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HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT IN THE MODERN ERA 1 Chapter 17 THE ROAD TO WAR Section 1: The Search for Peace Section 2: Relations.

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Presentation on theme: "HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT IN THE MODERN ERA 1 Chapter 17 THE ROAD TO WAR Section 1: The Search for Peace Section 2: Relations."— Presentation transcript:

1 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT IN THE MODERN ERA 1 Chapter 17 THE ROAD TO WAR Section 1: The Search for Peace Section 2: Relations with Latin America Section 3: The Rise of Militarism Section 4: War Breaks Out

2 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT IN THE MODERN ERA 2 Objectives: What foreign policy did the United States follow after World War I? What foreign policy did the United States follow after World War I? What were the major postwar peace initiatives? What were the major postwar peace initiatives? How did war debts and reparations affect European nations after World War I? How did war debts and reparations affect European nations after World War I? Section 1: The Search for Peace

3 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT IN THE MODERN ERA 3 U.S. foreign policy after World War I The U.S. followed a policy of partial isolationism, declining membership in the League of Nations and the World Court. Section 1: The Search for Peace

4 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT IN THE MODERN ERA 4 Major postwar peace initiatives The Five-Power Naval Treaty limited nations’ naval strength. The Five-Power Naval Treaty limited nations’ naval strength. The Four-Power Treaty guaranteed respect for nations’ territorial possessions in the Pacific. The Four-Power Treaty guaranteed respect for nations’ territorial possessions in the Pacific. The Nine-Power Treaty guaranteed China’s territorial integrity. The Nine-Power Treaty guaranteed China’s territorial integrity. The Kellogg-Briand Pact outlawed war. The Kellogg-Briand Pact outlawed war. Section 1: The Search for Peace

5 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT IN THE MODERN ERA 5 Effects of war debts and reparations Britain, France, and Italy were in debt to the U.S., so they demanded reparations from Germany to help them pay. Britain, France, and Italy were in debt to the U.S., so they demanded reparations from Germany to help them pay. Germany was forced to borrow money from Britain and to print paper money. Germany was forced to borrow money from Britain and to print paper money. Germany suffered hyperinflation, which led to a severe economic downturn. Germany suffered hyperinflation, which led to a severe economic downturn. German bitterness grew. German bitterness grew. Section 1: The Search for Peace

6 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT IN THE MODERN ERA 6 Objectives: What role did the United States play in Nicaraguan politics? What role did the United States play in Nicaraguan politics? How did U.S. relations with Latin America change in the 1930s? How did U.S. relations with Latin America change in the 1930s? How did the Great Depression affect Latin American countries? How did the Great Depression affect Latin American countries? Section 2: Relations with Latin America

7 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT IN THE MODERN ERA 7 U.S. and Nicaragua 1926: the U.S. invaded Nicaragua to protect commercial interests. 1926: the U.S. invaded Nicaragua to protect commercial interests. 1927: Stimson helped negotiate an end to civil war in Nicaragua; U.S. trained the Nicaraguan National Guard. 1927: Stimson helped negotiate an end to civil war in Nicaragua; U.S. trained the Nicaraguan National Guard : U.S. troops fought Sandino’s forces : U.S. troops fought Sandino’s forces. 1933: U.S. withdrew. 1933: U.S. withdrew on: U.S. backed the Somoza regime on: U.S. backed the Somoza regime. Section 2: Relations with Latin America

8 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT IN THE MODERN ERA 8 Changes in U.S. relationship with Latin America U.S. established the Good Neighbor policy. U.S. established the Good Neighbor policy. U.S. canceled the Platt Amendment (right to intervene in Cuban affairs). U.S. canceled the Platt Amendment (right to intervene in Cuban affairs). U.S. gave up its right to intervene unilaterally in Panama. U.S. gave up its right to intervene unilaterally in Panama. U.S. withdrew troops from Haiti. U.S. withdrew troops from Haiti. U.S. did not intervene when Mexico chose to nationalize its oil industry. U.S. did not intervene when Mexico chose to nationalize its oil industry. Section 2: Relations with Latin America

9 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT IN THE MODERN ERA 9 The Great Depression in Latin America Crop prices decreased, wages dropped, unemployment grew. Crop prices decreased, wages dropped, unemployment grew. The gulf between the rich and the poor grew. The gulf between the rich and the poor grew. Caudillos took power in many countries. Caudillos took power in many countries. Section 2: Relations with Latin America

10 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT IN THE MODERN ERA 10 Objectives: How did Benito Mussolini create a fascist state in Italy? How did Benito Mussolini create a fascist state in Italy? How did Joseph Stalin maintain power in the Soviet Union? How did Joseph Stalin maintain power in the Soviet Union? How did Adolf Hitler rise to power in Germany? How did Adolf Hitler rise to power in Germany? What caused the Spanish Civil War? What caused the Spanish Civil War? What actions did Japan’s military take during the 1930s? What actions did Japan’s military take during the 1930s? Section 3: The Rise of Militarism

