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Public and Private Initiatives J.P. Wieske Council for Affordable Health Insurance.

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Presentation on theme: "Public and Private Initiatives J.P. Wieske Council for Affordable Health Insurance."— Presentation transcript:

1 Public and Private Initiatives J.P. Wieske Council for Affordable Health Insurance

2 Health Insurance Crisis Rising Costs –9.2% (2005) preceded by double digit increases Fewer Businesses Offering Insurance –59.8% of the population had employment based insurance down from 60.4% in 2003 Uninsured Numbers Rising

3 Health Insurance Crisis 45.8 million were uninsured in 2004 –Up from 45 million in 2003 –National Percentage has remained at 15.7% –1998 – 16.3% uninsured – % uninsured –Illinois 14.2 % -- below the national average –Majority of uninsured work for firms with less than 100 employees

4 Who are the uninsured 1/3 have incomes less than $25,000 1/6 have incomes over $75,000 41% years Old 21% % were employed full or part time

5 Can we do more? 1.Provide access to low-cost health insurance for those with low incomes 2.Decrease the uninsured rate 3.Ensure health insurance remains affordable

6 Targeting Solutions The uninsured are diverse…young, older, rich, poor, employed, and unemployed Solutions should be targeted to specific populations There is no one solution to everyones problem

7 How Do States Regulate Insurance Large Group –Mostly ERISA plans outside of state control –Flexibility in rating, no guaranteed issue Small Group & Individual –Primarily state regulated products –Face numerous cost drivers –Smaller groups

8 State Regulation of Insurance Significant costs difference state by state –Mandated Benefits –Plan Design Flexibility –Community Rating / Rating Windows –High Risk pools –Rate / Form regulation –Demographics –Health Care Costs

9 Federal Proposals Enzi Bill – Small Business –Small Business Health Plans –Elimination of Mandates and Rating Rules Choice Act -- Individual –Interstate insurance sales –Maintains state regulatory structure SMART Act / Optional Federal Charter –Simplify regulation of insurance –Replace state regulation with federal regulation

10 State Activity Mandate-lite insurance plans High Risk Pools Rate Reform Pooling Arrangements (co-op plans, MEWAS, AHPs) Public-Private partnerships –Massachusetts –Healthy New York –Dirigo Health –Premium Subsidies

11 Private market responses Health Savings Accounts/ Consumer driven plans Low-cost / mandate free plans Limited Benefit Policies Plan Design Flexibility

12 Pooling Arrangements Pooling arrangements are designed to provide large group benefits to small groups –Often increases choice in the marketplace –Competes with the private market –Usually limited to small segment of the population (small businesses, farmers) –Rarely leads to significantly decreased costs

13 Pooling Arrangements State Employee Plans – allows private individuals or small groups to purchase state employee insurance –Very difficult to appropriately price –Benefit plans often richer than the private market –Guaranteed issue/ community rated coverage leads to death spiral

14 Pooling Arrangements MEWAs (Multiple Employer Welfare Arrangements) –Self-funded plans for multiple employers who band together –Limited state regulatory authority and limited federal oversight –If improperly funded, could lead to insolvency

15 Pooling Arrangements Co-operative Plans – allows cooperatives – especially farmers – to sell a plan designed for its members –Flexible plan design allows coverage to reflect members needs –Community Rated plans may lead to death spirals –May create unlevel playing field for the rest of the private market

16 State Run Pools State-run pools – These plans compete with the private market replacing the private insurer with the state –Plans are often guarantee issue and community rated –Unless the plans offer additional cost savings features (i.e. mandate-lite, or tax savings) very little savings –Can become a dumping ground for high risk companies leading to a death spiral.

