Presentation on theme: "The American Nation In the Modern Era"— Presentation transcript:
1The American Nation In the Modern Era Chapter 17 THE ROAD TO WARSection 1: The Search for PeaceSection 2: Relations with Latin AmericaSection 3: The Rise of MilitarismSection 4: War Breaks OutCHAPTER 17--THE SEARCH FOR PEACE
2Objectives: Section 1: The Search for Peace What foreign policy did the United States follow after World War I?What were the major postwar peace initiatives?How did war debts and reparations affect European nations after World War I?
3U.S. foreign policy after World War I Section 1: The Search for PeaceU.S. foreign policy after World War IThe U.S. followed a policy of partial isolationism, declining membership in the League of Nations and the World Court.
4Major postwar peace initiatives Section 1: The Search for PeaceMajor postwar peace initiativesThe Five-Power Naval Treaty limited nations’ naval strength.The Four-Power Treaty guaranteed respect for nations’ territorial possessions in the Pacific.The Nine-Power Treaty guaranteed China’s territorial integrity.The Kellogg-Briand Pact outlawed war.
5Effects of war debts and reparations Section 1: The Search for PeaceEffects of war debts and reparationsBritain, France, and Italy were in debt to the U.S., so they demanded reparations from Germany to help them pay.Germany was forced to borrow money from Britain and to print paper money.Germany suffered hyperinflation, which led to a severe economic downturn.German bitterness grew.
6Objectives: Section 2: Relations with Latin America What role did the United States play in Nicaraguan politics?How did U.S. relations with Latin America change in the 1930s?How did the Great Depression affect Latin American countries?
7U.S. and Nicaragua Section 2: Relations with Latin America 1926: the U.S. invaded Nicaragua to protect commercial interests.1927: Stimson helped negotiate an end to civil war in Nicaragua; U.S. trained the Nicaraguan National Guard.: U.S. troops fought Sandino’s forces.1933: U.S. withdrew.1936 on: U.S. backed the Somoza regime.
8Changes in U.S. relationship with Latin America Section 2: Relations with Latin AmericaChanges in U.S. relationship with Latin AmericaU.S. established the Good Neighbor policy.U.S. canceled the Platt Amendment (right to intervene in Cuban affairs).U.S. gave up its right to intervene unilaterally in Panama.U.S. withdrew troops from Haiti.U.S. did not intervene when Mexico chose to nationalize its oil industry.
9The Great Depression in Latin America Section 2: Relations with Latin AmericaThe Great Depression in Latin AmericaCrop prices decreased, wages dropped, unemployment grew.The gulf between the rich and the poor grew.Caudillos took power in many countries.
10Objectives: Section 3: The Rise of Militarism How did Benito Mussolini create a fascist state in Italy?How did Joseph Stalin maintain power in the Soviet Union?How did Adolf Hitler rise to power in Germany?What caused the Spanish Civil War?What actions did Japan’s military take during the 1930s?
11Mussolini in Italy Section 3: The Rise of Militarism led Fascists to power against Communistsused Blackshirts to occupy Rome, with support of nationalists and industrialistsgot appointed prime minister and given dictatorial powerslimited freedom of speech and voting rightsarrested opponents
12Stalin in the Soviet Union Section 3: The Rise of MilitarismStalin in the Soviet Unionseized private land and collectivized agriculturesent opponents to forced labor campsused police and army to suppress dissentpurged the party and the army of opposition
13Hitler in Germany Section 3: The Rise of Militarism Hitler won support by blaming Jews, Communists, and intellectuals for Germany’s decline.In 1932, 40 percent of the vote in national elections went to the Nazi Party.Hitler was appointed chancellor and claimed dictatorial powers.Hitler crushed political opposition.
14Causes of the Spanish Civil War Section 3: The Rise of MilitarismCauses of the Spanish Civil WarIn 1931, Spain adopted a new constitution limiting the power of the military and of the Catholic Church.The new constitution called for universal suffrage, nationalization of public utilities, and land for peasants.Conservative military men felt threatened by the populist reforms.In 1936, Fascist army officers led by Franco began to try to overthrow the government.
15Japan’s military during the 1930s built up naval forces in violation of Washington Conference pledgesinvaded Manchuriaclashed with Chinese troops near Beijingoccupied northern Chinalaunched bombing raids against Chinese citiesoccupied Nanjing
16Objectives: Section 4: War Breaks Out What was the international response to fascism?What were the early events of World War II?Why did tension between the United States and Germany increase?Why did Japan bomb Pearl Harbor?
17International response to fascism Section 4: War Breaks OutInternational response to fascismU.S. Congress passed neutrality laws.European leaders adopted a policy of appeasement, but also sped up rearmament.The U.S. recognized the Soviet Union.
18Early events of World War II Section 4: War Breaks OutEarly events of World War II1939: Hitler occupied Czechoslovakia and signed a nonaggression pact with Stalin.1939: Germany invaded Poland and France and Britain declared war.1940: Germany occupied Belgium, Denmark, northern France, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, and Norway.1940: British citizens rescued the British army from Dunkirk, and Germany established a puppet government in France.
19Reasons for climbing tensions between U.S. and Germany Section 4: War Breaks OutReasons for climbing tensions between U.S. and Germanyincreasing U.S. aid to alliesGerman submarine attacksRoosevelt’s “shoot-on-sight” orders
20Reasons for Japan’s bombing of Pearl Harbor Section 4: War Breaks OutReasons for Japan’s bombing of Pearl Harborfreezing of all Japanese assets in the U.Sembargo on American shipments of gasoline, machine tools, scrap iron, and steel to Japan