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ENZYME ACTIVITY “How do enzymes work?” (NEXT SLIDE)

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2 ENZYME ACTIVITY “How do enzymes work?” (NEXT SLIDE)

3 Navigation Directions for navigating this PowerPoint: Click only the buttons on the screen. Do not use the keyboard. If you accidentally hit the keyboard or the slide show stops working, click the home button. This button will bring you back to the beginning of the section you are working on. Directions for navigating this PowerPoint: Click only the buttons on the screen. Do not use the keyboard. If you accidentally hit the keyboard or the slide show stops working, click the home button. This button will bring you back to the beginning of the section you are working on. (NEXT SLIDE)

4 DON’T FORGET As we go through this PowerPoint, don’t forget to answer the questions on your hand-out. (NEXT SLIDE)

5 ENZYME REVIEW What type of macromolecule is an enzyme? CARBOHYDRATE NUCLEIC ACID LIPID PROTEIN Answer Question 1!

6 ENZYME REVIEW CARBOHYDRATE NUCLEIC ACID LIPID PROTEIN What type of macromolecule is an enzyme?

7 ENZYME REVIEW CARBOHYDRATE NUCLEIC ACID LIPID PROTEIN What type of macromolecule is an enzyme?

8 ENZYME REVIEW CARBOHYDRATE NUCLEIC ACID LIPID PROTEIN What type of macromolecule is an enzyme?

9 ENZYME REVIEW CARBOHYDRATE NUCLEIC ACID LIPID PROTEIN What type of macromolecule is an enzyme?

10 What do enzymes do? Enzymes are special types of proteins. There are many different enzymes in your body. Enzymes perform a variety of different functions; they are the “machines” of your cells. Two of the functions of enzymes are digestion of food and to repairing different parts of the cell. How many types of enzymes do you think are there in your body? Enzymes are special types of proteins. There are many different enzymes in your body. Enzymes perform a variety of different functions; they are the “machines” of your cells. Two of the functions of enzymes are digestion of food and to repairing different parts of the cell. How many types of enzymes do you think are there in your body? Very ManyNot Many Answer Question 2!

11 What do enzymes do? Very FewVery Many Answer Question 2! Enzymes are special types of proteins. There are many different enzymes in your body. Enzymes perform a variety of different functions; they are the “machines” of your cells. Two of the functions of enzymes are digestion of food and to repairing different parts of the cell. How many types of enzymes do you think are there in your body? Enzymes are special types of proteins. There are many different enzymes in your body. Enzymes perform a variety of different functions; they are the “machines” of your cells. Two of the functions of enzymes are digestion of food and to repairing different parts of the cell. How many types of enzymes do you think are there in your body?

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13 AMYLASE Amylase is an enzyme that is found in your saliva. Its function is to begin the break down of starch in your food. Click on the body part where you would find the amylase enzyme. Amylase is an enzyme that is found in your saliva. Its function is to begin the break down of starch in your food. Click on the body part where you would find the amylase enzyme. Answer Question 3!

14 AMYLASE Amylase is an enzyme that is found in your saliva. Its function is to begin the break down of starch in your food. Click on the body part where you would find the amylase enzyme. Amylase is an enzyme that is found in your saliva. Its function is to begin the break down of starch in your food. Click on the body part where you would find the amylase enzyme.

15 AMYLASE Amylase is an enzyme that is found in your saliva. Its function is to begin the break down of starch in your food. Click on the body part where you would find the amylase enzyme. Amylase is an enzyme that is found in your saliva. Its function is to begin the break down of starch in your food. Click on the body part where you would find the amylase enzyme.

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17 Enzymes are specific for their targets. Every enzyme (including amylase) is specific and will react with or act on a specific molecule. Amylase reacts only with starch. It will not react with any other molecule. This is because only certain molecules fit into a given enzyme. Every enzyme (including amylase) is specific and will react with or act on a specific molecule. Amylase reacts only with starch. It will not react with any other molecule. This is because only certain molecules fit into a given enzyme.

