Hitler’s Lightning War Germany used “Blitzkrieg” – or lightening war Planes bombed airfields, factories, towns, etc. Then tanks and troops roared into the country Poland was conquered within a month Soviet forces took control of Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and part of Finland April 1940 – Germans in Norway, Denmark, Netherlands and Belgium
France Falls to Axis Powers Germany heads toward Paris – Italy declares war on France June 22, 1940 – French surrender Southern part left as a puppet government headed by Marshal Philippe Petain. Headquarters in the city of Vichy
France (cont.) Charles de Gaulle – French general, set up a government in exile in London. Committed to re-conquering France. Organized Free French military who battled the Nazis until France was liberated in 1944.
WWII Technology Air power takes prominent role Luftwaffe- German air force Parachute troops role increases Tanks were much improved from WWI Deadlier bombs Radar – to detect planes Sonar – to detect submarines
Operation Sea Lion The Battle of Britain Known as the “London Blitz” 8/12/1940 – air attacks on southern England Germans bombed London for 57 nights Considered a failure because British did not quit Continued until May 10,1941
The Mediterranean and the Eastern Front Mussolini takes North Africa in September of 1940 while the Battle of Britain was going on. Attacked British controlled Egypt. Britain strikes back in December and by February 1941 Italy needs help.
The Mediterranean and the Eastern Front (Cont.) Germans come in with the Afrika Korps and win victories over the British in northern Africa Led by General Erwin Rommel “Desert Fox” Italy takes Greece and Yugoslavia
Operation Barbarossa 1941 attempted conquest of the USSR Why invade USSR? Plentiful Soviet resources 3 million Germans caught Stalin unprepared USSR lost 2.5 million troops Germans were halted by Russian weather Many Russian people suffered starvation
American Involvement Grows Lend-Lease Act (1941) Selling or lending of war materials to countries “Vital to US defense” Atlantic Charter (Aug. 1941) FDR and Churchill agree on the “Final destruction of Nazi tyranny”
Pearl Harbor – Day of Infamy 12/7/1941–Japan surprise attacks American fleet @ Pearl Harbor (Hawaii) 2,400 American deaths US declares war on Japan (12/8/1941) Germany, Italy declare war on US four days later
Total War Factories stopped making cars & refrigerators & made planes & tanks Shoes and sugar were rationed Use of propaganda War ended unemployment of the depression Japanese people in US and Canada Lost their jobs and property Forced into camps Seen as a security risk
Japanese Internment Camps 1942- 1945 US government forced over 100,000 Japanese-Americans to relocate Mostly from the western states Many lost their homes and businesses Could only keep what they could carry Conditions in camps Barbed-wire-surrounded Un-partitioned toilets Cots for beds Armed guards
Operation Torch The North African Campaign (1942) Allied invasion of North Africa Led by British and US Forces British led by Gen. Bernard Montgomery US led by Gen. Douglas MacArthur Turning point in North Africa El Alamein, Egypt British forces finally stop Gen. Irwin Rommel
The Red Army Resists Turning Point in the Soviet Union Battle of Stalingrad Street by street and house by house battles Over one million Soviet soldiers died 1943 Germans surrender – 300,000 killed or injured Soviets then drive Germans back through USSR
Mission to Take Back France Turning Point in Europe D-Day June 6 th 1944 Allied paratroopers and ferried troops (176,000) Fought against heavy gunfire @ the Battle of Normandy By September France was free Now Allies push towards Germany
Allies advance into Italy Allied forced landed in Sicily in 1943 Controlled Sicily in one month Italy surrendered within two months Fighting continued until the end of the war Guerillas capture and execute Mussolini Created another front for the Germans to worry about
Battle of the Bulge Germany fought on three fronts US to the west (in France) Soviet Union to the east US and UK to the south (in Italy) Germany on the offensive for the last time 75-mile front in the Ardennes Forest Germans able to push into Allied lines Ultimately unsuccessful push
