2What is Multiculturalism? Multiculturalism implies a respect for ethnic and cultural diversity.In a political context it has come to mean the belief in extending equitable status to distinct ethnic and religious groups without promoting any specific ethnic, religious, and/or cultural community values as central.
3What is Multiculturalism? Multiculturalism is often contrasted with the concepts of assimilation and social integration and has been described as a "salad bowl" rather than a "melting pot."
5An overview of key events and dates Ten key moments in UK race relations:
6Various views and understandings about the term In 2011 Prime Minister and Conservative Party leader David Cameron said in a speech that"state multiculturalism has failed".
7Diane Abbot BBC article on multiculturalism and multiracialism
8The British Nationality Act 1948 The British Nationality Act 1948 was a revision of the way in which subjects in the British Empire were legally considered.As Dominion countries like Canada began to establish their own national identities yet remained within the British Commonwealth it became necessary to distinguish between British subjects in the Empire vs. those in the Dominions.
9The British Nationality Act 1948 In effect the British Nationality Act 1948 was to allow the 800 million subjects in the British Empire to live and work in the United Kingdom without needing a visa.No one thought at the time that so many would ever want to.However, things were goingto rapidly change...
10S.S. Empire WindrushOne of the early, famous examples of immigration was the arrival of the ship Empire Windrush from Kingston, Jamaica, which docked at Tilbury on the 21 June 1948.The ship carried 492 Jamaican passengers, with 1,427 passengers in total, and this was one of the first large scale arrivals of afro-Caribbean immigrants from the British Colonies in the West Indies.
11S.S. Empire WindrushThose on the Empire Windrush were initially welcomed, but difficulties would arise for both West Indian immigrants and English natives during the process of integration.
12Why come to Britain?New Commonwealth immigrants came to Britain in search of work, a higher standard of living and better prospects for their children.Many on the Empire Windrush were typically young males who had been in the armed forces during WW2 and seen what Britain had to offer.
13Why come to Britain?There were also push factors. For example one fifth of the West Indians who were repatriated to Jamaica after the war, finding themselves unemployed and with little prospects of finding jobs, immediately spent some of their gratuities on returning to Britain in empty troopships on their return voyages.George Mason as a young man in RAF uniform
14The labour shortage in Britain The expansion of the British economy in the 1950s and 1960s created substantial shortages of labour, particularly in the relatively stagnant sectors of the economy, for example, textiles, metal manufacture and transport, where low pay, long hours and shift work made the jobs unattractive to British workers.These industries were unable tocompete with expanding sectors forworkers in short supply.Agatha Hart at Stockwell bus garage, 1962.
15The late 40’s and early 1950’sAdditional numbers of doctors arrived from the Indian subcontinent to staff the newly established National Health Service.In 1956 London Transportagreed with the BarbadianImmigrants Liaison Serviceto loan Barbadians their faresto Britain to be repaid as partof their wages.Nurses receiving their training certificates and badges, Bethnal Green Hospital, 1960s.
16The late 40’s and early 1950’sIndians began arriving in the UK in large numbers shortly after their country gained independence in 1947.More than 60,000 arrived before 1955, many of whom drove buses, or worked in foundries or textile factories.Later arrivals often opened corner shops or ran post offices.By 1961 over 100,000 Indian and Pakistani nationals had taken up residence in Britain.A 1960 Home Office Report recorded a total of 34,600 Indian and 4,800 Pakistani children in Britain - around 64 per cent of them were British-born.
17The late 40’s and early 1950’sTensions between immigrants and native Britons intensified over these years.Racist abuse and violence were experienced by many black or Asian immigrants.Inequality and discrimination in every sector of life were omnipresent – Housing being a common source of problems.Inner city Socio-economic problems were typically at the root of much of the problem.Watch the last 20 minutes of thedocumentary Windrush for more depth:
18Notting Hill riots 1958The riot is thought to have started on Saturday 30 August when a gang of white youths attacked a Swedish woman, Majbritt Morrison.The youths had seen her the previous night arguing with her Jamaican husband Raymond at Latimer Road tube station. They had shouted racial insults at him and were incensed when she turned on them.Seeing her the next night,the same youths pelted herwith bottles, stones and woodand struck her in the backwith an iron bar, until thepolice intervened and shewas escorted home.
