Complete all questions and get 100% = A To get a B you must complete all the questions and score 29/30 To get a C you need to get 28/30 YOU FAIL IF YOU GET LESS THAN 28 QUESTIONS RIGHT You have 2 minutes to complete this important exam. GO!!!!!!
How did that make you feel? This is how someone with a Learning Disability might feel when facing a high stakes test or exam.
Characteristics of a Learning Disability It is a neurological disorder An LD student is as smart or smarter than their peers, yet they often do not achieve at the same academic level as their peers. There is a distinct gap between the level of achievement that is expected and what is actually being achieved. Learning disabilities range in severity and may interfere with the acquisition and use of one or more of the following: –oral language (e.g. listening, speaking, understanding); –reading (e.g. decoding, phonetic knowledge, word recognition, comprehension); –written language (e.g. spelling and written expression); and –mathematics (e.g. computation, problem solving). A Learning Disability can't be cured or fixed; it is a lifelong issue. Few individuals exhibit LD in only one domain. More prevalent are clusters of disabilities that reflect underlying differences in neurological functioning. Difficulties can become apparent in different ways with different people.
Learning Disability Disorders result from impairments in one or more cognitive process. These Include: Perception Memory ( Working Memory) Language processing (receptive and expressive language) Visual spatial processing (spacing, puzzles) Executive Functions (attention, decision making, organization and behaviour) Phonological processing (sound/symbol relationships) Processing speed (time it takes to respond/retrieve information) Auditory processing (to listen and understand) When a student is designated with a Learning Disability, their specific impairments are identified and assessed in a Psycho-Educational Assessment Report.
What causes these impairments? Experts are not exactly sure what causes learning disabilities. Some research suggests that LDs may be attributed to: Heredity - Learning disabilities often run in families Problems during pregnancy and birth illness or injury during or before birth. drug and alcohol use during pregnancy low birth weight lack of oxygen premature or prolonged labour Incidents after birth head injuries nutritional deprivation exposure to toxic substances (i.e. lead)
Learning Characteristics As a result, children may need support in the following areas oWord Recognition oComprehension oSpelling oWritten Expression oMathematical Computations oProblem Solving oOral Language Learning Disabilities may also cause difficulties with: organizational skills decision making social perception / social interaction. Learning Disabilities may coexist with other conditions including: attention, behavioural and emotional disorders sensory impairments medical conditions
Don’t Get Confused A Learning Disability is NOT: Low intelligence Mental illness Mental Retardation Autism A Learning Disability does NOT result from: A lack of educational experiences (attendance issues, frequent school changes) Inadequate or inappropriate instruction Socio-economic status Lack of motivation Cultural or Second Language Learning *although any one of these and other factors may compound the impact of a learning disability.
Incidence in Population Statistics Canada reports that, 3.2% of Canadian children have a learning disability
Incidence in Population According to a Statistics Canada report on the 2006 Participation and Activity Limitation Survey (PALS): More children in this country have a learning disability than all other types of disabilities combined. Of all the children with disabilities in this country, more than half (59.8%) have a learning disability. More than 500,000 adults in this country live with a learning disability, making it more challenging for them to learn in universities and colleges, and on the job. Difficulty with basic reading and language skills are the most common learning disabilities. As many as 80% of students with learning disabilities have reading problems.
History of Learning Disabilities in Canada Statistics Canada reports that as children make the transition from home to school, the number diagnosed with a learning disability grows by nearly 25% Learning disabilities increased considerably between 2001 and 2006 among Canadians aged 15 and over by almost 40 per cent to 631,000 people, making it one of the fastest growing types of disabilities in Canada that isn’t related to aging.
Physiological Characteristics There are no physical characteristics typically found in a person with a Learning Disability People you would least expect can have a learning disability Did you know that Albert Einstein couldn't read until he was nine? Walt Disney, General George Patton, and Vice President Nelson Rockefeller had trouble reading all their lives. Whoopi Goldberg and Charles Schwab and many others have learning disabilities which haven't affected their ultimate success.
Identifying LD students Identification of an LD student can be difficult because: Their needs are not always obvious due to their ability to perform well in some areas Academic difficulties may be misunderstood and viewed as lack of motivation A person with an LD has no distinct physiological features Due to the variations and severity, learning disabilities may be identified at a various stages of the student’s school life Early identification can facilitate early intervention and may minimize ongoing learning difficulties Late identification frequently leads to secondary emotional and behavioural difficulties
Identifying LD Students Specialized assessment is required for formal diagnosis of learning disabilities. Level B and Level C assessments must be conducted by appropriately qualified professionals who can interpret results considering the student’s opportunities for learning, learning patterns, approach to tasks and response to instruction.
Identifying LD Students A process of systematic and standardized assessment and documentation identifies students with learning disabilities based on their: 1. Persistent difficulty learning AND 2. Average or above average cognitive ability AND 3. Weaknesses in cognitive processing in one or more area
High Incidence Category Ministry Category Q High Incidence funding is included in student allocation -each student generates $5,700 No Supplemental funding for Learning Disabilities
Stations Please explore the 6 stations set up around the room
Intervention / Adaption Strategies A learning disability can't be cured or fixed; it is a lifelong issue. With the right support and intervention, however, children with learning disabilities can succeed in school and go on to successful, often distinguished careers later in life.
