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US History EOCT Review EOCT Review- Ga. Department of Education guide

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1 US History EOCT Review EOCT Review- Ga. Department of Education guide
ID Salem, password: newton13 Go to EOCT Tests at top, pick US history

2 5 Content Domains Colonization Through Constitution (1600-1800)
New Republic through Reconstruction( ) Industrialization, Reform and Imperialism( ) Establishment as a World Power ( ) Modern Era(1946-Present Day)

3 Early Colonial Period Describe European Settlement in North America during 17th Century- Virginia Company House of Burgesses Powhatan Bacon’s Rebellion Massachusetts settlement Rhode Island Settlement Half-way Covenant King Philip’s War Salem Witch Trials Mid-Atlantic Colonies Pennsylvania New Amsterdam (New York) Quebec

4 Virginia 1st perm English colony.
Created by business- Virginia Company- could find gold and other natural resources send back to England Created House of Burgesses- first legislative body in New World Had early problems- disease, starvation, John Smith Tobacco becomes major cash crop Natives resist- led by Powhatan House of Burgesses does nothing- leads to Bacon’s Rebellion- shows colonists will stand up for themselves against complacent government Results in increase of slavery in Virginia

5 New England Massachusetts- Established by Puritans for religious freedom- their own Strict beliefs- not tolerant of other views Leads to creation of Rhode Island, tolerant of different religious beliefs- tradition of freedom of religion Half-way covenant- tried to increase dwindling church membership in response to authoritarian Puritan system

6 New England (cont) King Philip’s War fought as a result of expanding Puritan settlements. Removed native presence from much of New England King Philip what English called Metacom, Native leader 1686-Massachusetts charter canceled by King Had allowed Mass to be independent colony Made individual colonies in New England part of single “New England Colony” 1691 colony is reestablished as a royal colony

7 Middle Colonies Pennsylvania- between New England and Virginia- founded by Quakers given to William Penn as a gift New Amsterdam- settled by Dutch- Taken by British in 1664 renamed New York Dutch allowed to stay. Makes New York center of trade and commerce Middle Colonies known for their religious tolerance

8 Quebec Established by France
Spread Catholic faith, only small trading forts. Weren’t there for population expansion- mainly fur trade Friendly relations with natives compared to British

9 Development of British Society
Trace the ways that the economy and society of British North America developed Terms Mercantilism Trans-Atlantic Trade Middle Passage African-American Culture Benjamin Franklin Individualism Social Mobility The Great Awakening

10 Development of British Society
British colonial system based on Mercantilism- Idea only limited supply of wealth in world- nations must acquire wealth to be stronger Encourages colonists to acquire land Controlled shipping from North America - all goods must go through Great Britain. Keep the colonies from competing with Britain Navigation Acts- taxes on American goods- weren’t enforced- Salutary Neglect- made both colonies and Britain prosper

11 Trans-Atlantic Trade Also called Triangular Trade
Raw materials from North America to Great Britain Manufactured goods and alcohol to Africa for slaves Slaves and manufactured goods to New World Middle Passage- horrific journey from Africa to New World- 2/10 dies Most slaves on large plantations- different tribes- able to keep and merge African traditions and customs together

12 Benjamin Franklin Is successful at business and rises in society- also works at improving self- becomes a symbol of individualism and social mobility- two concepts that come to define America As opposed to the restraints of Nobility and land holding in England- Americans have opportunity to be their own person and move up in society through hard work

13 Great Awakening 1730s-1740s- further rejection of British society
Stressed individual relationships with God Opposed centralized Puritan and Anglican Churches- saw it as corrupting American Society Wild sermons preaching horrors of hell and need to admit sin- not theocracy and intellectual thought on religion Democratization of Religion in America

14 Causes of American Revolution
Explain the Primary causes of the American Revolution Terms French and Indian War 1763 Treaty of Paris Proclamation of 1763 Stamp Act Intolerable Acts Sons of Liberty Daughters of Liberty Committees of Correspondence Thomas Paine Common Sense

15 Causes of American Revolution
French and Indian War- French out of North America- at huge cost for Britain British begin to enforce Navigation Acts Have to pay taxes Americans increase smuggling Proclamation of prevent expansion to limit Native American conflict

16 Colonial Resistance Sons of Liberty- organized to oppose British rule in Mass damaged British property, harassed government officials, and pro-British colonists Daughters of Liberty- organized boycotts of British goods, made those goods in their homes instead British hurt more by this

17 Major Tax Issues Stamp Act- forced colonists to use stamped paper for just about anything using paper- was like paying a tax Nine colonies protest by sending reps to the Stamp Act Congress who sent formal letter of protest to the King Intolerable Acts-results as