19Notting Hill riots 1958Later that night a mob of 300 to 400 white people, many of them "Teddy Boys“ attacked the houses of West Indian residents.The disturbances, rioting and attacks continued every night until they petered out by 5 September.The Metropolitan Police arrested over 140 people during the two weeks of the disturbances,mostly white youths but alsomany black people foundcarrying weapons.
20How many immigrants were living in the UK in the period 1945-1991?
21How many immigrants were living in the UK in the period 1945-1991?
22Population by Ethnic Group, April 2001: Source: Census, Office for National StatisticsTotal PopulationMinority ethnic populationThousandsper centWhite54,15492.1Mixed6771.214.6Asian or Asian BritishIndian1,0531.822.7Pakistani7471.316.1Bangladeshi2830.56.1Other Asian2480.45.3Black or Black BritishBlack Caribbean5661.012.2Black African4850.810.5Black Other980.22.1Chinese247Other2315.0All minority ethnic population4,6357.9100All population58,789
23Commonwealth Immigrants Act 1962 This attempted to limit immigration by restricting the right of entry to those who actually had jobs to go to.It was heavily condemned particularly by the left-wing as being racist.Gaitskell called it"cruel and brutalanti-colour legislation".Although Labourstoutly opposed themeasure it would introducea second CommonwealthImmigrants Act in 1968.No Room at the Inn, Leslie Illingworth cartoon, 1961
24Commonwealth Immigrants Act 1962 In response to this Act there was a rush of immigration into the UK before the Act was passed into law.Between 1960 and 1962 over 230,000 New Commonwealth citizens entered the UK.This in fact marked an immigration peak, but was to such an extentthat it led to concerns mostnotoriously voiced byEnoch Powell in his 1968Rivers of blood speech.
25Race Relations Act 1965Prohibited racial discrimination in public placesMade incitement to racial hatred an offenceSet up a Race Relations board to investigate complaints of racial discrimination
26Race Relations Act 1968Outlawed racial discrimination in areas such as housing and employmentSet up the Community Relations Commission to promote inter-racial understanding
28The second generation grows up The children of the ‘Windrush’ were growing up, but they had been born in Britain.They were also being influenced by very different cultural icons and attitudes were not the same at all…
29Race Relations Act 1976 Reinforced earlier Race Relations Acts. White City, c Platform guard seeing off train.
32The New Cross FireThe New Cross house fire was a devastating house fire during a birthday party in New Cross, southeast London, on Sunday,18 January 1981.
33The New Cross FireThe blaze killed 13 young black people, but it was felt that the obvious possibility that the fire was started for racist motives was being ignored by the Police, and instead the Black community found themselves the subject of suspicion.
34The New Cross FireProtests arising out of the deaths in the fire led to the first real mobilisation of black political activity in Britain when on Monday, 2 March 20,000 people marched in protest.The march was overwhelmingly peaceful but The Sun newspaper reported it with the headline "Day the Blacks Ran Riot in London".
40Were the Race Relations Acts successful? There have been many positive changes in attitudes in the UK.The Race relations Acts have helped to enshrine some of these attitudes into law.On the other hand there still remain significant issues and problems. The most outstanding examples of this would be the 2001 Oldham riots or the death of Stephen Lawrence in 1993.The investigation into his death led Sir William Macpherson to conclude that thePolice force was"institutionally racist“.
41Key questionsWhat is meant by term ‘multiculturalism’ in a political sense?What factors encouraged immigration to the UK in the post-war period?In what ways has Britain benefitted positively from immigration?How far were socio-economic issues the main factors that led to tensions between immigrant and native groups?Explain the causes behind one of the race riots the UK experienced during the periodWas Enoch Powell right?To what extent were the Race Relations Acts effective?How far has there been political consensus regarding immigration and race relations?Racism was at the heart of collapses in race relations, not multiculturalism. Discuss.
42Articles The New Commonwealth Migrants 1945-62 by Zig Henry. Black People in Britain: Response and Reaction, by Paul Rich.23 December 1958: Guests at a Christmas party at Holland Park Comprehensive School.