Presentation on theme: "How to avoid plagiarism?"— Presentation transcript:
1How to avoid plagiarism? Prepared by Dr. Pauline GhengheshThe British University in Egypt
2What is plagiarism?Many people think of plagiarism as copying another's work, or borrowing someone else's original ideas. But terms like "copying" and "borrowing" can disguise the seriousness of the offense.
3According to the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary, to "plagiarise" means 1) to steal and pass off (the ideas or wordsof another) as one's own.2) to use (another's production) withoutcrediting the source.3) to commit literary theft.4) to present as new and original an idea orproduct derived from an existing source.
4In other wordsPlagiarism is an act of fraud. It involves both stealing someone else's work and lying about it afterward.
5All of the following are considered plagiarism Turning in someone else's work as your own.Failing to put a quotation in quotation marks.Giving incorrect information about the source of a quotation.Changing words but copying the sentence structure of a source without giving credit.Copying so many words or ideas from a source that it makes up the majority of your work, whether you give credit or not.
6Ways to avoid plagiarism You can avoid plagiarism by:QuotingParaphrasingSummarising
7What to do?Cite sources.Acknowledge that certain material has been borrowed.Provide your audience with the information necessary to find that source.
8What is citation?A "citation" is the way you tell your readers that certainmaterial in your work came from another source. Italso gives your readers the information necessary tofind that source again, including:Information about the author.The title of the work.The name and location of the company that published your copy of the source.The date your copy was published.The page numbers of the material you are borrowing.
9Why should I cite sources? Giving credit to the original author by citing sources is the onlyway to use other people's work without plagiarising. But there area number of other reasons to cite sources:Citations are extremely helpful to anyone who wants to find out more about your ideas and where they came from.Not all sources are good or right -- your own ideas may often be more accurate or interesting than those of your sources. Proper citation will keep you from taking the rap for someone else's bad ideas.Citing sources shows the amount of research you've done.Citing sources strengthens your work by lending outside support to your ideas.
10Doesn't citing sources make my work seem less original? Not at all. On the contrary, citing sources actually helps your reader distinguish your ideas from those of your sources. This will actually emphasise the originality of your own work.
11When do I need to cite?Whenever you borrow words or ideas, you need toacknowledge their source. The following situationsalmost always require citation:Whenever you use quotes.Whenever you paraphrase.Whenever you use an idea that someone else has already expressed.Whenever you make specific reference to the work of another.Whenever someone else's work has been critical in developing your own ideas.
12QuotationsTo quote means to copy a portion of a text, using the author's actual words.
13Short QuotationsIf your quotations are less than four lines long (which is usually the case), place them in your text and enclose them with quotation marks.
14Example of a short quotation When we learn a second language (L2), we learn to communicatewith other people: to understand them, talk to them, read what theyhave written and write to them. To be able to communicateeffectively in English involves, to a large extent, being proficient inthe various language skills in the communicative process. AsRaimes (1983:68) points out: “If we want our language learningclasses to come as close as possible to real-life communicativesituations, then we have to organise activities that let students useall the language skills.”
15Long quotationsIf a quotation is more than four lines long, set it off from your text by indenting.
16Example of a long quotation Students need to be taught how to construct sentences tomake statements of different kinds, for example, to askquestions and ask for clarification. Widdowson (1980:49-50)says that:it is a radical mistake to suppose that aknowledge of how sentences are put to use incommunication follows automatically from aknowledge of how sentences are composed andwhat signification they have as linguistic units.Learners have to be taught what values they mayhave as predictions, qualifications, reports,descriptions and so on.
17ParaphrasingTo paraphrase means to restate a portion of a text in your own words.
18How to Paraphrase? Learning to paraphrase well takes practice. As you read, try to write one or two concise sentences that summarise the information for each paragraph.Be careful not to copy or just borrow phrases, but construct your own phrasing and write in a language that is simple to understand.When you are finished reading, put the passage aside and use only your notes to write your paraphrased version.
19Paraphrasing Original Text From a definition of color blindness:"visual defect resulting in the inability to distinguish colors. About8% of men and 0.5% of women experience some difficulty in colorperception. Color blindness is usually an inherited sex-linkedcharacteristic, transmitted through, but recessive in, females.Acquired color blindness results from certain degenerative diseasesof the eyes. Most of those with defective color vision are onlypartially color-blind to red and green, i.e., they have a limited abilityto distinguish reddish and greenish shades. Those who arecompletely color-blind to red and green see both colors as a shadeof yellow. Completely color-blind individuals can recognize onlyblack, white, and shades of gray. (Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.)
20Paraphrased TextColor blindness, affecting approximately 8% of men and .5% ofwomen, is a condition characterized by difficulty in telling onecolor from another, most often hereditary but in some cases causedby disease. The majority of color-blind people cannot distinguishsome shades of red and green, but those who cannot perceivethose colors at all see red and green objects as yellow. There arepeople who cannot see color at all and perceive all objects in arange of black through gray to white. (Columbia Encyclopedia, 6thed.)
21SummarisingTo summarise means to restate a portion of a text in a shortened form.It should bring out the main ideas of the passage, but it does not need to follow the same order as the original text.
22How to summarise? Read the article. As you read underline important ideas. Circle key terms. Find the main point of the article.Write the main point of the article. Use your own words.Compare your version to the original.
23Summarising Original Text "visual defect resulting in the inability to distinguish colors. About8% of men and 0.5% of women experience some difficulty in colorperception. Color blindness is usually an inherited sex-linkedcharacteristic, transmitted through, but recessive in, females.Acquired color blindness results from certain degenerative diseasesof the eyes. Most of those with defective color vision are onlypartially color-blind to red and green, i.e., they have a limited abilityto distinguish reddish and greenish shades. Those who arecompletely color-blind to red and green see both colors as a shadeof yellow. Completely color-blind individuals can recognize onlyblack, white, and shades of gray. (Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.)
24Summary of Text Color blindness, usually a sex-linked hereditary condition found more often in men than womenand sometimes the result of eye disease,involves limited ability to tell red from green,and sometimes complete inability to see redand green. In a much rarer form of colorblindness, the individual sees no colors at all.(Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.)
25REMEMBERLike paraphrased information, summarised information must be accompanied by a citation, or in-text reference to the source from which you took the information, just as quoted material must be.Failure to provide citation will be interpreted by others as plagiarism, even if you list the source in your bibliography.
26What are References?References (or bibliography), also known as a works cited page, is an alphabetical list of resources (books, magazines, websites, etc...) that has been referred to throughout your research, paper, project or article.You must include this list at the end of your work to give credit to your sources when you borrow other people's ideas.If you fail to do so, it is considered stealing and you may be accused of plagiarising.
27Format for Books Books: One author Davidson, J. (1994) Homelessness: What’s the problem? London: Longman.Books: Two othersElliott, P. & Campbell, F. (1996) Housing and social inequality. London: Longman.
28Format for Journals Journal Article Zamel, V. (1985) ‘Responding to student writing.’ TESOL Quarterly, 19,
29Format for Internet Article Harris, P. (1998, July 14) ‘The young generation’. Seattle: Coastal University. Retrieved June 5, 2000, from