18 Committees of Correspondence
Formed to organize anti-British forces across country- couldn’t communicate in public January Thomas Paine publishes Common Sense- pamphlet that pushed many Americans to support the independence movement Argued Britain too far away to rule If Britain mother country, then the colonies are grown up- nor would a mother treat her child so badly

19 American Revolution Identify the ideological, military, and diplomatic aspects of the American Revolution Terms Declaration of Independence John Locke Charles de Montesquieu George Washington Crossing the Delaware River Valley Forge Saratoga Benjamin Franklin Marquis de Lafayette General Charles Cornwallis Battle of Yorktown 1783 Treaty of Paris

20 Declaration of Independence
Written primarily by Thomas Jefferson Borrowed from John Locke idea of natural rights and from Montesquieu idea of Separation of Powers in government between different branches Three parts- Preamble explaining purpose of government List of Grievances- accusing King George III of numerous violations against the American Colonists Formal Declaration

21 Early War Leader of Continental Army- able to organize, secure equipment and turn the inexperienced soldiers into a professional military Average soldier life difficult- varied how well and often paid, housing, supplies This plus hard discipline, numerous early British victories, and threat of death hurt morale

22 First Victories Christmas night Washington surprise attacks British fort guarded by Hessians- hired German mercenaries Showed Washington’s army could fight as well as Europe Spends 6 months of winter at Valley Forge, PA- darkest hour for Patriots. Low food, low supplies, disease Washington orders intense training program- turned Continental Army into a capable, organized army

23 French Help Benjamin Franklin sent to Paris to get France to help-
French only help with major victory- don’t want to back a losing horse Major victory at Saratoga, NY gets French to join war French help also comes from Marquis de Lafayette led American troops, worked with French king on how to gain American Independence

24 American Victory Comes at Yorktown. Cornwallis gets trapped along coast by French Navy surrounded by American forces from the southern states and those led by the Marquis de Lafayette on the Treaty of Paris 1783 ends war- United States won independence from Great Britain gained all land east of the Mississippi

25 US constitution Explain specific events and key ideas that brought about the adoption and implementation of the United States Consitution Terms US Constitution Articles of Confederation Shays’s Rebellion Great Compromise Slavery Separation of Powers Limited Government Executive Branch Checks and Balances Federalists Anti-Federalists The Federalists James Madison Alexander Hamilton States Rights Bill of Rights George Washington Whiskey Rebellion Political Parties Factions John Adams

26 Articles of Confederation
Written during Revolution- reflected fear of powerful national governments No executive branch, could not tax, regulate commerce, or create currency States have more power than federal government- issues between states led to problems

27 Shays Rebellion Rebellion of poor farmers against Mass government
Economy in shambles- farmers cant pay debts or taxes National government unable to do anything to stop 1787- threat of foreign attacks emphasized now- recognized need for a stronger central government- need power to tax to fix the economy Washington elected president of Constitutional Convention

28 Great Compromise Debate on representation in national government
Large states want it based on population Small States want all states equal Create bicameral Congress- one branch based on population(House of Representatives), and the other equal (Senate)

29 Slavery Southern states want slaves to count towards population
North refuses. 3/5ths compromise is reached- south also gets slave trade for 20 years, and northern states have to return runaway slaves

30 Separation of Powers Limited government- Federal system
Power divided b/w national and state governments Federal powers divided between executive branch (President and Cabinet), Legislative (Congress) and the Judicial Branch (Supreme Court and lower federal courts) State governments designed same way Checks and Balances- each branch has some powers over each other branch Presidential Veto Supreme Court rule a law unconstitutional Congress override presidential veto

31 Federalist and Anti-Federalists
States had to ratify Constitution Anti-Federalists believed National government would become too powerful, does not outline rights given to states or each citizen James Madison and Alexander Hamilton write Federalist Papers- series of letters published in newspapers- explaining intent of Constitution and why it should be accepted

32 Bill of Rights Madison creates Bill of Rights to provide for state and citizen rights 1. Freedom of expression 2. Right to arms 3. No housing of soldiers during peace 4. Protection from unreasonable search and seizure 5. Cannot be deprived of life, liberty, or property without due process of law 6. Right to trial by jury in criminal cases 7. Right to trail by jury in most civil cases 8. Prohibits excessive bails, fines, punishments 9.Rights not mentioned in Constitution belong to the people 10. Declares powers not given to the national government belong to the states or the people

33 President George Washington
1st President of United States- set patterns, traditions, of the Presidency Favored non-intervention in Europe, worked to improve relations with Britain Displayed strength of executive branch during Whiskey Rebellion when Penn farmers rebelled against a national tax on whiskey Way to change laws was peaceful petition of Congress, not rebellion

