2 2.1 Old Stone Age (1.2 reference info) NomadicHunter-gatherersMoved with weather & herdsNew tools= food supply = larger population
3 2.1 Neolithic Revolution Agricultural revolution Beginning of farming-shift from food search to food producing.Slash & burn farmingDomestication of animals= constant source of food.Permanent settlementsIncreased populationsSocial changes
4 2.1 What is a Civilization?Definition: Complex culture with the following:1. Advanced cities –large group living together,& center of trade.2. specialized workers –Trade, government officials, priests, artisan, etc.3. complex institutions –Government, system of ruling, religion & type of economy.4. record keeping – Need to keep records. Ex: histories, taxes, religious events, laws, calendars, etc.5. Science and Technology – fire, wheel, plow, irrigation, etc.
5 2.1 THE FERTILE CRESCENT What is it? A crescent shaped land between the Mediterranean and Persian Gulf that has rich soil for farming.
6 2.1 MesopotamiaThe eastern part of the fertile crescent is where most people livedMesopotamia – “land between two rivers”Tigris and Euphrates River were very unpredictable and flooded oftenFarmers built dams and ditches to channel the floods
7 2.1 SumeriansAround 3500 B.C. arrived in Mesopotamia and lived in the city of SumerSet up 12 city states – walled cities with land surrounding for farmingMade temples called Ziggurats to worship gods – Priests only!
8 2.1 Sumerian GovernmentTimes of war: Sumerians chose a general to have full controlMilitary leaders eventually became full-time rulers or monarchs.Established dynasties: rulers passed power to their heirs.Priests ruled/controlled the government.
9 2.1 Roles of Men and Women Men – Had complete control over family Easy to divorce wifeCould sell family into slaveryWomen – Very hard to get a divorceCould buy and sell propertyCould own a business
10 2.1 Writing Cuneiform – oldest system of writing in the world Deities: Polytheistic – belief in 3,000 gods & a horrible afterlife.Believed gods didn’t care about them and they did not look forward to the afterlife
11 2.1 Inventions The Arch Wagon wheel Potters wheel Sundial to keep time 12 month calendarMetal plow
12 2.1 First Mesopotamian Empires By 2000 B.C. Sumerian city states fell to invadersSargon I - established a kingdom called Akkad in northern MesopotamiaUnited all city states under him and launched a military campaignEstablished the worlds first empire.
13 2.1 HammurabiHammurabi – leader of the Amorites who strived to make Mesopotamia rich and have an organized governmentCapital – Babylon – great for trade with China and India
14 2.1 Hammurabi's Code First ever written law! 282 sections that dealt with everyday crimeHammurabi’s law was based on the bible’s “an eye for an eye”
15 2.1 Examples of Hammurabi's Code If a man steals from another and is caught, the thief must return the item and also have his hands chopped off.If a man builds a house for another person and the house collapses and kills a family member, the house builder must give up a family member to be executed.If a man kills another mans son, the killer must give up his own son to be killed.
16 2.1 Social Class 1. Kings, Priests, Nobles 2. Artisans, Merchants, Farmers and Scribes3. SlavesAll laws varied according to what class you were in
17 2.1 Decline of HammurabiAfter Hammurabi’s death in 1600 – the Babylonian empire declinedBabylonians were invaded by the Hittites of Asia Minor who demolished the city
18 INDUS RIVER VALLEY CIVILIZATION CHAPTER 2 SECTION 3
19 INDUS RIVER VALLEY CIVILIZATIONS Barriers:Bay of Bengal to the east and Arabian Sea to the west2 mountain ranges in north (Himalaya’s and Hindu Kush)Indus River flows through the land
20 CLIMATEMonsoons – heavy gusts of wind and torrential down pour of rainMonsoons were unpredictable and killed many people, animals and crops
21 Major CitiesMohenjo-Daro- a grid patterned city with an extensive plumbing systemHarappa – built well crafted brick houses that had bathrooms and chutes to take waste below the city
22 Records and ReligionLanguage – inscribed pictograms on traded goods – yet to be decipheredReligion – Don’t know much, but believed to be polytheistic and worshiped gods with natural forces
23 Where Did They Go?!? Theory #1 – Killed off by an invasion Theory #2 – Devastating flood wiped them out
25 GEOGRAPHY 1/3 of China is made up of mountains Himalayan mountains on S.W. sideIn the north lies the Gobi DesertPacific Ocean - East
26 MAJOR RIVERS Huang He “the Great Sorrow” Chang Jiang Yangtze Xi Jiang Controlled flooding and snow melt from the mountains make for rich agriculturePeople began living in China along these rivers beginning in 2500 B.C.
27 RELIGION Kings would go to priests to find answers Priests would scratch the question on a oracle boneNext, they would apply heat until it crackedPriest would then study the crack for an answerSpirits of family ancestors brought good/badPolytheistic societyRELIGION
28 WRITING Writing on oracle bones Used character script as well 100 characters = literate10,000 characters = scholar
29 SOCIAL STRUCTURE / POWER AND AUTHORITY 1) Kings, warrior nobles2) peasantsAuthority = Feudalism and the Mandate of Heaven
30 ANCIENT CHINESE WEAPONS Perfected bronze metal to make weaponsFine knives and swordsZhou Dynasty invented the blast furnace – made cast iron weapons
31 ACHIEVEMENTS The great city of Anyang Panlongcheng – great trade city Had elaborate temples, buildings and homesPanlongcheng – great trade cityCarved statues and figures out of jade and ivory - tradePerfected the cloth silk, and the art of potteryBoth were excellent for trade all around the worldCoined own money for tradeBuilt canals and roads for trade
32 EXPANSION AND DECLINEShang Dynasty – took over China with bronze weapons and chariots, but lacked strong leaders – overthrownZhou Dynasty – took over after the Shang and ruled from 1000 B.C. to 200 B.C.