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Respiration Respiration is the act or process of breathing.

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Presentation on theme: "Respiration Respiration is the act or process of breathing."— Presentation transcript:

1 Respiration Respiration is the act or process of breathing.
Breathing is an involuntary process that exchanges oxygen and carbon dioxide. Two part process: 1) inhalation, 2) exhalation Humans inhale oxygen (O2) and exhale carbon dioxide (CO2).

2 Flow of Gases O2 is picked up in the lungs through the circulating blood. CO2 produced by cells is carried through the venous system back to the heart. It is pumped through the lungs and exhaled into the air.

3 Human Respiratory System

4 Respiration Rate Rate of Respiration  number of breaths per minute.
 One breath = one inhalation and one exhalation. Normal range (adult) -12 to 20 breaths per minute My Respiration Profile # of breaths per minute ________

5 Characteristics of Respiration Rate
An increased respiratory rate is called hyperventilation. A decrease in respiratory rate and depth is called hypoventilation. Rhythm of Respiration – should be regular. Quality of Respiration - can be shallow or deep.

6 How is Respiration Controlled?
Breathing is an involuntary act controlled by the brain. It can be temporarily controlled consciously such as holding your breath, or purposefully breathing deeper or slower. When more oxygen is needed, or an excess of carbon dioxide needs to exhaled, the brain signals the lungs to increase the respiratory rate and/or to increase the volume of air exchange by breathing deeper. Brain stem

7 Lung Capacity Tidal Volume (TV) - normal volume moved in or out of the lungs during quiet (resting) breathing (500 mL or 0.5 L). Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV) – inhaling deeply to increase lung volume (2900 mL or 2.9 L). Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV) - increasing expiration by contracting our thoracic and abdominal muscles (1400 mL or 1.4 L). Residual Volume (RV) - even when we exhale deeply some air is still in the lungs (1000 mL or 1 L) Vital capacity (VC) - the total of TV plus IRV plus ERV; it is called vital capacity because it is vital for life, and the more air you can move, the better off you are. Total Lung Capacity (TLC) – the amount of air in the lungs after a deep inhalation – VC plus RV (about 6000 mL or 6 L)

8 Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV)
Lung Capacity 6 L Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV) Vital Capacity (VC) Sucking in as much air as you can after a normal inspiration Tidal Volume (TV) Total Lung Capacity (TLC) Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV) Breathing out forcefully after normal expiration Residual Volume (RV) 0 L

9 Measuring Lung Function
Spirometry is a method of assessing lung function by measuring the volume of air and speed flow of air in and out of the lungs. This is called a Pulmonary Function Test (PFT) and is the most common lung function test. The measurement of breathing can be crucial in aiding treatment or discovery of various breathing ailments. Spirometry is performed with a device known as a spirometer which usually display their results in the form of graphs called spirograms.

10 Types of Spirometers Volumetric Spirometers - records the amount of air exhaled or inhaled within a certain time (volume) Flow Spirometers - measure how fast the air flows in or out as the volume of air inhaled or exhaled increases (flow).

11 Temperature Normal adult temperature is 98.6ºF, or 37ºC.
Body temperature is one of the first vital sign assessments done. It is usually measured to obtain a quick evaluation of a person's health.

12 Why Measure Temperature?
The main reason for checking body temperature is to determine any signs of systemic infection or inflammation in the presence of a fever. Other causes of elevated temperature include hyperthermia due to failed thermoregulation (control of body temperature). Hypothermia is a depression in body temperature.

13 Temperature Temperature Sites
Oral – within the mouth or under the tongue. Axillary – in the armpit. Tympanic – in the ear canal. Rectal – through the anus, in the rectum.

14 Factors that Affect Temperature
Temperature can vary due to: Time of day. Allergic reaction. Illness. Stress. Exposure to heat or cold. Other factors:_________

15 Temperature Types of Thermometers Electronic Thermometers
Measure temperature through a probe at the end of the device. Hold as close as possible to the area where you wish to measure the temperature.

16 Temperature Types of Thermometers Glass Thermometers
Mercury rises in a glass tube until its level matches the temperature. Thermometer Bulb shapes Long tip – for oral use. Security tip – for oral and rectal use. Rounded tip – for rectal.

17 Recap: Four Primary Vital Signs
Heart Rate (Pulse) Blood Pressure Body Temperature Respiration Rate

18 When - Wednesday, Oct 6th – Period 2 What do you need to understand:
Quiz – Vital Signs When - Wednesday, Oct 6th – Period 2 What do you need to understand: The four primary vital signs and their associated organs/systems. Normal/abnormal values. How they are measured and the medical technologies that are used to measure them. The purpose and process of the lab investigations we conducted to explore the vital signs. Happy Studying and Good Luck!

19 Ways to keep your vitals happy
Besides exercise, what other ways can you keep your vitals happy?

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