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Hawaii China Japan Cuba Puerto Rico Philippines Panama.

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Presentation on theme: "Hawaii China Japan Cuba Puerto Rico Philippines Panama."— Presentation transcript:

1 Hawaii China Japan Cuba Puerto Rico Philippines Panama

2  US covets Hawaii for naval base and sugar ◦ America investments in Hawaii increase throughout 1800s ◦ By 1870s, US controlled majority of Hawaiian trade & land http://www.enchantedlearning.com/usa/states/hawaii/ http://www.adventure- travel.org.uk/AMERICA_N/hawaii.php

3  Timeline of Events ◦ 1875: treaty exempted Hawaiian sugar from US tariffs ◦ 1887: Hawaiian Imperialist League forced Kalakaua to sign Bayonet Treaty (US has exclusive rights to Pearl Harbor) ◦ 1890 McKinley Tariff negatively impacts Hawaiian sugar economy (subsidies to US sugar producers forced sugar prices to drop) ◦ Hawaiian Imperialist League vs. Queen Liliuokalani ◦ 1893: John L. Stevens & Sanford Dole organizes revolt & overthrows Queen L. ◦ Cleveland doesn’t approve annexation of Hawaii after special investigation and orders Dole’s provisional govt. to resign ◦ Dole refuses to resign and Cleveland reluctantly recognizes Dole’s provisional govt. ◦ July 7, 1898: Hawaii is annexed by US (Spanish-American War in 1898) Provisionalgovernmentofhawaiicabinet.j pg Provisionalgovernmentofhawaiicabinet.j pg ‎

4 ◦ Hawaiian Imperialist League vs. Queen Liliuokalani ◦ 1893: John L. Stevens & Sanford Dole organizes revolt & overthrows Queen L. ◦ Cleveland doesn’t approve annexation of Hawaii after special investigation and orders Dole’s provisional govt. to resign ◦ Dole refuses to resign and Cleveland reluctantly recognizes Dole’s provisional govt. ◦ July 7, 1898: Hawaii is annexed by US (Spanish-American War in 1898) http://www.cedarstreetgalleries.com/bin/detail.cgi ?ID=1883

5  US traded with China throughout the 1800s (especially after 1843)  GB, France, Germany, Russia, and Japan carves out spheres of influence in China after 1895  1899: John Hay issues Open Door Policy ◦ All nations have equal access to trade and investment in China ◦ Approved since no country rejected or accepted it http://www.bobmccaughey.com/post186 5/?page_id=1234

6  Fists of Righteous Harmony resented Foreigners’ influence & control ◦ 1900- attacked Western missionaries & traders in northern China (Boxer Rebellion) ◦ Foreign countries send troops to China ◦ John Hay negotiates peace between Europe & China (China pays Europe 333 mi. in damages) http://svr225.stepx.com:3388/boxer- rebellion/file/18516.jpg

7  1854: Matthew Perry’s visit to Tokyo, Japan to open up trade  Japan starts to industrialize and build up navy  1904: Russo-Japanese War  1905: Treaty of Portsmouth ◦ TR negotiates treaty between Russia & Japan ◦ TR wins Nobel Peace Price  1907: TR sends Great White Fleet on goodwill voyage (to remind Japan of US powerful might) http://www.maritimequest.com/warship_directory/us_navy_ pages/uss_vermont_bb20.htm

8  Russo-Japanese War pushed 70,000 Japanese Immigrants to CA  1906 San Francisco Earthquake  Asian Exclusion League formed by CA  Gentleman’s Agreement (1906) ◦ Japanese will stop flow of laborers in US ◦ CA will not ban current Japanese living in US from schools  1908: Root Takahira Agreement ◦ US and Japan pledged to respect each other’s territorial possessions in Pacific and to uphold the Open Door in China

9 1898 (16 Week War) “Splendid Little War” go.hrw.com www.cyborlink.com Travelyahoo.com

10  US Foreign Policy developed in 1823  Stated: ◦ US would not interfere in European colonies in Latin America ◦ But would consider any new attempts to colonize in the Western an act of hostility http://millercenter.virginia.edu/scri pps/reference/images/monroe.jpg

11  Wilson-Gorman Tariff of 1894 ◦ Placed a restriction on sugar imports  YELLOW JOURNALISM  Cuban struggle for Independence from Spain ◦ “Butcher” General Valeriano Welyler & Reconcentration Camps  Delome Letter  USS Maine Incident

12  Sensational journalism used by journalists to attract readers.  Ex: William Randolph Hearst’s NY Journal &  Ex: Joseph Pulitzer’s NY World  Randolph: “You furnish the pictures and I’ll furnish the war” http://www.smplanet.com/imperi alism/remember.html Joseph Pulitzer William Randolph Hearst http://blog.syracuse.com/shelflife/2009/04/writers_born_this_day_rod _mcku.html