11 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT IN THE MODERN ERA 11 Mussolini in Italy led Fascists to power against Communists led Fascists to power against Communists used Blackshirts to occupy Rome, with support of nationalists and industrialists used Blackshirts to occupy Rome, with support of nationalists and industrialists got appointed prime minister and given dictatorial powers got appointed prime minister and given dictatorial powers limited freedom of speech and voting rights limited freedom of speech and voting rights arrested opponents arrested opponents Section 3: The Rise of Militarism

12 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT IN THE MODERN ERA 12 Stalin in the Soviet Union seized private land and collectivized agriculture seized private land and collectivized agriculture sent opponents to forced labor camps sent opponents to forced labor camps used police and army to suppress dissent used police and army to suppress dissent purged the party and the army of opposition purged the party and the army of opposition Section 3: The Rise of Militarism

13 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT IN THE MODERN ERA 13 Hitler in Germany Hitler won support by blaming Jews, Communists, and intellectuals for Germany’s decline. Hitler won support by blaming Jews, Communists, and intellectuals for Germany’s decline. In 1932, 40 percent of the vote in national elections went to the Nazi Party. In 1932, 40 percent of the vote in national elections went to the Nazi Party. Hitler was appointed chancellor and claimed dictatorial powers. Hitler was appointed chancellor and claimed dictatorial powers. Hitler crushed political opposition. Hitler crushed political opposition. Section 3: The Rise of Militarism

14 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT IN THE MODERN ERA 14 Causes of the Spanish Civil War In 1931, Spain adopted a new constitution limiting the power of the military and of the Catholic Church. In 1931, Spain adopted a new constitution limiting the power of the military and of the Catholic Church. The new constitution called for universal suffrage, nationalization of public utilities, and land for peasants. The new constitution called for universal suffrage, nationalization of public utilities, and land for peasants. Conservative military men felt threatened by the populist reforms. Conservative military men felt threatened by the populist reforms. In 1936, Fascist army officers led by Franco began to try to overthrow the government. In 1936, Fascist army officers led by Franco began to try to overthrow the government. Section 3: The Rise of Militarism

15 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT IN THE MODERN ERA 15 Japan’s military during the 1930s built up naval forces in violation of Washington Conference pledges built up naval forces in violation of Washington Conference pledges invaded Manchuria invaded Manchuria clashed with Chinese troops near Beijing clashed with Chinese troops near Beijing occupied northern China occupied northern China launched bombing raids against Chinese cities launched bombing raids against Chinese cities occupied Nanjing occupied Nanjing

16 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT IN THE MODERN ERA 16 Objectives: What was the international response to fascism? What was the international response to fascism? What were the early events of World War II? What were the early events of World War II? Why did tension between the United States and Germany increase? Why did tension between the United States and Germany increase? Why did Japan bomb Pearl Harbor? Why did Japan bomb Pearl Harbor? Section 4: War Breaks Out

17 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT IN THE MODERN ERA 17 International response to fascism U.S. Congress passed neutrality laws. U.S. Congress passed neutrality laws. European leaders adopted a policy of appeasement, but also sped up rearmament. European leaders adopted a policy of appeasement, but also sped up rearmament. The U.S. recognized the Soviet Union. The U.S. recognized the Soviet Union. Section 4: War Breaks Out

18 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT IN THE MODERN ERA 18 Early events of World War II 1939: Hitler occupied Czechoslovakia and signed a nonaggression pact with Stalin. 1939: Hitler occupied Czechoslovakia and signed a nonaggression pact with Stalin. 1939: Germany invaded Poland and France and Britain declared war. 1939: Germany invaded Poland and France and Britain declared war. 1940: Germany occupied Belgium, Denmark, northern France, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, and Norway. 1940: Germany occupied Belgium, Denmark, northern France, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, and Norway. 1940: British citizens rescued the British army from Dunkirk, and Germany established a puppet government in France. 1940: British citizens rescued the British army from Dunkirk, and Germany established a puppet government in France. Section 4: War Breaks Out

19 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT IN THE MODERN ERA 19 Reasons for climbing tensions between U.S. and Germany increasing U.S. aid to allies increasing U.S. aid to allies German submarine attacks German submarine attacks Roosevelt’s “shoot-on-sight” orders Roosevelt’s “shoot-on-sight” orders Section 4: War Breaks Out

20 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT IN THE MODERN ERA 20 Reasons for Japan’s bombing of Pearl Harbor freezing of all Japanese assets in the U.S freezing of all Japanese assets in the U.S embargo on American shipments of gasoline, machine tools, scrap iron, and steel to Japan embargo on American shipments of gasoline, machine tools, scrap iron, and steel to Japan Section 4: War Breaks Out


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