Decoding Thinking Phonemic awareness Comprehension Spelling Constructing meaning Vocabulary Fluency Word Recognition Comprehension
Word Recognition is… A students ability to decode words accurately when presented out of context This skill is assessed through the use of word lists and non- sense word lists
Strategies to Support Word Recognition Provide instruction and prompting in the use of meaning, structure and visual sources of information when solving unknown words. –Does it make sense? (meaning) –Can you say it that way? (structure) –Does it look right? (visual) Teaching common word parts and spelling patterns and develop word identification strategies including the use of analogy, cross- checking, letter-sounds and chunking –Do you know a word that looks like that? (analogy) –Can you see something that might help you? (letter-sounds and chunking) –Check it! Does it look right and sound right to you? (cross- checking)
Strategies Continued Work toward fast and accurate recognition of high-frequency vocabulary –Flash cards –Familiar reading Model oral reading and provide daily opportunities to read and re- read easy materials independently –Just-right book bin in the classroom –Send home new book for a second read at home
Reading Comprehension Means… A students ability to recall information, make connections, ask questions, visualize, infer, analysis and synthesize information before, during and after reading. This skill is assessed through oral retell activities and comprehension questions after a student has completed a reading passage.
Strategies to Support Reading Comprehension - from Adrienne Gear’s “Reading Power” Through class instruction, guided reading and graphic organizers provide direct instruction in the following strategies to improve comprehension: –Making Connections What does the student already know about the topic? What personal experiences do they have with the topic? –Asking Questions Model and support students to ask questions before, during and after reading to clarify meaning and deepen understanding
Reading Comprehension Continued –Visualizing Encourage students to create multi-sensory images while reading to help make sense of the text –Drawing Inferences Help students develop the ability to “fill in”, and predict based information not in the text based on what they have read –Analyzing and Synthesizing Provide instruction in how to break down information and draw conclusions
Strategies to Support Spelling Skills Development Develop students knowledge of common letter sequences and patterns Provide opportunities to learn high frequency/everyday word –Word work –Modified spelling program Provide instruction in the use of spelling reference materials/resources –Spell check and predictive text technology - Kursweil, Clicker 5 –Dictionaries and word lists
A Learning Disability in Written Expression means… The inability to form letters and numbers correctly. The inability to write words spontaneously or from dictation. The inability to organize words into meaningful thoughts.
What to look for: poor or illegible handwriting poorly formed letters or numbers excessive spelling errors excessive punctuation errors excessive grammar errors sentences that lack logical cohesion paragraphs and stories that are missing elements and that do not make sense or lack logical transitions deficient writing skills that significantly impact academic achievement or daily life.
Strategies to Support skills in Written Expression Use of word processor (Spell check, grammar check) Use of a scribe (Dragon Naturally Speaking) Prewriting activities (to focus the writing process) Extra help (Learning Assistance or Resource Room) Practice with specific skills (spelling,grammar, punctuation etc.)
A Learning Disability in Math refers to problems with… Math Computation Skills –Performing basic mathematical operations (+, -, x, ÷). –Understanding the relationship between numbers and the quantities they represent. Problem Solving Skills –difficulty solving math problems that involve using math computation to solve real world problems.
What does a Math Learning Disability look like? Students have trouble with: –unable to memorize many basic math facts –Not understanding the relationship between numbers and quantities (to real life objects) –They may misread signs or carry numbers incorrectly –Difficulty with time concepts –Difficulty organizing by number or quantity –Difficulty performing practical math tasks such as measuring for recipes –Reading Disability = Math Disability (Problem Solving) –Inability to visualize mathematical concepts ( –Behavioural: frustration due to extreme effort
Intervention Strategies for Math Computation… Regular diagnostic testing – to target specific problems Differentiated Instruction of basic skills Hands on materials (math manipulatives, real-life objects (blocks, coins), models, etc.) Repeated reinforcement and specific practice of straightforward ideas can make understanding easier. Use graph paper for students who have difficulty organizing ideas on paper. Work on finding different ways to approach math facts (Van De Walle) Practice estimating as a way to begin solving math problems. Introduce new skills beginning with concrete examples and later moving to more abstract applications.
Intervention strategies for Problem Solving… Review Problem Solving Strategies: –find a pattern, make a table, draw a picture, guess and check, make a list, write a number sequence, logical reasoning, work backwards Help the Student visualize the problem –Use hands on materials “Chunking” problems and working step by step through question. Extra time to work through strategies
October is LD Awareness Month! “The October 2010 theme for LD Awareness Month is to increase national awareness of learning disabilities by changing the perceptions of learning disabilities and provide hope and optimism. When we support people with learning disabilities, everyone wins!” For more information, go to: Learning Disabilities Association of Canada Website http://www.ldac-acta.ca
Resources and Links Statistics Canada report on the 2006 Participation and Activity Limitation Survey (PALS). http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/89-628-x/89-628-x2007002-eng.htm Learning Disabilities Association of Canada http://www.ldac-acta.ca LD ONLINE http://www.ldonline.org LD RESOURCES http://www.ldresources.org Learning Disabilities Association –South Vancouver Island Chapter http://www.ldasvi.bc.ca Special Education Services: A Manual of Policies, Procedures and Guidelines http://www.bced.gov.bc.ca/specialed/special_ed_policy_manual.pdf http://www.bced.gov.bc.ca/specialed/special_ed_policy_manual.pdf#page=47