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Slide 1 Leveraging Examples In e-Learning Chapter 11

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Chapter 11 objectives Identify types of worked examples Design a faded worked example Add self-explanation questions Apply multimedia principles to design of worked examples Design worked examples for far transfer learning

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Agenda: Introduction What Are Worked Examples? Fading Principle Self-Explanations Principle Multimedia Principle Transfer Principle

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What is a worked example? A step-by-step demonstration of how to perform a task or solve a problem.

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Problem: From a ballot box containing 3 red balls and 2 white balls, two balls are randomly drawn. The chosen balls are not put back into the ballot box. What is the probability that the red ball is drawn first and a white ball is second? Total number of balls:5 Number of red balls:3 Probability of red ball first 3/5 =.6 Total number of balls after first draw: 4(2 red and 2 white balls) Probability of a white ball second: 2/4 =.5 Probability that a red ball is drawn first and a white ball is second:3/5 x ½ = 3/10 =.3 Answer: The probability that a red ball is drawn first and white ball is second is 3/10 or.3. First Solution Step Second Solution Step Third Solution Step Next

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Dr. Chi: I have a lot of overweight patients in my practice, can you just highlight the contra- indications? Alicia: The key ones are pregnant or nursing mothers, any liver disease, and patients with a history of depression although your Lestratin drug sheet lists others. Are many of your overweight and obese patients already taking weight-reducing drugs? Audio A modeling worked example: Interpersonal

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To estimate a solution, I work from the inside of the equation out. First I estimate the square root of 423 which will be a bit over 20. Then I multiply 20 by 2 to equal 40. Third I divide by ……. A modeling worked example: Cognitive

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Slide 8 Borrowing knowledge WORKED EXAMPLES

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Evidence for worked examples OutcomesWE/Practice PairsAll Practice Training Time (sec) Training Errors Test Time Test Errors Sweller & Cooper, 1985

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Agenda: Introduction What Are Worked Examples? Fading Principle Self-Explanations Principle Multimedia Principle Transfer Principle

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Worked examples & expertise reversal Learning Outcome EXPERT NOVICE WORKED EXAMPLES NO WORKED EXAMPLES

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Worked Example Completion Example 1 Completion Example 2 Assigned Problem Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 = Worked in Lesson = Worked by the Learner Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Fading of worked examples

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Problem: The bulb of Mrs. Dark’s dining room table is defective. Mrs. Dark had 6 spare bulbs on hand. However, 3 of them are also defective. What is the probability that Mrs. Dark first replaces the original defective bulb with another defective bulb before then replacing it with a functioning one? Total number of spare bulbs:6 Number of defective spare bulbs:3 Probability of a defective bulb first3/6=1/2 =.5 Total number of spare bulbs After a first replacement trial: 5(2 defective and 3 functioning spares) Probability of a functioning bulb second: 3/5 =.6 Probability of first replacing the originalPlease enter defective dining room bulb with a defective ? The numerical bulb first and then replacing it with aanswer below: functioning one: First Solution Step Second Solution Step Third Solution Step Next

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Agenda: Introduction What Are Worked Examples? Fading Principle Self-Explanations Principle Multimedia Principle Transfer Principle

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Problem: From a ballot box containing 3 red balls and 2 white balls, two balls are randomly drawn. The chosen balls are not put back into the ballot box. What is the probability that a red ball is drawn first and a white ball is second? Total number of balls:5 Number of red balls:3 Probability of a defective bulb first3/5=.6 First Solution Step Next Please enter the letter of the rule/principle used in this step: Probability Rules/ Principles: a)Probability of an event b) Principle of complementarity c) Multiplication Principle d) Addition Principle Self-explanation question

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Self-explanation question: modeled example

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SD From Experiment 2, Near Transfer learning, Atkinson et al (2003) No Questions Proportion Correct With Questions Better learning with SE questions added Worked examples with self- explanation questions result in better learning than worked examples without questions

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Active observation Observation learning refers to watching a human tutor explain problems to a student.

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Agenda: Introduction What Are Worked Examples? Fading Principle Self-Explanations Principle Multimedia Principle Transfer Principle

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Topic: How to make information meaningful to students Learners: Student teachers average age 27 years Time: 50 minutes - Moreno, Ortegano-Layne, 2008 Examples in text, video and animation

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Which led to better learning? Example in Video Example in animation Example in Text

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Test Score SD SD = significant difference No Example Text Video Animation EXAMPLE FORMAT Based on data from Moreno & Ortegano-Layne, Interpret the results

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1. Select a time of day 1. Select a time of day 2. Locate the two dots directly above the time 3. Subtract the lower temperature from the higher temperature To Find Temperature Differences On Different Days Adapted from Leahy, Chandler, and Sweller, 2003

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Be sure to use content familiar to your learners in worked examples. Use a familiar context or pretraining If your goal is to teach a skill such as how to write a learning objective, use content that is generally familiar as context for your example. Given bathroom tools, the learner will brush their teeth to result in fewer than 3 spots with the red dye test.

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Slide 25 Perform goals: Near Vs Far transfer NearFar To build procedural skills Routine tasks To build strategic skills Problem-solving tasks

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Slide 26 The fortress and tumor problems

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Slide 27 Solutions Fortress storyHint% who solved tumor prob. Not GivenNone10% GivenNone30% Given 75%

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Varied context worked examples

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SD From Experiment 3, Quilici and Mayer (1996) SD = significant difference Test Scores Different Context Same Context Varied context worked examples

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Gentner, Lowewenstein and Thompson, 2003 Comparison Examples Lesson Separate Examples Lesson Shipping Example Travel Example Shipping Example + Travel Example Active Comparison of Examples Lesson Shipping Example Shipping Example + Travel Example with questions Display of worked example

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SD Active Comparison Comparison Adapted from Gentner, Loewenstein, and Thompson (2003) Proportions of Pairs Forming SafeGuard Contracts Separate Cases No Training SD = significant difference Interpret results

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Slide 32 Team Project 1. Develop a faded worked example with varied context examples that applies the multimedia principles. Add a self explanation question to the first or second step. Assume audio is available. 2.Potential topics: a.Find the volume of a cylinder given the diameter and height. (V= ∏ r 2 H) b. Dominant and recessive genes c. Excel formula for basic operations

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Recap Worked examples that fade from a full worked example into a full problem assignment Worked examples accompanied by self-explanation questions Work examples in which learners collaborate on solving a problem while viewing a tutor-tutee dialog about that problem (i.e., active observation) Multiple varied-context worked examples for far transfer learning

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