18 Click on the macromolecule that will fit into the red part of the amylase enzyme AMYLASE STARCH LIPID PROTEIN Enzyme

19 It doesn’t look like the protein molecule fits! AMYLASE STARCH LIPID PROTEIN Try again.. Enzyme

20 AMYLASE STARCHPROTEIN LIPID Try again.. Enzyme It doesn’t look like the protein molecule fits!

21 AMYLASE PROTEIN LIPID STARCH Enzyme

22 STARCH What type of nutrient is STARCH? CARBOHYDRATE NUCLEIC ACID LIPID PROTEIN

23 STARCH What type of nutrient is STARCH? CARBOHYDRATE NUCLEIC ACID LIPID PROTEIN

24 STARCH What type of nutrient is STARCH? CARBOHYDRATE NUCLEIC ACID LIPID PROTEIN

25 STARCH What type of nutrient is STARCH? CARBOHYDRATE NUCLEIC ACID LIPID PROTEIN

26 STARCH What type of nutrient is STARCH? CARBOHYDRATE NUCLEIC ACID LIPID PROTEIN

27 STARCH In the lab, we can test for nutrients in different foods. We can test for STARCH using iodine. If STARCH is present, the iodine solution will turn blue-black. In the lab, we can test for nutrients in different foods. We can test for STARCH using iodine. If STARCH is present, the iodine solution will turn blue-black. Next Slide Answer Question 4!

28 Click the beaker to add 3 drops of iodine to the solution to see if it contains starch: Test this solution for iodine:

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30 So… is there starch in the solution? YES!! NO!!

31 So… is there starch in the solution? YES!! NO!!

32 So, is there a carbohydrate in the solution? YES!! NO!! The starch reacted with the iodine to produce the blue- black color.

33 So, is there a carbohydrate in the solution? YES!! NO!!

34 STARCH is a carbohydrate!

35 BACK TO AMYLASE Let’s do an experiment. Let’s test the effect of amylase on starch. The two beakers below contain starch. Click on the beaker on the left to add amylase enzyme.

36 BACK TO AMYLASE In reality, enzyme molecules are microscopic (too small to see). In this simulation, green stars will represent the amylase enzyme. Click on each beaker to add iodine.

37 BACK TO AMYLASE When you add iodine to the beaker with the amylase, it does not turn blue-black. It turns yellow (the color of the iodine). Click on the other beaker to add iodine. When you add iodine to the beaker with the amylase, it does not turn blue-black. It turns yellow (the color of the iodine). Click on the other beaker to add iodine.

38 Which solution contains starch? Click on the beaker that CONTAINS starch.

39 BACK TO AMYLASE NO. Starch is in the beaker that turned blue-black. The iodine reacted with the starch to produce the blue-black color.

40 Why doesn’t the left-hand beaker contain starch? Iodine doesn’t react with amylase. Amylase broke down the starch, so there is none left to react with the iodine.

41 NOPE: amylase doesn’t affect iodine. Iodine doesn’t react with amylase Amylase broke down the starch, so there is none left to react with the iodine

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43 Where does the starch go? Ok, so amylase breaks down starch. Once starch is broken down, iodine cannot detect it. But, what happens to the starch? Click on the beaker to perform a different test.

44 Where does the starch go? Let’s do the test for sugar. If the glucose test strip turns green or brown, sugar is present in the solution. Click either of the strips next to the beakers to see the results.

45 Where does the starch go? Click on the beaker that contains SUGAR.

46 Where does the starch go? NOPE, no sugar in that one. Remember, if the test strip turns brown or green, sugar is present.

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48 THE REACTION AMYLASE breaks down STARCH into its subunits, which are simple sugars. STARCH SUGAR AMYLASE Answer Question 5!

49 STARCH SUGAR In this reaction, STARCH is called the SUBSTRATE SUGAR is called the PRODUCT The ENZYME AMYLASE is called the CATALYST AMYLASE Answer Question 6!

50 Enzyme Reactions - Substrate This means that a SUBSTRATE is: GO BACK TO REACTION The molecule that is broken down The molecule that performs a reaction, but is not used up The molecule that you end up with or make a selection above.

51 This means that a SUBSTRATE is: GO BACK TO REACTION The molecule that is broken down The molecule that performs a reaction, but is not used up The molecule that you end up with or make a selection above.

52 This means that a SUBSTRATE is: GO BACK TO REACTION The molecule that is broken down The molecule that performs a reaction, but is not used up The molecule that you end up with or make a selection above.

