Presentation on theme: "City-States in Mesopotamia Chapter 2 Sec. 1. 2.1 Old Stone Age (1.2 reference info) Nomadic Hunter-gatherers Moved with weather & herds New tools= food."— Presentation transcript:
2.1 Old Stone Age (1.2 reference info) Nomadic Hunter-gatherers Moved with weather & herds New tools= food supply = larger population
2.1 Neolithic Revolution Agricultural revolution Beginning of farming-shift from food search to food producing. Slash & burn farming Domestication of animals= constant source of food. Permanent settlements Increased populations Social changes
2.1 What is a Civilization? Definition: Complex culture with the following: 1. Advanced cities –large group living together,& center of trade. 2. specialized workers –Trade, government officials, priests, artisan, etc. 3. complex institutions –Government, system of ruling, religion & type of economy. 4. record keeping – Need to keep records. Ex: histories, taxes, religious events, laws, calendars, etc. 5. Science and Technology – fire, wheel, plow, irrigation, etc.
2.1 THE FERTILE CRESCENT What is it? A crescent shaped land between the Mediterranean and Persian Gulf that has rich soil for farming.
2.1 Mesopotamia The eastern part of the fertile crescent is where most people lived Mesopotamia – “land between two rivers” Tigris and Euphrates River were very unpredictable and flooded often Farmers built dams and ditches to channel the floods
2.1 Sumerians Around 3500 B.C. arrived in Mesopotamia and lived in the city of Sumer Set up 12 city states – walled cities with land surrounding for farming Made temples called Ziggurats to worship gods – Priests only!
2.1 Sumerian Government Times of war: Sumerians chose a general to have full control - Military leaders eventually became full-time rulers or monarchs. - Established dynasties: rulers passed power to their heirs. Priests ruled/controlled the government.
2.1 Roles of Men and Women Men – Had complete control over family Easy to divorce wife Could sell family into slavery Women – Very hard to get a divorce Could buy and sell property Could own a business
2.1 Writing Cuneiform – oldest system of writing in the world Deities: Polytheistic – belief in 3,000 gods & a horrible afterlife. Believed gods didn’t care about them and they did not look forward to the afterlife
2.1 Inventions The Arch Wagon wheel Potters wheel Sundial to keep time 12 month calendar Metal plow
2.1 First Mesopotamian Empires By 2000 B.C. Sumerian city states fell to invaders Sargon I - established a kingdom called Akkad in northern Mesopotamia United all city states under him and launched a military campaign Established the worlds first empire.
2.1 Hammurabi Hammurabi – leader of the Amorites who strived to make Mesopotamia rich and have an organized government Capital – Babylon – great for trade with China and India
2.1 Hammurabi's Code First ever written law! 282 sections that dealt with everyday crime Hammurabi’s law was based on the bible’s “an eye for an eye”
2.1 Examples of Hammurabi's Code If a man steals from another and is caught, the thief must return the item and also have his hands chopped off. If a man builds a house for another person and the house collapses and kills a family member, the house builder must give up a family member to be executed. If a man kills another mans son, the killer must give up his own son to be killed.
2.1 Social Class 1. Kings, Priests, Nobles 2. Artisans, Merchants, Farmers and Scribes 3. Slaves All laws varied according to what class you were in
2.1 Decline of Hammurabi After Hammurabi’s death in 1600 – the Babylonian empire declined Babylonians were invaded by the Hittites of Asia Minor who demolished the city
INDUS RIVER VALLEY CIVILIZATION CHAPTER 2 SECTION 3
INDUS RIVER VALLEY CIVILIZATIONS Barriers: Bay of Bengal to the east and Arabian Sea to the west 2 mountain ranges in north (Himalaya’s and Hindu Kush) Indus River flows through the land
CLIMATE Monsoons – heavy gusts of wind and torrential down pour of rain Monsoons were unpredictable and killed many people, animals and crops
Major Cities Mohenjo-Daro- a grid patterned city with an extensive plumbing system Harappa – built well crafted brick houses that had bathrooms and chutes to take waste below the city
Records and Religion Language – inscribed pictograms on traded goods – yet to be deciphered Religion – Don’t know much, but believed to be polytheistic and worshiped gods with natural forces
Where Did They Go?!? Theory #1 – Killed off by an invasion Theory #2 – Devastating flood wiped them out
GEOGRAPHY 1/3 of China is made up of mountains Himalayan mountains on S.W. side In the north lies the Gobi Desert Pacific Ocean - East
MAJOR RIVERS Huang He “the Great Sorrow” Chang Jiang Yangtze Xi Jiang Controlled flooding and snow melt from the mountains make for rich agriculture People began living in China along these rivers beginning in 2500 B.C.
RELIGION Kings would go to priests to find answers Priests would scratch the question on a oracle bone Next, they would apply heat until it cracked Priest would then study the crack for an answer Spirits of family ancestors brought good/bad Polytheistic society
WRITING Writing on oracle bones Used character script as well 100 characters = literate 10,000 characters = scholar
SOCIAL STRUCTURE / POWER AND AUTHORITY 1) Kings, warrior nobles 2) peasants Authority = Feudalism and the Mandate of Heaven
ANCIENT CHINESE WEAPONS Perfected bronze metal to make weapons Fine knives and swords Zhou Dynasty invented the blast furnace – made cast iron weapons
ACHIEVEMENTS The great city of Anyang Had elaborate temples, buildings and homes Panlongcheng – great trade city Carved statues and figures out of jade and ivory - trade Perfected the cloth silk, and the art of pottery Both were excellent for trade all around the world Coined own money for trade Built canals and roads for trade
EXPANSION AND DECLINE Shang Dynasty – took over China with bronze weapons and chariots, but lacked strong leaders – overthrown Zhou Dynasty – took over after the Shang and ruled from 1000 B.C. to 200 B.C.