34 Political Parties Division in Washington’s Cabinet between Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton over the strength of the national government Hamilton wants to expand government power to stabilize and expand nation and the economy Jefferson believes the national government must limit it’s power Washington stays for only 2 terms- Jefferson, Hamilton and their supporters challenge to replace him with someone on their “side” Washington warns the American people about political parties (factions) and that they would divide the country

35 President John Adams John Adams hero of the revolution in Mass.
Beats Jefferson barely, Jefferson becomes Vice President Adams faced by problems with France, XYZ Affair Criticized heavily by Jefferson Gets Congress to pass Alien and Sedition Acts- Restricts free speech and press rights Increased citizenship requirements for immigrants Trying to cut off Jefferson’s support

36 Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
Written by Jefferson and Madison- argued that states could refuse to enforce federal laws they did not agree with Birth of the States’ Rights concept Adams troubles with Europe hurt the economy, Alien and Sedition Acts make him look like a tyrant Jefferson wins the election of 1800 and starts a new era of expansion for the United States

37 Content Domain 2: New Republic Through Reconstruction

38 Early Expansion Analyze the nature of territorial and population growth and its impact in the early decades of the new nation Terms Northwest Ordinance Louisiana Purchase Lewis and Clark War of 1812 Erie Canal New York City Monroe Doctrine

39 Moving West Northwest Ordinance- outlined how new territory added to country, would create new states not add to current ones. No slavery in new territory, Ohio River slavery border Public schools required in new territory Louisiana Purchase- US doubles in size when Jefferson buys Louisiana territory from France, Lewis and Clark- hired to explore new territory and western lands to the Pacific- chartered trails, mapped rivers,

40 War of 1812 Causes- 1. Freedom of Seas- British attacking neutral US merchant ships 2.British forcing American sailors to serve in Brit navy 3. Americans believed British aiding Native Americans in North America 4. Wanted control of North America Result – 1.Ends all US military hostility against Great Britain, 2.America’s army and navy established as worth opponents against European powers 3. American military achievements heighten nationalistic feelings

41 Improvements National Infrastructure- with con’t west expansion, need to connect with east Extensive toll roads built through country Development of steam engine allows faster, easier river travel both ways Erie Canal- connected Great Lakes region to Atlantic Ocean. Opened up western lands to further expansion

42 Rise of NYC- Monroe Doctrine-
With Erie Canal, NYC becomes the economic center of the United States. Home of biggest gathering of artisans and crafts workers, soon becomes banking and commercial center of US Monroe Doctrine- President Monroe makes official declaration that any Euro attempt to re-colonize in Western Hemisphere would be seen as attack on US US would remain neutral in all European conflicts

43 Explain the process of economic growth, its regional and national impact in the first half of the 19th century and the different responses to it Terms Industrial Revolution Eli Whitney Cotton Gin Interchangeable Parts Manifest Destiny Temperance Movement Abolitionism Public School Reform Women’s Suffrage Elizabeth Cody Stanton Seneca Falls Conference Jacksonian Democracy

44 Industrialization Industrial Revolution- power driven machines with unskilled or semiskilled workers replace hand tools operated by skilled laborers Eli Whitney- developed interchangeable parts and the Cotton Gin Cotton Gin- reduced amount of work to remove seed from cotton- Increased profit of cotton- by reducing amount of time to produce fabric South becomes totally dependent on cotton production and slave labor Interchangeable parts- Manufacturing identical parts to more easily replace broken mechanisms instead of replacing entire product allows goods to be mass produced

45 Moving West Reasons for Westward Growth
1. Desire of most Americans to own their own land 2. The discovery of gold and other valuable resources 3.Belief that the US was destined to control North American continent- Manifest Destiny Motivated somewhat by racists ideas towards Native Americans and Mexicans

46 Reform Movements Temperance- effort to outlaw alcohol consumption
Increased size of religious orgs, Women play key role, foundations of women’s movement Abolition- outlaw slavery, prevent slavery from expansion Makes slavery a political issues Again women play key role Public School- all children should be required to attend schools supported by taxpayers Makes education a state and local issue Improved schools by requiring trained teachers

47 Women’s Suffrage Movement headed by Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Organized Seneca Falls Conference- first women’s rights convention 1848 Marks the beginning of organized efforts of women to gain civil rights

48 Jackson Jacksonian Democracy- seek stronger presidency and executive branch, Marked by struggles against Congress and the Banking interests of the country Spoils System- politicians appoint friends of campaign to government jobs- limit power of the elite class Tariff Crisis with South Carolina- strengthened Presidents ability to enforce laws Indian Crisis- forced Indians out of South into Indian Territory Bank War

49 Explain the relationship between growing north-south divisions and westward expansion
Terms Abolitionism William Lloyd Garrison Frederick Douglass Grimke Sisters Missouri Compromise of 1820 Nat Turner’s Rebellion Nullification Crisis John C. Calhoun Sectionalism States’ Rights Mexican-American War Wilmot Proviso Compromise of 1850

