Long-term commitment of time, energy, and resources Targets school goals Conducted by stakeholders Single event or series of short sessions Purpose is to raise awareness Conducted by outside expert Personnel preparation Dettmer & Landrum, 1998
Triangular Comparison Education Medical Field Legal Profession Residency Student Teaching Bar Examination Internships Teaching Student Teaching Bar Examination Residency Teaching Internships Counseling State Regulations Counseling Education Medical Field Legal Profession Professions Characteristics of Professions
Triangular Comparison Inservice Professional Development Professional Learning
Lucky Good results with no understanding of the reasons Replication of success not probable Leading Good results with clear understanding of the reasons Replication very probable Losing Poor results with no understanding of the reasons Replication neither probable nor desirable Learning Poor results with clear understanding of the reasons Replication of mistakes not probable Organizational Results Antecedents of Excellence Reeves, p. 17
Type of KnowledgeDescription DeclarativeWhat? ProceduralHow? ExperientialWhy? ContextualWhen? Traditionally, most professional development focuses on declarative knowledge.
IndividualOrganization & Individual FragmentedClear, Coherent, Strategic Off-site TrainingWork-embedded Learning Transmission by ExpertTeacher Study Trainer PresentationConsultation & Facilitation Accountability by a FewResponsibility by All Expensive FrillEssential to student learning Dettmer & Landrum, p. 4
Managing Complex Change = Change Confusion = = = = = ++++ VisionSkillsIncentivesResources Action Plan Adapted from Knoster, T., Villa R., & Thousand, J. (2000). A framework for thinking about systems change. In R. villa & J. Thousand (Eds.), Restructuring for caring and effective education: Piecing the puzzle together (pp. 93-128). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co. Anxiety Resistance False Starts Frustration ++++ SkillsIncentivesResources Action Plan ++++ VisionIncentivesResources Action Plan ++++ VisionSkillsResources Action Plan ++++ VisionSkillsIncentives Action Plan ++++ VisionSkillsIncentivesResources
Do stakeholders perceive the change as... First-Order ImplicationsSecond-Order Implications an extension of the past?a break with the past? consistent with prevailing organizational norms? inconsistent with prevailing organizational norms? congruent with personal values? incongruent with personal values? easily learned using existing knowledge and skills? requiring new knowledge and skills? McREL