Presentation on theme: "Lecture Notes: The Stage is Set for the Guns of August"— Presentation transcript:
1 Lecture Notes: The Stage is Set for the Guns of August By the early 1900’s, there were many efforts at fostering peace in Europe and ending war.A First modern Olympic Games in AthensB. Alfred Nobel: Set up the annual Nobel Peace Prize
2 Continued….C. Women’s organizations promote pacifism - the opposition to warD. Governments back peace efforts: 1899 first universal peace conference – set up the Hague Tribunal (World Court to settle disputes between nations)
3 As much effort as there was at fostering peace, the seeds (causes) of WWI were planted in the years preceding 1914.They Included:A. NationalismGermany – Proud of military power & industrial leadershipFrance – bitter about defeat in Franco-Prussian war and German occupation of Alsace and Lorraine; wanted revenge
4 Continued…Russia – Supported pan-Slavism (the idea that all Slavic peoples share a common nationality) and SerbiaAustria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire - threatened by rising nationalism in their empiresB. Imperialism: Competition for colonies brings nations (example – France and Germany) to the brink of war
5 C. Militarism and the arms race Due to the battle for colonies, nations adopted a policy of militarismNations expand their armies and naviesIncreased suspicions and made war more likelyReadiness for war dominates national policy in many countries and governments turn to military leaders.
6 D. AlliancesDistrust led great powers to sign treaties pledging to defend one anotherThe balance of power is upset when Otto Von Bismarck creates the German Empire and this leads to a string of entangling alliances.Triple Alliance: Germany, Italy, and Austria-HungaryTriple Entente: Britain,France, and Russia
7 Assassination in Sarajevo (capital of Bosnia; home of many Serbs) Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary announces a visit to Sarajevo on June 28, 1914Serbians are outraged1. View Austrians as foreign oppressors2. June 28 is an important date in Serbian Historya. June 28, 1389 – Serbia conquered by Ottoman Empireb. June 28, 1912 – Serbia freed itself
8 Continued…Members of the Black Hand (Serbian terrorist group) vowed to take actionArchduke Ferdinand and wife Sophie are assassinated by Gavrilo PrincipAustria-Hungary is convinced that the Serbian government is behind the assassination
9 Conflict spreads quickly Austria-Hungary sent Serbia an ultimatum-must end all anti-Austrian protest and punish any Serbian official involved in the assassinationSerbia agrees to most of the demandsJuly 28, Austria declares war on Serbia1. Sets off a chain of alliances – Germany backed Austria, Serbia sought help from Russia
10 2. Russia’s Czar Nicholas II asked the Austrian Emperor William II to soften his demands; Austria refuses; Russia mobilizes for war3. Germany declares war on Russia4. Russia turns to France; Germany demands France stay out; France refuses and Germany declares war on France5. August 3, 1914: Germany invades (neutral) Belgium to get to France => outraged, Britain declares war on Germany!In a flash, the whole continent was at war!!!!!