50 Abolition Slavery largely over in north by efforts to abolish slavery increase William Lloyd Garrison- published abolitionist newspaper, organized abolitionist societies Frederick Douglass- former slave, traveled and gave speeches and lectures against slavery, published autobiography detailing horrors of slavery Grimke Sisters- southern women who lectured in north about evils of slavery

51 Missouri Compromise 1820 Missouri wants to enter union as slave state- would upset balance of power in senate. Compromise reached- Maine taken from Mass added as free state- no slavery north of Missouri Solved slavery issue only temporarily

52 Mexican American War 1845- Texas taken from Mexico. Mexico declares war- US wins war and gets California, New Mexico in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo Wilmot Proviso- wanted slavery to be made illegal in all new territories acquired from Mexico Not passed, instead get the Compromise of 1850

53 Compromise of 1850 Answered the question of California’s admittance to Union 1. New Mexico territory taken from Texas 2. New Mexico voters determine if slave or free 3. California is a free state 4. All citizens must help apprehend and return runaway slaves 5. Slave trade abolished in DC

54 Identify key events, issues, and individuals relating to the cause, course, and consequences of the Civil War Terms Kansas-Nebraska Act Popular Sovereignty Dred Scott Decision John Brown Abraham Lincoln Habeas Corpus Emancipation Proclamation Jefferson Davis Ulysses S. Grant Robert E. Lee William Tecumseh Sherman Thomas “ Stonewall” Jackson Battle of Antietam Battle of Gettysburg Siege of Vicksburg Battle for Atlanta Lincoln’s 2nd Inaugural Address

55 Increasing Issues Kansas-Nebraska Act- repealed Missouri Compromise, established popular sovereignty to determine slavery question in new territories Results in Bleeding Kansas Dred Scott Decision- ruled that no African-American, slave or no, could become a citizen Further added that congress could not prohibit slavery in federal territories Makes Missouri Compromise and Kansas-Nebraska Act unconstitutional

56 Closer to War Harper’s Ferry- John Brown attempts to take over a federal arsenal in Virginia to lead a slave revolt into the south Is caught, convicted of treason, executed. Many in abolition movement see Brown as martyr to their cause, Southerners are terrified of abolition movement- convinced they will use violence to achieve their goals

57 Republican Abraham Lincoln elected in 1860
Only wants to keep slavery from spreading More concerned about keeping Union together South Carolina secedes, attack federal fort at Ft. Sumter- starts Civil War Review strengths and weaknesses of North and South on page 382 of your text book

58 Presidential Powers Habeas Corpus- anyone who is imprisoned must be taken before a judge to determine if the prisoner is being legally held Lincoln suspends this right to hold Confederate sympathizers during war Emancipation Proclamation-makes the war officially about ending slavery. Freed all slaves held in Confederate Territory

59 Key people of Civil War North- Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant, William Tecumseh Sherman South- Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee, Stonewall Jackson

60 Key Battles Antietam Gettysburg Vicksburg
deadliest one-day battle in American history. Neither side wins. But stops Lee’s offensive into North. Allows Lincoln to issue Emancipation Proclamation Gettysburg deadliest battle of Civil War. Ends Lee ability to fight offensive war- four months later Lincoln gives Gettysburg Address to commemorate Battle Vicksburg Union gains control of Mississippi River, cuts South in two. With Gettysburg became turning point of war Atlanta- Destroyed South’s morale to fight war- showed that war was essentially over- Lincoln wins reelection easily

61 Lincoln’s Speeches Gettysburg Address2 minute speech “Four Score and Seven Years ago…” raised spirits of northerners , convinced the people that the US was one nation- could not remain divided 2nd Inaugural Address- attempts to reconcile with South to make reunion easier, would not seek to punish or gain revenge

62 Identify legal, political, and social dimensions of Reconstruction
Terms Presidential Reconstruction Radical Republican Reconstruction 13th Amendment 14th Amendment 15th Amendment Morehouse College Freedmen’s Bureau Andrew Johnson’s Impeachment Black Codes Ku Klux Klan (KKK)

63 Reconstruction Presidential- started by Lincoln, cont by Johnson after Lincoln’s assassination, Wanted to readmit southern states as quickly as possible. Republicans in congress think too easy on South, south state govt’s pass laws restricting freemen’s rights Radical- Forced southern states to be under military rule until all requirements, including ratifying the slave amendments, were met

64 New Amendments 13th- abolished slavery
14th- US citizens, anyone born in US, no citizen can be denied rights w/o due process 15th- Removed restrictions on voting based on race, right to vote to all males over 21