13 http://www.sparta cus Drawing by Leon Barritt

14  Spanish Minister to the US: Enrique Dupuy de Lome  Letter Printed in the NY Journal in February, 1898.  Criticized President McKinley ◦ McKinley was described as “weak, and a bidder for the admiration of the crowd” -Journal: “The worse insult to the US in its history” http://www.vw.cc.va. us/vwhansd/HIS122/ DeLome.html http://www.classbrain.co m/artteenst/uploads/delo me-icon.gif

15  USS Maine exploded on February 15, 1898  266 of 350 crew died  Sensationalized by newspapers ◦ “Remember the Maine! Hell with Spain!” -Newspapers concluded that explosion was from a submarine mine http://library.thinkquest.org

16 <> http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/events/spanam/events/maineskg.htm Captain Sigsbee

17 http://www.socialstudieshelp.com/USRA_Expansion.htm

18  Influence of Yellow Journalism ◦ Public Demands War  McKinley, reluctantly, issues war to Congress on April 11, 1898  Congress declares war on Spain in April 25  Teller Amendment issued by Congress ◦ Cuban would be given freedom after War http://www.independent.co.uk/news/presiden ts/william-mckinley-1417412.html

19  Manila Bay (Philippines) ◦ George Dewey ◦ Emilio Aguinaldo  Kettle Hill (near Santiago) ◦ Rough Riders led by TR & Leonard Wood  San Juan Hill ◦ Rough Riders were sensationalized in newspapers  Santiago Harbor ◦ Blockade  Armistice signed on August 12, 1898 www.theodore- roosevelt.com/ brdewey.gif

20  5400 of 300,000 lost their lives ◦ Only 379 died from battle casualties  Treaty of Paris signed on December 10, 1898  Major Points ◦ Cuba becomes independent. ◦ Puerto Rico and Guam are given to the US. ◦ US pays Spain $20 million for the annexation of the Philippines. www.theod ora.com www.sweetmarias.com www.elca.org

21  Cuba ◦ US military govt. set up by Leonard Wood for provisional govt. ◦ Major advances achieved in govt. finances achieved in govt. finance, education, agriculture, public health…  Walter Reed and William Gorgas led efforts to reduce mosquito pop. & found that mosquitoes caused yellow fever  US withdrew from Cuba (Teller Amendment) however… ◦ Cuba forced to add Platt Amendment in Cuban Constitution  US has right to approve Cuban treaties  US has right to intervene militarily to restore order  US has right to naval & coaling stations (ex: Guantanamo Bay)  Cuba becomes a US protectorate  Puerto Rico ◦ Foraker Act of 1900: Governor & Upper house appointed by US ◦ Jones Act of 1917: Granted Puerto Ricans US citizenship & gave them the right to elect both houses of their legislature ◦ 1952: Puerto Rico becomes a self-governing commonwealth of US

22 Pro Imperialism (tend to be Republican) Anti Imperialism (tend to be Democrat) Philippines seen as stepping stone for Asia Foreign Issues would overshadow much needed reform at home Spread Christianity *Foreign workers would lower wages at home New MarketsAmerican Factories may relocate overseas Raw MaterialsIncreased Army (higher taxes) Spreading US influence and democratic values in Asia Mongrelization of America

23  Filipinos assumed that their freedom was granted after War (like Cuba) & however, despite provisional govt set up by Aguinaldo, becomes a US protectorate  Open Rebellion led by Emilio Aguinaldo (1899 to 1901) ◦ 4300 US & 57,000 Filipinos died  1902: Philippine Govt Act (Organic Act) ◦ US appoints governor & upper house  Jones Act of 1916 :Filipinos elect both houses  US granted independence to Philippines in 1946 http://lltm.tripod.com/ aguinaldo.html

24  1901- John Hay tries to negotiate Hay-Pauncefote treaty with Republic of Colombia which included Panama ◦ Pay Colombia 10 mil. and yearly 250,000 rental ◦ US would receive 6 mile strip of land across isthmus for 99 years ◦ Colombian Senate rejects treaty for better offer  Gunboat Diplomacy (1903) ◦ Philippe Bunau-Varilla negotiates with US for assistance for Panama independence from Colombia ◦ November- Panama revolution  US Marines prevented Colombian forces form reaching rebels  Three days later, US recognizes Panama ◦ Hay Bunau-Varilla Treaty  Similar to Hay Pauncefote treaty, however would cost 40 mil. ◦ Roosevelt (later): “I took the Canal and let Congress Debate”

25  Completed in 1914  Cost over 400 mil.  Organized under John F. Stevens & Colonel George Washington Goethals  William Gorgas helps to eliminate malaria by 1913  SS ANCON becomes first to pass through Canal on August 15, 1914  Significant Engineer achievement http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/6074106.stm

26 http://www.two-friends-travels.com/panama/panama-canal- miraflores-locks.html


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