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Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. + Respiration 1 Respiration is the act or process of breathing. Breathing is an involuntary process that exchanges.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. + Respiration 1 Respiration is the act or process of breathing. Breathing is an involuntary process that exchanges."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. + Respiration 1 Respiration is the act or process of breathing. Breathing is an involuntary process that exchanges oxygen and carbon dioxide. Two part process: 1) inhalation, 2) exhalation Humans inhale oxygen (O 2 ) and exhale carbon dioxide (CO 2 ).

2 O 2 is picked up in the lungs through the circulating blood. CO 2 produced by cells is carried through the venous system back to the heart. It is pumped through the lungs and exhaled into the air. 2 Flow of Gases

3 3 Human Respiratory System

4 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. + Respiration Rate Rate of Respiration  number of breaths per minute.  One breath = one inhalation and one exhalation. Normal range (adult) -12 to 20 breaths per minute 4 My Respiration Profile # of breaths per minute ________

5 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. + Characteristics of Respiration Rate 5 An increased respiratory rate is called hyperventilation. A decrease in respiratory rate and depth is called hypoventilation. Rhythm of Respiration – should be regular. Quality of Respiration - can be shallow or deep.

6 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. + How is Respiration Controlled? Breathing is an involuntary act controlled by the brain. It can be temporarily controlled consciously such as holding your breath, or purposefully breathing deeper or slower. When more oxygen is needed, or an excess of carbon dioxide needs to exhaled, the brain signals the lungs to increase the respiratory rate and/or to increase the volume of air exchange by breathing deeper. 6 Brain stem

7 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. + Lung Capacity Tidal Volume (TV) - normal volume moved in or out of the lungs during quiet (resting) breathing (500 mL or 0.5 L). Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV) – inhaling deeply to increase lung volume (2900 mL or 2.9 L). Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV) - increasing expiration by contracting our thoracic and abdominal muscles (1400 mL or 1.4 L). Residual Volume (RV) - even when we exhale deeply some air is still in the lungs (1000 mL or 1 L) Vital capacity (VC) - the total of TV plus IRV plus ERV; it is called vital capacity because it is vital for life, and the more air you can move, the better off you are. Total Lung Capacity (TLC) – the amount of air in the lungs after a deep inhalation – VC plus RV (about 6000 mL or 6 L) 7

8 8 Lung Capacity Inspirator y Reserve Volume (IRV) Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV) Total Lung Capacity (TLC) Residual Volume (RV) Tidal Volume (TV) Vital Capacity (VC) Sucking in as much air as you can after a normal inspiration Breathing out forcefully after normal expiration 6 L 0 L

9 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. + Measuring Lung Function Spirometry is a method of assessing lung function by measuring the volume of air and speed flow of air in and out of the lungs. This is called a Pulmonary Function Test (PFT) and is the most common lung function test. The measurement of breathing can be crucial in aiding treatment or discovery of various breathing ailments. Spirometry is performed with a device known as a spirometer which usually display their results in the form of graphs called spirograms. 9

10 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. + Types of Spirometers Volumetric Spirometers - records the amount of air exhaled or inhaled within a certain time (volume) Flow Spirometers - measure how fast the air flows in or out as the volume of air inhaled or exhaled increases (flow). 10

11 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. + Temperature Normal adult temperature is 98.6ºF, or 37ºC. Body temperature is one of the first vital sign assessments done. It is usually measured to obtain a quick evaluation of a person's health. 11

12 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. + Why Measure Temperature? The main reason for checking body temperature is to determine any signs of systemic infection or inflammation in the presence of a fever. Other causes of elevated temperature include hyperthermia due to failed thermoregulation (control of body temperature). Hypothermia is a depression in body temperature. 12

13 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. + Temperature Temperature Sites Oral – within the mouth or under the tongue. Axillary – in the armpit. Tympanic – in the ear canal. Rectal – through the anus, in the rectum. 13

14 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. + Factors that Affect Temperature Temperature can vary due to: Time of day. Allergic reaction. Illness. Stress. Exposure to heat or cold. Other factors:_________ 14

15 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. + Temperature Types of Thermometers Electronic Thermometers Measure temperature through a probe at the end of the device. Hold as close as possible to the area where you wish to measure the temperature. 15

16 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. + Types of Thermometers Glass Thermometers Mercury rises in a glass tube until its level matches the temperature. 16 Thermometer Bulb shapes – Long tip – for oral use. – Security tip – for oral and rectal use. – Rounded tip – for rectal. Temperature

17 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. + Recap: Four Primary Vital Signs Heart Rate (Pulse) 17 Blood Pressure Body Temperature Respiration Rate

18 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. + Quiz – Vital Signs When - Wednesday, Oct 6 th – Period 2 What do you need to understand: The four primary vital signs and their associated organs/systems. Normal/abnormal values. How they are measured and the medical technologies that are used to measure them. The purpose and process of the lab investigations we conducted to explore the vital signs. 18 Happy Studying and Good Luck!

19 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. + Ways to keep your vitals happy 19 Besides exercise, what other ways can you keep your vitals happy?


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