65 Freedmen Freedmen’s Bureau- established to help former slaves adapt to freedom Provided food clothing, job training, medical care Did not provide land- forced many former slaves into sharecropping or tenant farming Morehouse- created to provide higher education opportunities for freedmen- religious and educational education

66 Impeachment of Johnson
Stemmed from Johnson’s opposition to Radical Plans Showed that an elected official could not be removed simply because he held different opinions from politicians who had power to impeach him

67 Resistance to Racial Equality
Black Codes- racial laws passed in South after 13th Amendment- restrict movements, job opportunities, enforced segregation of races KKK-secret society that used murder, arson, and threats to control freedmen and pressure them not to vote

68 End of Reconstruction Ends with Compromise of removal of federal troops from south. Left freedmen unprotected and resulted in more black codes being passed to restrict rights and strengthen segregation

69 Domain 3: Industrialization, Reform, and Imperialism

70 Describe the growth of big business and technological innovations after Reconstruction
Modern United States created by social changes associated with the growth of big business and advances in technologies Terms Railroad Industry Transcontinental Railroad Chinese Laborers Steel Industry Big Business John D. Rockefeller Standard Oil Company Trusts Monopolies Thomas Edison Electric Light Bulb Phonograph Motion Pictures

71 Railroad Chinese labor used to build railroad connecting east and west-Transcontinental Railroad work dangerous, low pay Growth of railroad expands industries that provided materials for construction- Steel and Oil become big businesses

72 Big Business Trusts and Monopolies
Vertical and Horizontal Consolidation Rockefeller(oil) and Carnegie(steel) Control large amounts of wealth allows control of cultural and political life Become the target of government reforms

73 Edison Invented light bulb, phonograph, motion pictures, a way to distribute electrical power Allows electric light to illuminate buildings, streets, neighborhoods Eliminated much manual labor, improved quality of life

74 Analyze important consequences of American industrial growth Terms
Sitting Bull, Wounded Knee, Ellis Island, American Federation of Labor, Samuel Gompers, Pullman Strike

75 Old Conflict Gold discovered in Dakota territory, government signed treaty saying would leave alone- Sitting Bull fights US army. Then becomes leader of Sioux religious revival- is killed during arrest Wounded Knee- Last battle of Indian Wars- Sioux threat removed

76 New Immigrants 20th Century- new immigration patterns. Primarily from eastern, southern Europe- Jewish, Catholic, no English Most immigrants enter US from Ellis Island in NY Settled in urban areas with others from same country Work as unskilled laborers, couldn’t afford to buy land and farm

77 Unionization Unskilled workers- low wages, long hours, no vacations, unsafe work environment American Federation of Labor- led by Samuel Gompers- encouraged strikes to get better conditions for workers Pullman Strike-Workers go on strike, government declares strike illegal, uses US military to restore peace- Example of big business using financial power to control society

78 Identify major efforts to reform American society and politics in the Progressive Era
Terms Muckrakers Upton Sinclair Ida Tarbell Hull House Initiative Referendum Recall Direct Election of Senators Jim Crow Plessy v. Ferguson NAACP

79 Progressives Period of social and political reform in response to Big Business corruption and domination Muckrakers- journalists who investigated and reported Upton Sinclair- The Jungle- Meatpacking industry Ida Tarbell- exposed political corruption and unfair business practices of the Standard Oil Company

80 Reforms Hull House- settlement home, social service agency that helped immigrants and working class citizens Election Reforms Initiative- citizens can put issues on a public vote Referendum- government may put issue to public vote Recall- Allow citizens to remove public officials before term expire Direct Election of Senators- instead of State legislatures

81 Jim Crow Jim Crow- Segregation laws
Plessy v. Ferguson- racial segregation is legal under constitution NAACP- founded to work towards overturning Plessy

82 Explain America’s evolving relationship with the world at the turn of the 20th century
Anti-immigrant sentiment Chinese Exclusion Act Spanish-American War American Expansion Philippine-American War Roosevelt Corollary Panama Canal

83 Anti-immigrant Immigrants driving down wages- willing to work for cheaper, businesses lower wages for all workers Get Congress to pass Chinese Exclusion Act- no Chinese immigrants allowed

84 Spanish-American War War with Spain- US wins able to gain colonies in Puerto Rico, Philippines, and Pacific Ocean Leads Roosevelt to pass Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine- argues United States had right to intervene in unstable Latin American countries, instead of European nations Panama Canal- Pacific holdings require short cut from Atlantic to Pacific- Roosevelt builds canal across Panama

85 Domain 4: Establishment as a World Power

86 Analyze the Origins and impact of US involvement in World War I Terms-
US Neutrality Unrestricted Submarine Warfare Great Migration Espionage Act Eugene V. Debs 18th Amendment 19th Amendment Fourteen Points League of Nations