The End in Europe Germany surrounded by Allied Forces Hitler commits suicide (4/30/1945) in his underground bunker May 7 th Germany surrenders May 8 th = VE Day or Victory in Europe Day
The Pacific Campaign Major Battles Battle of the Coral Sea New style of fighting – ships used airplanes instead of mounted guns US stopped the Japanese southward advance Battle of Guadalcanal Six month battle US Marines captured a huge Japanese Air Force base Japanese lost 24,000 troops
Toward Victory Turning Point in the Pacific Campaign Battle of Midway Island Japanese Navy would reach no further US now started to push closer to Japan Marked the beginning of “Island Hopping” The recapture some islands while bypassing others
Defeat of Japan: Invasion vs. the Bomb FDR dies--Harry Truman takes office US estimated that an invasion would cost millions or more in casualties Why did Truman drop the A-Bomb? An invasion would be too costly To impress the Soviet Union with US power
The Atomic Bomb Hiroshima (8/6/45) Plane was the “Enola Gay” Atomic Bomb named “Little Boy” Killed more than 70,000 Nagasaki (8/9/45) Plane was “Bockscar” Atomic bomb named “Fat Man” Killed more than 40,000 people September 2 nd 1945 Peace treaty is signed
The Holocaust: Nazi Genocide of the Jews Kill all people who were racially inferior Jews, Slavs, gypsies and mentally ill Forced Jews to live in ghettos and concentration camps and wear yellow stars “Final Solution” of the Jewish problem = Genocide
The Death Camps Auschwitz, Sobidor, Treblinka & Lodz Gassed in showers and used in medical experiments By 1945, over 6 million Jews were killed 5 million other people were killed as well
Auschwitz Location: Poland: 37 miles west of Krakow Operational May 1940 – Jan. 1945 Estimated 1.1 million killed here Largest of the German concentration camps. The SS authorities established three main camps near the Polish city of Oswiecim Auschwitz I in May 1940; Auschwitz II (also called Auschwitz-Birkenau) in early 1942 Auschwitz III (also called Auschwitz-Monowitz) in October 1942.
Wall where prisoners were shot after trials. Auschwitz I
Track platform, where selection took place. Before liberation there had been two gas chambers at the end of the tracks on each side.
Auschwitz (cont.) On January 27, 1945, Auschwitz was liberated by Soviet troops, a day commemorated around the world as International Holocaust Remembrance Day. In 1947, Poland founded a museum on the site of Auschwitz I and II, which By 1994 had seen 22 million visitors—700,000 annually—pass through the iron gates crowned with the infamous motto, Arbeit macht frei ("work makes you free").
Results of World War II Casualties Estimated 60 million people died from the war Genocide Due to the “Final Solution” Occupation Control of Germany and Japan
Aftermath of World War II War Crimes Trials The Split of Germany The Creation of the United Nations The Beginning of the Cold War
War Crimes Trials The Holocaust Death camp evidence discovered after the war Nuremberg Trials “Crimes against humanity” Trials showed that political & military leaders could be accountable for wartime actions
Postwar Japan Defeat left country in ruins. Was stripped of its colonial empire. Occupied by the US US General Douglas MacArthur and Emperor Hirohito
Occupation by US General Douglas MacArthur in charge of US occupation Began process of demilitarization Disbanded Japanese army. Left with a small by police force. Democratization of Japan Drew up new constitution for Japan – Feb. 1946 Accepted and went into affect May 3, 1947.
Occupation Brings Deep Changes Japan now a constitutional monarchy. Emperor no longer considered divine Became just a figurehead New constitution guaranteed that the political power rest the people Two House Parliament elected by the people called the Diet All citizens over the age of 20, including women had the right to vote Article 9 stated the Japanese could no longer make war, only fight if they were attacked.
Occupation (cont.) Sept. 1951 the US and 47 other national sign of formal treaty with Japan. This officially ended the war. Six months later US occupation was over. Japan agreed to a continuing US presence to protect their country.
The Creation of the United Nations Allies set up international organization to ensure peace General Assembly – all nations belong Security Council 5 Permanent members: US, Russia, Britain, France and China