17 Public-Private Partnerships Dirigo Health – Sold as a public-private partnership –Created to solve problems caused by guarantee issue and community rating –Subsidized with tax on insured people –Premiums and plan design based on sliding scale – Limits on private healthcare investment –Strict insurer rate review –Only 25% previously uninsured –Only 7300 currently enrollees Weve spent more than $40 million of federal money … to essentially insure 2,300 or 2,400 people State Sen. Karl Turner

18 Public-Private Partnerships Massachusetts Plan -- Market decimated by guaranteed issue and community rating –Employer mandate Employers pay $295 fee and responsible employee and dependent claims in excess of $50,000 (in aggregate) Must offer cafeteria / section 125 plan –Individual mandate – lose tax deduction –Combines Individual and Small Group Market –Creates Connector which will define affordable insurance and clearinghouse –Extensive reporting requirements including personal medical data

19 Public-Private Partnerships Healthy New York –New York has guarantee issue, community rating and no high risk pool –Covers 107,000 people –Reinsures coverage between $5,000 - $75,000 –Community rated and guarantee issue (similar to NY) –HMO based (no out-of-network coverage) –Limited benefit policies (eliminates mandates) –Losses funded by the state of New York –Primarily targeted at uninsured poor (individual and small group coverage)

20 Public – Private Partnerships Premium Subsidy Plans –Montana Targeted at small employers 2-5 Tax credits for providing health insurance Subsidies for those who do not –Oklahoma 185% of Federal Poverty Employer-based coverage Funded by tobacco revenue

21 Mandate-Lite Insurance plans Lower cost benefit plans -- sometimes referred to as limited benefit plans Allow carriers to offer plans without state mandated benefits. (CAHI estimates Illinois has 38benefit mandates. States often limit the ability of carriers to offer these plans. (uninsured, market share, poor, or limited plan design) Uptake has been low in many states (commissions, up selling, unattractive benefit limitations)

22 Health Savings Accounts Health Savings Accounts have been successful at targeting some uninsured Consensus number is around 30% of H.S.A. purchasers were previously uninsured Successful at targeting very small businesses (50% previously uninsured) State Tax deductibility helps protect employees

23 High Risk Pools 32 states have them including Illinois Targets individuals who are uninsurable Pools should have broad-based funding Extremely successful in ensuring healthy individual market

24 Voluntary Reinsurance Pools Voluntary reinsurance pools allow carriers to pool the costs of high risk cases Very few carriers participate in most states Even fewer individuals are covered under the pool Primary benefit is to ensure solvency of very small carriers

25 List Billing Targets employed individuals not eligible for group insurance Allows individuals to purchase an individual insurance plan through payroll deduction Easier for individuals to purchase coverage No employer involvement except agreement to remit premiums May receive favorable tax treatment

26 Tax Credits / Tax deductibility Economic studies of tax credits targeted at the poor could substantially reduce the uninsured rate ( Cutting Taxes for Insuring (AEI Press, 2002), Mark V. Pauly and Bradley Herring, Tax Credits for Health Insurance, (Urban-Brookings Tax Policy Center) Leonard E. Burman and Jonathan Gruber Many states have considered additional tax credits to encourage very small businesses (2-25) to offer insurance Individual health insurance is still not tax deductible

27 Underwriting Targets the young by making insurance more affordable Leads to more affordable insurance by creating a healthier pool Medical Waivers (or Riders) allow individuals with certain medical conditions to obtain standard coverage

28 Association Insurance / Choice Act Association Group insurance is currently sold to individuals in many states Many association carriers domiciled in Illinois Premium taxes can affect their competitiveness in other states Targets a variety of the uninsured Provides new insurance options in the states Lower cost plans through administrative savings

29 Sound / Tonik Benefit Plan Offered BC/BS and Unicare in a variety of states –Premiums in California and Illinois from $60-$83, higher in other states –Successful at targeting invincibles –Unique plan designs High deductible 4 Dr Visits Limited drug coverage Includes dental and vision coverage

30 Right Start Plan Offered by Assurant Health –Premiums savings 15-20% –H.S.A. qualified plans –Targeting value buyer –Unique plan designs High deductible Savings through coverage options

31 Limited Benefit Plans Offered by numerous carriers in the market Provides low co-pays and deductibles Benefits are limited –Limits on total reimbursement (sometimes allow buy-ups) –Benefits are scheduled per service (i.e. $100/ Dr. Visit)

32 Regulatory Reform / Speed-to- Market Targets the entire market Lowers administrative costs for insurers Lowers state oversight costs Increases consumer choice More market stability

33 Resources Visit to download publications including: –Mandates in the States –State Legislators Guide –Issues and Answers on Dirigo, Healthy New York, and List Billing –Or contact me

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