87 WWI Origins President Wilson declares US neutrality
Lusitania sunk by German submarine- unrestricted submarine warfare- major issue between Germany and US

88 Impact Great Migration- Thousands of African-Americans leave south move to North where jobs available Espionage Act- crime to criticize government, military, war effort Eugene V Debs, Socialist candidate imprisoned for 10 years 18th Amendment- Prohibition 19th Amendment- Women’s Suffrage

89 Isolationism Fourteen Points- Wilson’s peace plan to avoid all future wars. Main goal creation of League of Nations- international peacekeeping organization Was rejected by the Senate who wanted to avoid all future conflicts with Europe- want to keep US isolated from foreign wars

90 Red Scare Growing Communist and Socialists movements and the rise of the Soviet Union creates fear of two groups- government begins to pursue suspected communists and socialists Leads to immigration restriction- fear immigrants bringing Communism

91 Popular Culture Radio and Movies- connect country
Harlem Renaissance- Langston Hughes- writer, Louis Armstrong- jazz trumpeter Tin Pan Alley- Irving Berlin- “God Bless America” “White Christmas”

92 Henry Ford Mass production- assembly line
Makes Model T cheaper- more people able to buy cars People able to travel more easily Results in development of automobile culture Economic boom in industries related to automobile construction and use Steel, gas stations, rubber industry, etc

93 Analyze the causes and consequences of the Great Depression
Stock Market Crash Great Depression Dust Bowl Hoovervilles

94 Crash Reasons for- overproduction, under consumption, over speculation in Stock Market results in Great Crash of 1929 Great Depression- severe economic recession in the 1930’s that affected all aspects of the economy Dust Bowl- severe drought that wrecked the farmers of the midwest Hoovervilles- homeless and unemployed shanty villages

95 Describe Franklin Roosevelt’s New Deal as a response to the Depression, and compare the ways governmental programs aided those in need Terms Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Second New Deal Wagner Act Industrial Unionism Social Security Act Eleanor Roosevelt Huey Long Neutrality Acts Court Packing Bill

96 FDR’s New Deal Aimed to repair and reform the economy to first fix the Depression then prevent another one Tennessee Valley Authority- established to build dams, power plants help modernize area and help prevent flooding

97 2nd New Deal Wagner Act- promoted industrial unionism, and prohibited unfair labor practices Social Security Act- old age insurance, unemployment compensation, disability insurance Eleanor Roosevelt- travelled country to evaluate success of New Deal, promoter of women’s activism, interested in humanitarian causes and social progress

98 Opposition Huey Long- liberal critic of FDR- wanted to run for president. Promised government would provide all basic needs Neutrality Acts- passed to keep FDR from intervening in WWII- illegal to sell arms or make loans to nations at war Court Packing Bill- FDR tries to get more Supreme Court Justices to support his New Deal programs

99 Identify the origins, major developments, and the domestic impact of WWII, especially the growth of federal government Terms A. Philip Randolph Pearl Harbor Internment Mobilization Wartime Conservation Rationing Lend-Lease Battle of Midway D-Day Battle of Berlin Atom Bomb Los Alamos

100 WWII A. Philip Randolph- union leader, propose protest against racial discrimination in military, government, industry- US raising industrial output to supply Allies Lend-Lease-amended Neutrality Acts preventing US involvement in WW2 FDR signs executive order to cease discrimination in above areas Pearl Harbor- Japanese bomb US naval base in Hawaii after US puts economic and political sanctions on Japanese expansion in Southeast Asia and Pacific Ocean. US enters WWII Hundreds of thousands of Japanese-Americans (some US citizens) put into rural Internment Camps Fear of spies and sabatoge

101 Mobilization Draft instated to fill military
American industry turned to wartime production- women fill jobs as draft takes men Wartime conservation and rationing used to conserve raw materials for war effort

102 Major Events Battle of Midway- June Japanese Navy heavily defeated- allowed Americans to engage in offensive naval war- Island hopping D-Day June 6, nd Front opened in Europe. Largest seaborne land invasion. Beginning of victory for Allies Fall of Berlin Soviets take German capital effectively ending

103 Atomic Bomb Used to force Japanese Surrender.
Developed in Los Alamos, New Mexico Display of bomb pushes Soviet Union into own development Leads to development of Cold War

104 Analyze the domestic and international impact of the Cold War on the United States
Terms- Marshall Plan Containment Truman Doctrine Korean War Chinese Civil War McCarthyism Cuban Revolution Bay of Pigs Cuban Missile Crisis Vietnam War Tet Offensive

105 Cold War Policies Marshall Plan- economic plan aimed at helping to rebuild Western Europe to help oppose communism. Containment- Western Europe and US form NATO to work to stop spread of Communism- prevent Soviets from creating spheres of influence Truman Doctrine- US would give military and economic aid to any country fighting against communist rule

