scrap materialsGradually become more elaborate and permanentPaths and walkways link houses, vegetable gardens spring upOften water and electricity are boot-legged in so a common tap or outlet serves a number of housesLater economic activities such as handicrafts or small-scale artisan activities develop
55The emerging cityVarious treatment of squatter settlements by city governmentsSome bulldoze them down periodically to discourage migration to the citySome turn their backs, viewing them as a satisfactory solution to the problem of low-cost urban housingSquatter settlements are an important part of the emerging city landscapeOccupy vacant land on the outskirts and in the city centerDowntown parks often covered by squatters’ housesMost often spread over formerly unwanted land, such as steep slopes and river banks
56Emerging City Squatter Settlement: Jakarta, Indonesia
57Emerging City Squatter Settlement: Jakarta, Indonesia Emerging cities are characterized by squatter settlements. Developed as Batavia by the Dutch at Kota, a swampy coastal area, Jakarta is now a rapidly growing capital city of more than 8 million. These stilt-houses are in the heart of old Batavia along the fetid, tidal Kali Besar (Big Canal) constructed in the nineteenth century.
58Emerging City Squatter Settlement: Jakarta, Indonesia Jakarta is perceived by poor, rural people as a wealthy city, full of opportunities to get rich.Almost half of the city’s population was born elsewhere and millions reside in shanties like these.Along with other emerging cities, rural to urban migration accounts for a significant portion of urban growth.
59The emerging cityOutskirts of cities is often where new economic activities are locatedLandscape of factories and warehouses is commonWhen money is available, large high-rise apartments are built for workersMiddle-class suburbs may also grow up because of jobs and “push” forces driving affluent out of the city centerTraffic noise, air pollution, and congestion make the central city less desirable than before
60The emerging cityLarge central-city dwellings are often subdivided into smaller apartments for lower-income familiesWhere one middle-class family lived, six or seven families may be housedWhether this structural change will lead to the ghetto pattern of North American cities remains to be seen
62The emerging cityIt is important to remember emerging cities may not follow the pattern of industrial cities of the 1800sEmerging cities will not undergo the same transportation system evolutionThey may evolve directly from foot and cart traffic to autos and trucksA totally unique urban landscape may emerge
63Culture regions Urban Culture Region Origin and Diffusion of the City Evolution of Urban LandscapesThe Ecology of Urban LocationCultural Integration in Urban Geography
64Site and situationSite — refers to local setting of a city, its longitude and latitude coordinatesSituation — the regional settingExample of San FranciscoOriginally site of Mexican settlement on a shallow cove or inland shore of a peninsulaImportance of its situation was that it drew on water traffic coming across the bay from other settlementsCharacteristics of the site changed when the small cove was filled to create flatland for warehouses and extending wharves into deeper bay waters
65Site and situation Example of San Francisco Filled in cove is now heart of the central business districtThe situation has changed as patterns of trade and transportation technology have evolvedThe gold rush changed the importance of its geographical situation by creating a demand for supplies for settlements, and mines and miners in the gold countryIn the last decade, Oakland improved its situation to accommodate containerized cargo ships by filling in large tracts of shallow baylandsSan Francisco has since declined as a port city losing situation advantageDepending on the function of a city, certain attributes of the physical environment have been important in the decision of where to locate cities
67Defensive sites A location where a city can be easily defended There are many defensive sites for citiesRiver-meander site-city located inside a loop where stream turns back on itselfLeaves only a narrow neck of land unprotected by waterExamples of Bern, Switzerland, and New Orleans
70Defensive Site: Toledo Spain Acropolis and meander on the Tagus River made this a perfect defensive site for a fortified Roman settlement called Toletum. It was a capital for the Visigoths and the Moors prior to becoming a Spanish one. The skyline is dominated by the 13th century Alcazar (fort), destroyed and rebuilt many times, and the Gothic cathedral begun in 1227.
71Defensive Site: Toledo Spain In 1227 Toledo was the most important Jewish town in Spain and a major cultural and intellectual center. While the Jews were expelled from Spain in 1492, the city retains their architectural heritage along with that of the Islamic Moors, Christians and other occupants.