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54 Enzyme Reactions - Product This means that a PRODUCT is: GO BACK TO REACTION The molecule that is broken down The molecule that performs a reaction, but is not used up The molecule that you end up with

55 This means that a PRODUCT is: GO BACK TO REACTION The thing that gets broken down The molecule that performs a reaction, but is not used up The molecule that you end up with

56 This means that a PRODUCT is: GO BACK TO REACTION The molecule that is broken down The molecule that performs a reaction, but is not used up The molecule that you end up with

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58 Enzyme Reactions - Catalyst This means that a CATALYST is: GO BACK TO REACTION The molecule that is broken down The molecule that performs a reaction, but is not used up The molecule that you end up with or make a selection above.

59 This means that a CATALYST is: GO BACK TO REACTION The molecule that is broken down The molecule that performs a reaction, but is not used up The molecule that you end up with or make a selection above.

60 This means that a CATALYST is: GO BACK TO REACTION The molecule that is broken down The molecule that performs a reaction, but is not used up The molecule that you end up with or make a selection above.

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62 In this reaction, the PROTEIN is the… PROTEIN AMINO ACIDS PROTEASE PRODUCT CATALYST SUBSTRATE

63 PROTEIN AMINO ACIDS PROTEASE PRODUCT CATALYST SUBSTRATE

64 PROTEIN AMINO ACIDS PROTEASE PRODUCT CATALYST SUBSTRATE

65 PROTEASE is the… PROTEIN AMINO ACIDS PROTEASE PRODUCT CATALYST SUBSTRATE

66 PROTEIN AMINO ACIDS PROTEASE PRODUCT CATALYST SUBSTRATE

67 PROTEIN AMINO ACIDS PROTEASE PRODUCT CATALYST SUBSTRATE

68 AMINO ACIDS are the… PROTEIN AMINO ACIDS PROTEASE CATALYST SUBSTRATE PRODUCT CATALYST SUBSTRATE

69 PROTEIN AMINO ACIDS PROTEASE CATALYST SUBSTRATE PRODUCT CATALYST SUBSTRATE

70 PROTEIN AMINO ACIDS PROTEASE CATALYST SUBSTRATE PRODUCT CATALYST SUBSTRATE

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72 ENZYME NAMES Did you notice something about the names of the two enzymes? AMYLASE (am-ill-ace) PROTEASE (pro-tee-ace) Did you notice something about the names of the two enzymes? AMYLASE (am-ill-ace) PROTEASE (pro-tee-ace) YES, I DIDNO, I DIDN’T

73 ENZYME NAMES Good! You probably noticed that both names end in -ASE. Enzyme names usually end in -ASE. They are very often named after the substrate they break down. AMYLASE PROTEINASE Good! You probably noticed that both names end in -ASE. Enzyme names usually end in -ASE. They are very often named after the substrate they break down. AMYLASE PROTEINASE Answer Question 7!

74 ENZYME NAMES Look closely! You probably noticed that both names end in -ASE. Enzyme names usually end in -ASE. They are very often named after the substrate they break down. AMYLASE PROTEINASE Look closely! You probably noticed that both names end in -ASE. Enzyme names usually end in -ASE. They are very often named after the substrate they break down. AMYLASE PROTEINASE Answer Question 7!

75 DID YOU UNDERSTAND? LIPASE is probably: An enzyme that breaks down lipids A type of lipid A sugar that is found In lipids An enzyme that repairs cells

76 HINT: Look for a word in one of the answers that resembles the name of the enzyme. (Remember, enzymes react with a substrate).

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78 Think about this… During a reaction, what do you think happens to the amount of SUBSTRATE as time goes on? STARCH SUGAR AMYLASE

79 We can test it using our starch test (iodine) Each beaker contains starch. Amylase enzyme was added at 0 seconds. Click on each beaker below to add the iodine. 0 sec20 sec40 sec60 sec120 sec

80 We can test it using our starch test (iodine) Each beaker contains starch. Amylase enzyme was added at 0 seconds. Click on each beaker below to add the iodine. 0 sec20 sec40 sec60 sec120 sec Lots of starch is still left after 0 seconds.