106 Conflicts Korean War- North Korea attempts to unify with South Korea
US and SK forces able to push NK back to Chinese border With aid from Communist China that had just won Chinese Civil War NK pushes back to original Korean Border Ends in stalemate Cuba- Cuban Revolution- Castro takes control JFK attempts CIA backed coup- Bay of Pigs Castro makes alliance with Soviets- Soviets begin to install missile bases in Cuba- Cuban Missile Crisis Soviets back off when US sets up naval “quarantine” of Cuba

107 McCarthyism During 1950s Fear of Communism, concern of Chinese and Korean fall to communism Senator McCarthy accuses many inside US government and Army of being communist Leads to civil rights violations of those who were communist, suspected of being communist, or suspected of knowing someone who was a communist Witch-Hunts

108 Vietnam US supports South Vietnam against Communist North Vietnam- similar situation to Korea Slowly US builds presence in Vietnam 1968- Tet Offensive- largest attack of Viet Cong shows war won’t be over soon, many in US begin to protest US involvement more heavily

109 Doman 5: Modern Era

110 Explain economic growth and its impact on the United States Terms
Baby Boom Levittown Interstate Highway Act Kennedy/Nixon Presidential Debates TV News Coverage of Civil Rights Movement Personal Computer Cellular Telephone Sputnik I

111 Post-War Period Baby Boom- massive increase in birthrate from largest generation in American history Soldiers return home, normalcy returns and prosperity is enjoyed by many Levittown's- mass produced housing suburbs built outside of cities Still need to get into city- more cars purchased, need larger roads- Interstate Highway Act creates expressways and freeways-

112 Television Early TV newscasts worked to change American culture and politics Kennedy/Nixon debate- 1960, 1st debate on TV, JFK looked better on television, healthier, helped JFK win election Civil Rights Movement- Birmingham riots shown on television helps push American sympathies towards ending racial segregation, American public pressures JFK towards pushing for new Civil Rights laws to end the violence

113 Sputnik and others Sputnik- Soviets 1st artificial satellite shot into space- Americans believe US fallen behind them, push for increase in government spending on math and science education Heightened Cold War tension 1970s- early forms of personal computers and cell phones are developed

114 Identify dimensions of the Civil Rights Movement 1945-1970 Terms
Jackie Robinson Harry Truman Brown v. Board of Education MLK Jr. Letter from Birmingham Jail I Have a Dream Civil Rights Act of 1964 Voting Rights Act of 1965

115 Baby Steps Jackie Robinson st African American to play Major League Baseball- gave hope and pride to African-American community 1948- forces integration of US military, end discrimination in US employees Set stage for Civil Rights laws of 1960s 1954- Brown v. Board of Education- NAACP successfully overturns “Plessy v. Ferguson”- Separate but Equal is unconstitutional Eisenhower forced to use military to integrate high school in Arkansas

116 MLK Public Face and Voice of movement- wrote Letter from Birmingham explaining to white religious leaders why segregation victims felt the need to act now I Have a Dream Speech- King asks for peace and racial harmony- in Washington DC- helped lead to Civil Rights Act

117 Action In response to Civil Rights events and JFK’s assassination LBJ signs Civil Rights Act of prohibits discrimination based on race, religion, national origin, gender Voting Rights Act of prohibits literacy tests, poll taxes, etc to register to vote

118 Describe and assess the impact of political developments between 1945 and 1970
Terms Warren Court Miranda v. Arizona Assassination of President Kennedy Great Society Medicare Tet Offensive Assassination of MLK Assassination of RFK 1968 Democratic National Convention

119 Individual Rights Warren Court- Supreme Court headed by Earl Warren
Ruled on Brown 1963- Miranda v. Arizona- police must inform suspects of rights at time of arrest Also strengthened rights to privacy, right of student free speech in wearing armbands protesting war, and that all states must obey all decisions of SC

120 JFK and LBJ JFK assassination had 2 political impacts
1. Assassination showed president could be killed and government could continue on 2. Gave LBJ political capital (strength) to push through Great Society programs, Civil Rights legislation

121 Great Society Aimed at raising Americans standard of living and provide greater opportunities Major programs- Medicare and Medicaid

122 1968 Crazy year January- Tet Offensive- many Americans turn against war, large violent protests begin April- assassination of MLK- results in race riots June- RFK assassinated- dampened many peoples’ hopes for social reform and end of the war August- Democratic National Convention- violence erupts between police and antiwar protestors on live television

123 Analyze the impact of social change movements and organizations of 1960s
Terms SCLC SNCC Sit-Ins Freedom Rides Anti-Vietnam War Movement Women’s Movement National Organization of Women United Farm Workers Movement Cesar Chavez Environmental Movement Silent Spring Rachel Carson Earth Day Environmental Protection Agency Conservative Movement Barry Goldwater Richard M. Nixon

