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Hawaii China Japan Cuba Puerto Rico Philippines Panama

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Presentation on theme: "Hawaii China Japan Cuba Puerto Rico Philippines Panama"— Presentation transcript:

1 Hawaii China Japan Cuba Puerto Rico Philippines Panama
US Imperialism Hawaii China Japan Cuba Puerto Rico Philippines Panama

2 Annexation of Hawaii US covets Hawaii for naval base and sugar
America investments in Hawaii increase throughout 1800s By 1870s, US controlled majority of Hawaiian trade & land

3 Annexation of Hawaii Timeline of Events
1875: treaty exempted Hawaiian sugar from US tariffs 1887: Hawaiian Imperialist League forced Kalakaua to sign Bayonet Treaty (US has exclusive rights to Pearl Harbor) 1890 McKinley Tariff negatively impacts Hawaiian sugar economy (subsidies to US sugar producers forced sugar prices to drop) Hawaiian Imperialist League vs. Queen Liliuokalani 1893: John L. Stevens & Sanford Dole organizes revolt & overthrows Queen L. Cleveland doesn’t approve annexation of Hawaii after special investigation and orders Dole’s provisional govt. to resign Dole refuses to resign and Cleveland reluctantly recognizes Dole’s provisional govt. July 7, 1898: Hawaii is annexed by US (Spanish-American War in 1898) Provisionalgovernmentofhawaiicabinet.jpg‎

4 Annexation of Hawaii Hawaiian Imperialist League vs. Queen Liliuokalani 1893: John L. Stevens & Sanford Dole organizes revolt & overthrows Queen L. Cleveland doesn’t approve annexation of Hawaii after special investigation and orders Dole’s provisional govt. to resign Dole refuses to resign and Cleveland reluctantly recognizes Dole’s provisional govt. July 7, 1898: Hawaii is annexed by US (Spanish-American War in 1898)

5 US Involvement in China
US traded with China throughout the 1800s (especially after 1843) GB, France, Germany, Russia, and Japan carves out spheres of influence in China after 1895 1899: John Hay issues Open Door Policy All nations have equal access to trade and investment in China Approved since no country rejected or accepted it

6 US Involvement in China
Fists of Righteous Harmony resented Foreigners’ influence & control 1900- attacked Western missionaries & traders in northern China (Boxer Rebellion) Foreign countries send troops to China John Hay negotiates peace between Europe & China (China pays Europe 333 mi. in damages)

7 US & Japan 1854: Matthew Perry’s visit to Tokyo, Japan to open up trade Japan starts to industrialize and build up navy 1904: Russo-Japanese War 1905: Treaty of Portsmouth TR negotiates treaty between Russia & Japan TR wins Nobel Peace Price 1907: TR sends Great White Fleet on goodwill voyage (to remind Japan of US powerful might)

8 US & Japan (continued) Russo-Japanese War pushed 70,000 Japanese Immigrants to CA 1906 San Francisco Earthquake Asian Exclusion League formed by CA Gentleman’s Agreement (1906) Japanese will stop flow of laborers in US CA will not ban current Japanese living in US from schools 1908: Root Takahira Agreement US and Japan pledged to respect each other’s territorial possessions in Pacific and to uphold the Open Door in China

9 1898 (16 Week War) “Splendid Little War”
Spanish-American War 1898 (16 Week War) “Splendid Little War”

10 Just a reminder about the… Monroe Doctrine
US Foreign Policy developed in 1823 Stated: US would not interfere in European colonies in Latin America But would consider any new attempts to colonize in the Western an act of hostility

11 Causes leading to Spanish-American War
Wilson-Gorman Tariff of 1894 Placed a restriction on sugar imports YELLOW JOURNALISM Cuban struggle for Independence from Spain “Butcher” General Valeriano Welyler & Reconcentration Camps Delome Letter USS Maine Incident

12 Yellow Journalism Sensational journalism used by journalists to attract readers. Ex: William Randolph Hearst’s NY Journal & Ex: Joseph Pulitzer’s NY World Randolph: “You furnish the pictures and I’ll furnish the war” William Randolph Hearst Joseph Pulitzer