81 We can test it using our starch test (iodine) Each beaker contains starch. Amylase enzyme was added at 0 seconds. Click on each beaker below to add the iodine. 0 sec20 sec40 sec60 sec120 sec Some starch is left after 20 seconds. Amylase has broken down some of thestarch into sugar

82 We can test it using our starch test (iodine) Each beaker contains starch. Amylase enzyme was added at 0 seconds. Click on each beaker below to add the iodine. 0 sec20 sec40 sec60 sec120 sec Very little starch is left after 40 seconds. Amylase has broken down almost all of the starch into sugar.

83 We can test it using our starch test (iodine) Each beaker contains starch. Amylase enzyme was added at 0 seconds. Click on each beaker below to add the iodine. 0 sec20 sec40 sec60 sec120 sec No starch is left after 60 seconds. Amylase has broken down all of the starch into sugar. The yellow color is from the iodine.

84 We can test it using our starch test (iodine) Each beaker contains starch. Amylase enzyme was added at 0 seconds. Click on each beaker below to add the iodine. 0 sec20 sec40 sec60 sec120 sec No change between 60 and 120 seconds. Amylase already broke down all of the starch into sugar.

85 We can show this change in substrate concentration as a graph… Amount of substrateTIME (in seconds) Which variable should be placed the X-axis?

86 We can show this as a graph Amount of substrateTIME (in seconds) What should go on the X-axis? NO. The time variable is usually placed on the X-axis.

87 We can show this as a graph RIGHT! Time usually goes on the X-axis Time (in seconds) What should go on the Y-axis? (HINT: This is what we are MEASURING) Amount of enzyme Amount of substrate

88 We can show this as a graph Time (in seconds) What should go on the Y-axis? (HINT: This is what we are MEASURING) NO. Remember: We are trying to graph the amount of substrate over time. Amount of enzyme Amount of substrate

89 We can show this as a graph Time (in seconds) RIGHT!! The amount of substrate should go on the Y axis. Amount of substrate REMEMBER!! STARCH is the SUBSTRATE. A blue-black color means that there is MORE STARCH. The concentration of SUBSTRATE increases up the Y axis.

90 Let’s GRAPH!! Time (in seconds) Amount of substrate

91 SUMMARIZE THE GRAPH As time goes on, the amount of SUBSTRATE (starch)…. INCREASEDDECREASED Answer Question 8!

92 As time goes on, the amount of SUBSTRATE (starch) INCREASEDDECREASED

93 SUMMARIZE THE GRAPH As time goes on, the amount of SUBSTRATE (starch) DECREASED because Starch was broken down by amylase Iodine made starch turn into sugar

94 As time goes on, the amount of SUBSTRATE (starch) DECREASED because Starch was broken down by amylase Iodine made starch turn into sugar

95 SUMMARIZE THE GRAPH As time goes on, the amount of SUBSTRATE (starch) DECREASED because the enzyme, amylase, broke down the starch into sugar.

96 Graph B Graph A (Click on a graph) Which of these graphs shows that the amount of substrate decreases faster? Time (sec) Substrate Time (sec) Substrate

97 No. Note that in Graph A, all of the substrate is used up in less time. Time (sec) Substrate Time (sec) Substrate Graph A Graph B

98 Graph A Graph B Time (sec) Substrate Time (sec) Substrate YES. Note that in the Graph A, all of the substrate is used up in less time.

99 Graph A Graph B So… Which enzyme works FASTER? Time (sec) Substrate Time (sec) Substrate

100 Graph A Graph B Nope, not this one. The faster the enzyme works, the faster the substrate will decrease. Time (sec) Substrate Time (sec) Substrate

101 Graph A Graph B YES!! We can tell that the Graph A enzyme works faster because the substrate decreases faster!! Time (sec) Substrate Time (sec) Substrate Answer Question 9!

102 Look at the reactions in the beakers and the graphs. The top set of beakers are best illustrated by which graph? Time (sec) Substrate Time (sec) Substrate Graph C Graph D

103 NO. The reaction in the top set of beakers took LONGER to finish Time (sec) Substrate Time (sec) Substrate Graph C Graph D

104 RIGHT!! The reaction in the top set of beakers occurred more slowly than the reaction in the bottom set. Time (sec) Substrate Time (sec) Substrate Graph D Graph C

105 So, we may say that one of the enzymes worked faster than the other. In which set of beakers did the enzymes work faster? Time (sec) Substrate Time (sec) Substrate Graph D Graph C

106 Which of the ENZYMES worked FASTER? Nope, this reaction took longer to finish, so this enzyme worked more slowly. Time (sec) Substrate Time (sec) Substrate

107 This reaction ended SOONER, thus the enzyme worked FASTER. Time (sec) Substrate What might be the difference between the top and bottom sets of beakers?

