Individual intercultural competence is the result of … the motivation to communicate effectively with someone from a different culture; being prepared to learn the skills needed for effective communication; the ability to put this knowledge into use
Intercultural competence of institutions the capacity of the institutions concerned to adapt their structure and performance (rules & regulations governing the interaction between employees and members of the target group, mono- cultural or multi-cultural composition of the institution's workforce, etc.) to the demands of intercultural encounters
Intercultural competence of cultural groups the willingness and the capacity of the different groups to respect the "cultural rights" of all cultural groups concerned (dominant culture and minorities
Principles The need to allow one's attitudes to be challenged by recognising that the other has the freedom and the right to be different, whatever one's own opinion is. Both partners in the exchange are experts of their respective cultures and should treat each other with mutual respect. The practitioner is responsible for the process. S/He has to enable the different experiences and viewpoints to be identified properly and related to the problem they are talking about. Being non-judgemental. Be aware of the fact that you are making an interpretation of what is being communicated and that you will never have the full picture
Mono-cultural communication is based on similarities: common behaviour, language and values … based on roughly common definitions able to predict the behaviour of others assume a common perception of reality
. Intercultural communication is based on differences stereotypes and generalisations – based on respect for the other culture (positive stereotypes) can open the door to communication ? Based on disrespect (negative stereotype) sanctions and barriers to effective intercultural exchanges.
Attributes needed to establishing effective and meaningful intercultural communication Language Nonverbal behaviour Communication style Values and assumptions
four underlying assumptions 1.The smaller the similarities between two cultures, the more problematic intercultural communication is. 2.Intercultural interaction offers the possibility of social change arising from new ideas and insights that will not always be immediately apparent. 3.Only if you operate as partners from different cultures action on an equal basis will be ensured. 4.These plans for action will be more successful if a high degree of cultural awareness, i.e. of intercultural competence is available.
10 fundamental aspects for successful development of cultural competence detection of the own ethnocentrism dealing with things that appear strange laying the bases for tolerance accepting the ethnic differences talking about racism stressing things in common encouraging solidarity training of reasonable conflict-solving-techniques - dealing with cultural conflicts and cultural relativism getting aware of the possibility to learn from each other and to enrich the life through the cultural contact getting rid of frontiers by understanding the global responsibility of everybody
Marginality is the result of the tendency of the minority group not to preserve their own cultural identity and also not being interested in positive relations to the dominant culture (Examples: Numerical small communities with low self- esteem, like Roma from Bosnia- Herzegowina);
Assimilation is the result of the tendency of the minority group not to preserve their own cultural identity, but to strive for positive relations to the dominant culture (example: ethnic Germans from Russia);
Separation is the result of the tendency of the minority group to preserve their own cultural identity, but not being interested in positive relations to the dominant culture (Example: Religious oriented parts of the Turk community)
Integration is the result of the tendency of the minority group to preserve their own cultural identity and to strive for positive relations to the dominant culture (example: Italians, Greeks, Portuguese).
What does … Go global, think local really mean? Homework assignment: advertising paper and powerpoint