women’s language Self-Confidence Level hedgessort of, pretty, somewhat tag questions“I didn’t think so, did you?” adverbials at the startactually, really amplifiersvery, really, totally
women’s language Relationships personal pronounsI, you, we do not interrupt express support“You did such a good job” mirror back what other says“You mean that …” more correct grammar(middle class)
women’s language Keep conversation going? minimal responsesmmhmm, yeah, right ask questions think about how answer will be perceived politeness: sorry, I think
women’s emotional language People sold him poison that was supposedly peaceful poison. I mean he really -- he was so desperate to end the pain. That's the most important thing, that Matthew was in such excruciating emotional and physical pain and he just wanted the pain to stop. --Kay, cis-female
men’s language Expressing self precise, informative“That happened about two years ago” Self-confidence level fillers, adverbials at the beginning well, “I think we should …” taboo language, swearing
men’s language Relationships interrupt directives/imperativesHand me that book. less correct grammar(working class) Keep conversation going? infrequent minimal responsesfew mmhms talk more frequently & longer wait to be asked questions
emotional men’s language I think the first stage is shock. And for us, shock still happens. But, for at least the first month, is I kept waiting for Matthew to come in the door. Go, "When's my son going to walk in?" I just couldn't believe that it happened. It was so sudden. --Rick, cis-male
this language study STANCE: emotion & attitude Emotion Expressive words, self- disclosure, support Judgements Self-expression, elaborating Quantity Words (amplifiers and hedges) Self-confidence Politeness
text bank Emotional interviews with: 25 TGMs 15 cismales 15 cisfemales Total: 285,000 words (50 hours of conversation)
computer analysis StanceSearch computer program identifies 1,300 emotion and attitude words
category 1: emotion words Positive emotions: care, faith, fortunate, happy, hope, I like, I love, proud, support, trust Negative emotions: afraid, alone, angry, anxious, distressing, fear, grief, hate, hurt, mad, miss, nervous, pain, painful, regret, sad, scared, sorry, tired, upset, worried
Who are the TGMs most like in using EMOTION words? CIS-MALES CIS-FEMALES
hedges TGM a lotpretty justprobably kind of question likeseem necessarilywell
And I don’t do a lot of political things like I use to. I think some of it is disillusionment but some of it also is like what you said you know. Ok that’s cool if we could get married. That would be great. However, it would even better if we could just walk down the street without getting shot. You know there are things that are much more important than other things --Josh, TGM
results #5 Used the most words TGMs were like … Emotionscisfemalescismales Negative Judgement cisfemalescismales Positive Judgement TGM & cisfemalescisfemales AmplifiersTGM & cisfemalescisfemales HedgesTGMneither
SUMMING UP THE RESULTS Used the most words TGMs were like … Emotionscisfemalescismales Negative Judgement cisfemalescismales Politenesscisfemalescismales Positive Judgement TGM & cisfemalescisfemales AmplifiersTGM & cisfemalescisfemales HedgesTGMNeither
TGM -- emotional language If they say they really feel like, you know, their gender identity is a problem, a birth defect that needs to be corrected, I think that’s very sad.
what this means if you are a TGW … nce words in different situations. All women and very familiar, comfortable situations – more stance words Mixed gender, less familiar, comfortable or professional settings – fewer stance words Match your/your client’s language to women you want to emulate in different contexts: BALANCE
what this means if you are a transman … To sound more masculine: Use fewer hedges (maybe, I think, somewhat, etc.) Use fewer adjectives and positive emotion words Match your/your client’s language to men you want to emulate: BALANCE
what this means if you are a transwoman In emotional contexts with other women: use more emotional language make more judgements about things hedge/amplify more use politeness markers
Context more feminine language with other women, close family less feminine language in mixed company, at work BALANCE masculine and feminine language
nature vs nurture Nature for Emotion, Negative Judgement & Politeness? Nurture for Positive Judgement & Amplifiers? What about Hedges?
future directions We need more research on transwomen Research is completely anonymous and would take a couple hours of time. If you would be willing to be interviewed or have clients who might be interviewed, please give me your name and and info or email me and I’ll send you information.
For a copy of this presentation, please leave your name and email address or email me at email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org