108 What do you think can affect the speed or reaction rate of an enzyme? TEMPERATURE AMOUNT OF LIGHT pH

109 RIGHT!! Changing the pH of the reaction can affect the speed of an enzyme. ANYTHING ELSE? RIGHT!! Changing the pH of the reaction can affect the speed of an enzyme. ANYTHING ELSE? TEMPERATURE AMOUNT OF LIGHT pH What do you think can affect the speed or reaction rate of an enzyme?

110 RIGHT!! Changing the temperature of the reaction can ALSO affect the speed of an enzyme. TEMPERATURE AMOUNT OF LIGHT pH What do you think can affect the speed or reaction rate of an enzyme? Answer Question 10!

111 RIGHT!! Changing the temperature of the reaction can affect the speed of an enzyme. ANYTHING ELSE? RIGHT!! Changing the temperature of the reaction can affect the speed of an enzyme. ANYTHING ELSE? TEMPERATURE AMOUNT OF LIGHT pH What do you think can affect the speed or reaction rate of an enzyme?

112 RIGHT!! Changing the pH of the reaction can ALSO affect the speed of an enzyme. TEMPERATURE AMOUNT OF LIGHT pH What do you think can affect the speed or reaction rate of an enzyme?

113 Sorry, most enzymes are NOT affected by the amount of light… Pick again Sorry, most enzymes are NOT affected by the amount of light… Pick again TEMPERATURE AMOUNT OF LIGHT pH What do you think can affect the speed or reaction rate of an enzyme?

114 Factors affecting enzyme reaction rate… We can make a graph of enzyme speed at different temperatures. However, from now on we will refer to “enzyme speed” as reaction rate or rate of enzyme activity. Answer Question 11!

115 Let’s GRAPH!! Temperature (  C) SLOW FAST Amylase is found in saliva. Click on the red button that is approximately at body temperature Rate of Enzyme Activity

116 Temperature (  C) SLOW FAST Amylase is found in saliva. 5  C is close to freezing. TOO COLD!! Rate of Enzyme Activity

117 Temperature (  C) SLOW FAST Amylase is found in saliva. 22  C is close to room temperature. TOO COLD!! Rate of Enzyme Activity

118 Temperature (  C) SLOW FAST Amylase is found in saliva. 55  C is 131  F. TOO HOT!! Rate of Enzyme Activity

119 Let’s GRAPH!! Temperature (  C) SLOW FAST Amylase is found in saliva. 37  C is body temperature. RIGHT!! Amylase will work best at about 37  C because it is normally found in your mouth Rate of Enzyme Activity

120 Let’s GRAPH!! Temperature (  C) SLOW FAST Amylase works slowly at low temperatures. Rate of Enzyme Activity

121 Let’s GRAPH!! Temperature (  C) SLOW FAST Amylase will work faster as the temperature gets closer to human body temperature, 37°C. Rate of Enzyme Activity

122 Let’s GRAPH!! Temperature (  C) SLOW FAST Amylase will work fastest at body Temperature. The temperature where Amylase works BEST is called the OPTIMUM TEMPERATURE Rate of Enzyme Activity

123 Let’s GRAPH!! Temperature (  C) SLOW FAST As the temperature increases above 37ºC, Amylase works less and less efficiently. Rate of Enzyme Activity

124 Let’s GRAPH!! Temperature (  C) SLOW FAST Click on the OPTIMUM TEMPERATURE for amylase. Rate of Enzyme Activity

125 Let’s GRAPH!! Click on the OPTIMUM TEMPERATURE for amylase. Temperature (  C) SLOW FAST RIGHT!! Rate of Enzyme Activity

126 What is the optimum temperature for this enzyme? Temperature (  C) Rate of Enzyme Activity SLOW FAST 10  C 20  C 30  C

127 Temperature (  C) Rate of Enzyme Activity SLOW FAST 10  C 20  C 30  C Remember, the enzyme works fastest at its optimum temperature.