13 Influence of Yellow Journalism?
Drawing by Leon Barritt

14 De Lome Letter Spanish Minister to the US: Enrique Dupuy de Lome
Letter Printed in the NY Journal in February, Criticized President McKinley McKinley was described as “weak, and a bidder for the admiration of the crowd” Journal: “The worse insult to the US in its history”

15 U.S.S. Maine USS Maine exploded on February 15, 1898
266 of 350 crew died Sensationalized by newspapers “Remember the Maine! Hell with Spain!” -Newspapers concluded that explosion was from a submarine mine

16 <> Captain Sigsbee
                              <> Captain Sigsbee


18 US Reacts… Influence of Yellow Journalism
Public Demands War McKinley, reluctantly, issues war to Congress on April 11, 1898 Congress declares war on Spain in April 25 Teller Amendment issued by Congress Cuban would be given freedom after War

19 Locations of Major Battles
Manila Bay (Philippines) George Dewey Emilio Aguinaldo Kettle Hill (near Santiago) Rough Riders led by TR & Leonard Wood San Juan Hill Rough Riders were sensationalized in newspapers Santiago Harbor Blockade Armistice signed on August 12, 1898 brdewey.gif

20 Spanish-American War Aftermath
5400 of 300,000 lost their lives Only 379 died from battle casualties Treaty of Paris signed on December 10, 1898 Major Points Cuba becomes independent. Puerto Rico and Guam are given to the US. US pays Spain $20 million for the annexation of the Philippines.

21 After Cuban Independence…
US military govt. set up by Leonard Wood for provisional govt. Major advances achieved in govt. finances achieved in govt. finance, education, agriculture, public health… Walter Reed and William Gorgas led efforts to reduce mosquito pop. & found that mosquitoes caused yellow fever US withdrew from Cuba (Teller Amendment) however… Cuba forced to add Platt Amendment in Cuban Constitution US has right to approve Cuban treaties US has right to intervene militarily to restore order US has right to naval & coaling stations (ex: Guantanamo Bay) Cuba becomes a US protectorate Puerto Rico Foraker Act of 1900: Governor & Upper house appointed by US Jones Act of 1917: Granted Puerto Ricans US citizenship & gave them the right to elect both houses of their legislature 1952: Puerto Rico becomes a self-governing commonwealth of US

22 US & Philippines Imperialist Debate
Pro Imperialism (tend to be Republican) Anti Imperialism (tend to be Democrat) Philippines seen as stepping stone for Asia Foreign Issues would overshadow much needed reform at home Spread Christianity * Foreign workers would lower wages at home New Markets American Factories may relocate overseas Raw Materials Increased Army (higher taxes) Spreading US influence and democratic values in Asia Mongrelization of America

23 US & Philippines Filipinos assumed that their freedom was granted after War (like Cuba) & however, despite provisional govt set up by Aguinaldo, becomes a US protectorate Open Rebellion led by Emilio Aguinaldo (1899 to 1901) 4300 US & 57,000 Filipinos died 1902: Philippine Govt Act (Organic Act) US appoints governor & upper house Jones Act of 1916 :Filipinos elect both houses US granted independence to Philippines in 1946

24 US & Panama Canal 1901- John Hay tries to negotiate Hay-Pauncefote treaty with Republic of Colombia which included Panama Pay Colombia 10 mil. and yearly 250,000 rental US would receive 6 mile strip of land across isthmus for 99 years Colombian Senate rejects treaty for better offer Gunboat Diplomacy (1903) Philippe Bunau-Varilla negotiates with US for assistance for Panama independence from Colombia November- Panama revolution US Marines prevented Colombian forces form reaching rebels Three days later, US recognizes Panama Hay Bunau-Varilla Treaty Similar to Hay Pauncefote treaty, however would cost 40 mil. Roosevelt (later): “I took the Canal and let Congress Debate”

25 Panama Canal Completed in 1914 Cost over 400 mil.
Organized under John F. Stevens & Colonel George Washington Goethals William Gorgas helps to eliminate malaria by 1913 SS ANCON becomes first to pass through Canal on August 15, 1914 Significant Engineer achievement

26 Panama Canal

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