72Defensive sites A location where a city can be easily defended There are many defensive sites for citiesMore advantageous was the river-island siteOften combined a natural moat made when a stream was split in twoMontreal is situated on a large island surrounded by the St. Lawrence River and other water channelsIslands lying off seashores or in lakesMexico City began as an Indian settlement on a lake islandVenice a classic example of a city built on an offshore islandNew York City began as a Dutch trading outpost on Manhattan Island
73Defensive sites A location where a city can be easily defended There are many defensive sites for citiesPeninsular sites were almost as advantageous as island sitesOffered natural water defenses on all but one sideBoston founded on a peninsula had a wooden palisade wall across the neck of the peninsula
75Defensive sites A location where a city can be easily defended There are many defensive sites for citiesDanger of sea attack prompted sheltered-harbor urban sitesHigh points were used where a city developed around a fortification, and then spilled out over the surrounding lowland
76Trade-route sites Defense was not always a primary consideration Most common types of trade-route sites —bridge-point and river-ford sitesWhere streams were narrow and shallow with firm banksOccasionally cities even reflect these sites in their namesConfluence sites are common—point where two navigable streams flow together
78Trade-route sitesHead-of-navigation sites — where water routes begin — are even more commonGoods must be transshipped at such pointsExamplesMinneapolis-St. Paul, at the falls of the Mississippi RiverLouisville, Kentucky, is at the rapids of the Ohio RiverPortage sites are very similar — goods are portaged from one river to anotherMany nonenvironmental factors can influence the choice of a siteUseful to distinguish between the specific urban site and the general location, or spatial distribution
79Culture regions Urban Culture Region Origin and Diffusion of the City Evolution of Urban LandscapesThe Ecology of Urban LocationCultural Integration in Urban Geography
80Walter Christaller’s central-place theory Series of models designed to explain spatial distribution of tertiary urban centersTermsThreshold — size of population required to make provision of the service economically feasibleRange -- average maximum distance people will travel to purchase a good or serviceHinterlands — large tributary trade areas associated with central places that offer many services
81Walter Christaller’s central-place theory Crucial to his theory is the fact that different goods and services vary both in threshold and rangeLarger number of people required to support a hospital, university, or department store than a gasoline station, post office, or grocery storePeople are willing to travel farther to consult a heart specialist, record a land title, or purchase a car than to buy a loaf of bread or mail a letter
82Walter Christaller’s central-place theory Because range of central goods and services varies, tertiary centers are arranged in an orderly hierarchyAt the top are regional metropolises that offer all services associated with central places, and that have large hinterlandsAt the bottom are small market villages and roadside hamlets that may contain nothing more than a post office, service station, or cafeBetween the two extremes are central places of various degrees of importanceEach high-ranked central place offers all goods and services of next lower ranked place, plus at least one or two more
83Walter Christaller’s central-place theory One regional metropolis may contain thousands of smaller central places in its hinterlandChristaller tried to measure the influence of three forces in determining spacing and distribution of tertiary centers
85Walter Christaller’s central-place theory He created models — he first measured influence of market and range of goods on the spacing of citiesTo simplify model he made assumptionsTerrain, soils, and other environmental factors were uniformTransportation was universally availableAll regions were supplied with goods and services from the minimum number of central placesThe shape of the model was circular, with the city at the centerWhen central places of the same rank were nearby, the circle became a hexagon
87Walter Christaller’s central-place theory In his second model he no longer assumed transportation was universally and equally available in the hinterlandAssumed as many demands for transport as possible would be met with minimum expenditure for construction and maintenance of transportation facilitiesany high-ranking places would then be on straight-line routes between important central placesThe transportation factor causes a rather different pattern of central placesDirect routes between adjacent regional metropolises do not pass through central places of the next lowest rankResulted in second-rank place to be “pulled” from the points of the hexagonal market area to midpoints on the straight-line routes
89Walter Christaller’s central-place theory He thought market factors would be the greater force in rural countriesHe also thought transportation would be stronger in densely settled industrialized countries with more central places and more demand for long-distance transportation
90Walter Christaller’s central-place theory His third model measured the effect of political borders on the distribution of central placesPolitical boundaries within an independent country would tend to follow hexagonal market-area limits of each political central placeBorders tend to separate people and retard movement of goods and servicesCentral places in border regions lose rank and size because market areas are politically cut in twoImportant central places are pushed away from borders, which distorts the hexagonal pattern
91Walter Christaller’s central-place theory Many other factors affect the spatial distribution of central placesAssumptions must be made to construct a theoretical model that integrates different components of culture