128 Temperature (  C) Rate of Enzyme Activity SLOW FAST 10  C 20  C 30  C Remember, the enzyme works fastest at its optimum temperature.

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130 What is the optimum pH for this enzyme? pH Rate of Enzyme Activity SLOW FAST

131 pH Rate of Enzyme Activity SLOW FAST Look closely…

132 pH Rate of Enzyme Activity SLOW FAST Look closely…

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134 What is the optimum temperature for this enzyme? Temperature (  C) Rate of Enzyme Activity SLOW FAST 20  C 63  C 48  C

135 Temperature (  C) Rate of Enzyme Activity SLOW FAST 20  C 63  C 48  C

136 Temperature (  C) Rate of Enzyme Activity SLOW FAST 20  C 63  C 48  C

137 Right!!

138 At what temperature does this enzyme work best? Time Substrate Rate of Enzyme activity at 25°C Time Substrate Rate of Enzyme activity at 35°C Time Substrate Rate of Enzyme activity at 30°C At 25  CAt 30  CAt 35  C

139 REMEMBER: The faster the amount of substrate decreases, the faster the enzyme is working. Time Substrate Rate of Enzyme activity at 25°C Time Substrate Rate of Enzyme activity at 35°C Time Substrate Rate of Enzyme activity at 30°C At 25  CAt 30  CAt 35  C

140 Time Substrate Rate of Enzyme activity at 25°C Time Substrate Rate of Enzyme activity at 35°C Time Substrate Rate of Enzyme activity at 30°C At 25  CAt 30  CAt 35  C REMEMBER: The faster the amount of substrate decreases, the faster the enzyme is working.

141 Congratulations, you have completed the Enzyme Activity. Time for a quick self-quiz!

142 QUIZ - QUESTION 1 Where in your body is the amylase enzyme found? SALIVASTOMACHLIVER

143 Where in your body is the amylase enzyme found? SALIVASTOMACHLIVER

144 Where in your body is the amylase enzyme found? SALIVASTOMACHLIVER

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146 QUIZ - QUESTION 2 Click on the CATALYST in this reaction: STARCH SUGAR AMYLASE

147 REMEMBER: The catalyst performs the reaction, but is not used up STARCH SUGAR AMYLASE

148 REMEMBER: The catalyst performs the reaction, but is not used up STARCH SUGAR AMYLASE

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150 QUIZ - QUESTION 3 Click on the substrate that is most likely to react with the enzyme below: Substrate BSubstrate CSubstrate A Enzyme

151 Substrate BSubstrate CSubstrate A Enzyme REMEMBER: The enzyme that fits the shape of the substrate will be the one that reacts with it.

152 Substrate BSubstrate CSubstrate A Enzyme

153 Substrate B

154 QUIZ - QUESTION 4 Which of these is most likely the name of an enzyme that reacts with a protein molecule? PROTEOSE PROTEASEPROTOZOA PROTEINATION

155 NO: Sugars end in -OSE, (sucrose, lactose, glucose). By the way, “Proteose” is not a real sugar! PROTEOSE PROTEASEPROTOZOA PROTEINATION

156 NOPE: think about “lactase” and “amylase” PROTEOSE PROTEASEPROTOZOA PROTEINATION

157 NOPE: think about “lactase” and “amylase” PROTEOSE PROTEASEPROTOZOA PROTEINATION

158

159 QUIZ - QUESTION 5 Click on the part of the graph that shows the OPTIMAL temperature for this enzyme Temperature (  C) Enzyme Activity

160 REMEMBER: the optimal temperature for an enzyme is the temperature at which the enzyme works best (has highest rate of activity). Temperature (  C) Enzyme Activity

161

162 QUIZ - QUESTION 6 Click on the graph that shows the optimum pH for this enzyme. Time Substrate Time Substrate Time Substrate pH = 5.0 pH = 3.0pH = 7.0

163 REMEMBER: Substrate decreases faster as the enzyme works faster. Time Substrate Time Substrate Time Substrate pH = 5.0 pH = 3.0pH = 7.0

164 Time Substrate Time Substrate Time Substrate pH = 5.0 pH = 3.0pH = 7.0 REMEMBER: Substrate decreases faster as the enzyme works faster.

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166

167 You have successfully completed the Enzyme Activity!


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