124 SCLC SNCC Founding MLK and other ministers, civil rights leaders African-American college students, help from SCLC Goal Nonviolent crusade against discrimination, segregation Speed up changes mandated by Brown v. Board of Ed Original Tactics Marches, protests, demonstrations in the South, using churches as bases Sit-ins at segregated lunch counters, voter registration to influence Congress to pass voting rights act Later Tactics Voter registrations Freedom rides Original Membership African-American adults, white adults African-American and white college students Later Membership Same African-Americans Only Original Philosophy Nonviolence Later Philosophy Same as original philosophy Militancy and Violence, “Black Power”

125 Other Social Activist Groups
National Organization of Women- born from antiwar and Civil Rights movement- aimed to gain equality in employment, wanted Equal Rights Amendment United Farm Workers Movement- leader Cesar Chavez, aimed at uniting Latinos in California, led boycotts, strikes, etc to get higher wages and other benefits for farm workers

126 Movements (cont.) Environmental Movement- became issue in 1962 with book Silent Spring by Rachel Carson about the dangers of pesticide Leads to Water Quality Act of 1965, Earth Day, and the creation of the Environmental Protection Agency Conservative Movement- belief that the Federal Government should not try to fix social and economic problems Starts in 1964 with Barry Goldwater Then in ‘68 with Nixon and New Federalism- take power from federal government, give it to the states

127 Describe changes in National politics since 1968 Terms-
Roe v. Wade Regents of University of California v. Bakke Richard Nixon Nixon’s visit to China Watergate Scandal Gerald Ford Jimmy Carter Camp David Accords Iranian Revolution Iranian Hostage Crisis Ronald Reagan Reaganomics Iran-Contra Scandal Collapse of Soviet Union Bill Clinton NAFTA Impeachment of Bill Clinton Electoral College George W. Bush Operation Enduring Freedom War on Terrorism Operation Iraqi Freedom

128 Supreme Court Decisions
Supreme Court ruled many cases change views of civil liberties and civil rights Roe v. Wade extends Constitutional Right to privacy to include abortion Bakke Decision ruled race can be used to considered applications to college, but racial quotas cannot be used Expanded civil rights by giving constitutional protection to affirmative action programs

129 Nixon and Ford Nixon- 1st president to visit China- opened up China to US trade, wanted to use Chinese pressure against Soviets in future Watergate- effort to cover up burglary of Democratic campaign offices by Nixon reelection team Results in Nixon’s resignation in face of impeachment Scandal left many Americans distrustful of politics and government Ford- presidency damaged by connections to Nixon, even more when he pardons Nixon for Watergate Ends Vietnam War, but domestic policies don’t stop worst economic recession since Depression

130 Carter Camp David Accords- Carter negotiates treaty between Egypt and Israel to bring peace to Middle East Iranian Revolution replaced pro-American shah with radical anti-American Muslim leader US lets shah in for medical treatment- Iranian revolutionaries take 52 Americans hostage in US Embassy. Iranian Hostage Crisis-lasts 444 days, nurtures anti-Americanism in Muslim world, helps elect Ronald Reagan president over Carter in 1980

131 Reagan Conservative- wants to decrease size and role of Federal Government Reaganomics- budget cuts, tax cuts, increase in defense spending. Reverse of Keynesian economics Iran Contra Scandal- Administration sold weapons to Iran (our enemy), used profits to fund anti-Communist rebels in Nicaragua Collapse of Soviet Union- democratic reforms in Soviet Union- leads to breakup of Soviet Bloc in eastern Europe- END OF COLD WAR

132 Clinton NAFTA- North American Free Trade Agreement- brings Mexico into existing US-Canada tariff free agreement. Opponents say would send jobs to Mexico, supporters say would open up growing Mexican markets to US companies Impeachment- questions about shady real estate deals lead to investigation and allegations Clinton lied under oath(perjury) concerning improper relationship with an intern. Clinton found innocent of perjury. 2nd President to be impeached

133 2000 and Beyond!!!!!!!!!! Election of One of closest elections ever. Al Gore wins popular vote, Bush wins electoral vote Bush- with 9/11 creates Department of Homeland Security to protect US from terrorist attacks and respond to natural disasters. Increases law enforcement agencies abilities to search personal records and private communications (wire-taps) War on Terrorism- international coalition to fight terrorists groups October starts Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan to hunt down al-Qaeda and destroy Taliban Operation Iraqi freedom- March 2003 US forces searching for weapons of mass destruction Saddam Hussein believed to be hiding- none are found. Hussein captured, convicted of crimes against Humanity and executed in 2006

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