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The Role of Politics in Sectionalism

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1 The Role of Politics in Sectionalism

2 James Monroe 1758 – 1831 Dem.-Republican 5th President (1817-25)
Last President to have participated in the Revolution Former Gov. of VA, Secretary of State, and Secretary of War Southerner, slave owner

3 “The Era of Good Feelings”
Term used to describe Monroe’s presidency Right after War of 1812, Nationalism surged and Americans thought of themselves as Americans first, rather than of their region of the country Collapse of Federalist Party left only 1 major political party, so little political disagreement

4 Tariff of 1816 British goods had been cut off during War of 1812, but once war was over US market was flooded with cheap British goods US industry had begun to grow during the war, but now was at risk with return of foreign goods Tariff was championed by Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun (West & South!)

5 Death of the First National Bank
Had been established as part of Hamilton’s Economic Plan Congress did not renew its charter when it expired in 1811 State and private banks took over, issuing their own currency and over-lending, leading to high inflation US government had to borrow money from these state and private banks to pay for the War of 1812, leaving it deeply in debt after the war

6 Second National Bank of the US
Not overly popular with small farmers because it was aimed at helping Eastern industrialists Despite this, the need for federal regulation of currency prompted Calhoun, Webster, and Clay to force through a bill creating a Second National Bank in 1816

7 McCulloch v. Maryland 1819 Maryland attempted to tax the Second National Bank Supreme Court ruled that: 1) “necessary and proper” clause allows US gov’t to create a National Bank; 2) the federal government stands above the states and 3) the states can not interfere with federal agencies

8 Panic of 1819 National Bank offered easy credit, overextended itself by giving more loans than it had money When British banks called in their loans to US banks, The National Bank had to call in its loans, triggering US’s first economic depression

9 The Missouri Compromise
Missouri admitted as a slave state, but balanced by admission of Maine as a free state No new slave states allowed north of Missouri’s southern border Ends “Era of Good Feelings”

10 The Monroe Doctrine US concerned that Spain would try to retake the newly independent nations in Latin America; also worried about Russian expansion in Alaska 1823: Pres. Monroe issued a formal statement of US policy 1) Europe would not be allowed to interfere in the affairs of countries in the Americas 2) No new European colonization would be allowed in Americas 3) US would not interfere in the affairs of countries in the Americas or in Europe

11 Gibbons v. Ogden 1824 New York had granted a monopoly over all steam boat traffic Supreme Court ruled that Congress alone has the right to regulate interstate and foreign commerce

12 Election of 1824 4 candidates for president, all were Dem.-Republicans
New England supported John Quincy Adams South supported William Crawford West supported Andrew Jackson and Henry Clay Election was so close, it went to the House of Representatives to decide the winner

13 “The Corrupt Bargain” Henry Clay (who was Speaker of the House and hated Jackson) threw his support to John Quincy Adams in return for being named Secretary of State Adams became president; Andrew Jackson denounced Clay’s deal as a “corrupt bargain”

14 Democratic-Republican Party splits
Andrew Jackson’s supporters became the Democratic Party John Quincy Adams’ supporters became the National Republican Party End of political unity, return of the two-party system

15 John Quincy Adams 1767 – 1848 National Republican
6th President ( ) Son of John Adams Adams objectives: 1) Stronger federal government; 2)Federal construction of transportation infrastructure; 3)Found a national university; 4) Create high tariffs to protect US industry

16 “The American System” John Quincy Adams’ & Henry Clay’s plan to tie the nation together 1) Protective tariffs 2) Internal improvements to increase interstate commerce 3) A strong National Bank

17 South hated the idea of the “American System”
Southerners tended to be strict-constructionists, support states rights over strong central government See no Constitutional support for a National Bank or federal construction of infrastructure Tariffs hurt farmers Believed in doctrine of nullification – states don’t have to enforce laws they interpret as unconstitutional or harmful to the state

18 “Tariff of Abominations”
Highest tariff in US history Designed to protect US industries from cheaper English imports Badly hurt South by raising prices of manufactured goods and by causing British to have less capital with which to buy Southern cotton

19 Election of 1828 Andrew Jackson vs. John Quincy Adams
Jackson was billed as the “common man” while Adams was portrayed as an aristocratic elitist Jackson won both the popular and electoral vote

20 Andrew Jackson 1767 – 1845 Democrat 7th president
Nicknamed “Old Hickory,” a tribute to his background as a frontiersman War hero from both War of 1812 and Seminole Indian War First president to survive an assassination attempt

21 Jacksonian Democracy Suffrage extended to any adult white male
Jackson was 1st president to come from background of poverty, so he was the hero of the common man Still, Jackson hated Native Americans and supported slavery

22 “The Spoils System” Jackson began new tradition of dismissing what had been career government officials and replacing them with his party’s loyal followers This still happens today – Presidents reward their supporters with important government jobs

23 Nat Turner 1800 – 1831 Virginia slave who had religious “visions”
Practiced as a Baptist preacher (nicknamed “The Prophet” by other slaves) Believed that God called on him to lead a slave rebellion

24 Nat Turner’s Rebellion
August 21, 1831 Slave uprising that resulted in the deaths of 56 whites in VA Quickly suppressed by the militia, dozens of slaves (including Turner) were executed for their roles in the rebellion Led to bans throughout the South on educating slaves and allowing slaves to freely assemble without white supervision

25 South Carolina Nullification Crisis
1832: South Carolina declared new tariffs unconstitutional and thereby nullified John C. Calhoun resigned as Vice-President to support SC position as a senator Jackson considered this treasonous and prepared to use military force on SC to enforce the tariffs SC threatened to secede (leave the US) if high tariffs weren’t repealed

26 Compromise of 1833 Henry Clay delayed passage of the Force Bill which would give Jackson permission to take military action against SC until he could force through a bill that would gradually reduce tariffs over the next 10 years Once this compromise tariff was passed, SC repealed its nullification and crisis was averted

27 Jackson and the National Bank
Jackson disliked the Bank Congress passed a bill extending the Bank’s charter in 1832, but Jackson vetoed; instead, Jackson withdrew all of the federal governments deposits from the Bank and moved them to state banks National Bank no longer had money to lend and closed

28 The Whig Party 1834: National Republican Party changed its name to the Whig Party “Whigs” in England were people who opposed the power of the king; American Whigs felt that Andrew Jackson had been abusive of his power as president

29 Election of 1836 Jackson supported his VP Martin Van Buren as his successor Van Buren easily won the Democratic nomination at convention (1st time national party convention used) Whigs could not settle on one candidate to run and so their votes were split; Van Buren won

30 Martin Van Buren 1782 – 1862 Democrat 8th President (1837-41)
Former Vice-President and Secretary of State under Jackson Lost presidential elections of 1840 and 1848

31 Panic of 1837 State banks loaned money freely without the National Bank to oversee them Loaned more money than they had, leading to failure of many of the banks Inflation soared, unemployment rose, businesses closed, many people lost everything Ruined Van Buren’s presidency

32 Election of 1840 Whigs nominated war hero William Henry Harrison after Henry Clay and Daniel Webster each proved too divisive to win majority support within the party Harrison easily defeated Van Buren

33 William Henry Harrison
1773 – 1841 Whig 9th President (1841) Nicknamed “Old Tippecanoe” from his fame as hero of Northwest Indian War Shortest tenure in US history – president for only 32 days before dying of pneumonia

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