2Reliability Reliability Goal for clusters set at .90 or higher Goal for tests set at .80 or higherNOTE:Reliability statistics calculated for all WJ III tests across their range of intended use. Included all norming subjects tested at each technical age level.(25 levels - by year 2-19, by 10 yr.intervals 20-79, 80+)Split-half coefficients corrected for length using Spearman-Brown correctionRasch analysis procedures used for calculating reliability for 8 multi-point tests (4 in COG, 4 in ACH) and 8 speeded (5 in COG, 3 in ACH)Test-retest study also conducted for 8 speeded testsInterval set at 1 day to minimize changes in test scores due to changes in the subjects’ states or traits.These reliabilities are lower than those for same tests obtained using Rasch analysis procedures. Test-retest is lower bound for speeded tests - other reliabilities are upper bound.TESTS: 38 of 42 are .80 or higher (15 are .90 or higher) (4 are in .70s)CLUSTERS: 36 of 42 are .90 or higher (6 are in .80s)Consult: Chapter 3 of Technical Manual for more information. Summary information in ASB 2.
3Reliability of the Achievement Clusters Standard Battery ClustersExtended Battery ClustersTotal AchievementOral Language-StdBroad ReadingBroad MathBroad Written Language .94Academic SkillsAcademic FluencyAcademic ApplicationsOral Language-Ext Oral Expression Listening Comprehension Basic Reading Skills Reading Comprehension Math Calculation Skills Math Reasoning Basic Writing Skills Written Expression Phoneme/Grapheme KnowledgeNOTE:Note: median reliabilities reported
4Validity Evidence Content Construct Concurrent CHC theory test blueprint-based content analysisBoth broad and narrow abilities accounted for in test specificationsConstructDivergent growth curves (developmental evidence)Confirmatory factor analysis (internal/structural) evidenceTest and cluster intercorrelationsConvergent/discriminate validity evidenceConcurrent11 special studies (775 additional subjects)Comparison to tests measuring similar constructsNOTE:Test validity refers to the degree to which empirical evidence and theory support the use and interpretation of the test.4 sources of validity evidence reported in Technical Manual:a.) test content (content or substantive validity)b.) developmental patterns of scores (provides evidence of unique abilities)c.) internal structure (construct - intercorrelations of tests/clusters, CFA)d.) relationships to other external variables (special studies-concurrent)Convergent evidence that test/cluster scores are measuring similar abilities or constructs (e.g., all Gc tests correlate higher with each other than with tests of other abilities)Discriminant evidence that tests/clusters are measuring different abilities (e.g., correlations lower between different areas, factors)Factor analysis (CFA - confirmatory factor analysis)Bias & sensitivity reviews conducted as part of item development.Consult Chapter 4 of the Technical Manual for more information. See Chapter 2 of Tech. Manual for info. on CHC theory . Summary information in ASB2.
6ACH 5 CalculationRequires calculation of problems ranging from simple addition facts to calculus (uses SRB)Basal/Ceiling Rules: 6 lowest correct/6 highest incorrectSkipped items are scored as a “0”Do not point out signsAccept reversals but not transposed numbersNOTES:No major changes from WJ-R.Tasks range from writing single numbers to performing addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, and combinations of these basic operations, as well as some geometric, trigonometric, logarithmic, and calculus operations.Subject does not need to make decisions about what data to include or which operation to use. (presented in SRB)Use Suggested Starting Points.Includes: negative numbers, decimals, percents, fractions, and whole numbers.Median Reliabilities:Adult .89Broad AbilityMathematics (Gq)Narrow AbilityMathematics AchievementClustersBroad Mathematics Math Calculation Skills Academic Skills Total Achievement
7Sample A: Make the number “one” in this box. CalculationSample A: Make the number “one” in this box.= = ==x x 7NOTES:Poorly formed or reversed numbers are acceptable.Transposed numbers are NOT acceptable (e.g., 14 for 41).NO, examiners may not point out the signs to the subject.Examiner TipsIf subject responds incorrectly to both sample items, testing may be discontinued. Score test “0.”Do not penalize for poorly formed numerals.Be sure to complete all queries in Test Book.
8NewACH 6 Math FluencyRequires rapid calculation of single-digit addition, subtraction, and multiplication facts (uses SRB)Begin with Item 1/End with 3-minute time limitSkipped items are scored as a “0”Do not point out signsDiscontinue if 3 or less correct after 1 minuteNOTES:New to WJ IIIMeasures ability to solve simple addition, subtraction, and multiplication facts quickly.Median Reliabilities:Adult .92Broad AbilityMathematics (Gq)Narrow AbilitiesMathematics Achievement Numerical FacilityClustersBroad Mathematics Math Calculation Skills Academic Fluency Total Achievement
9Math Fluency Examiner Tips NOTES:Examiner TipsDo not penalize for poorly formed or reversed numbers.Record exact finishing time if subject finishes early or examiner exceeds time limit.Scoring overlay is provided.
11WJ III NU Tests of Achievement Test 10: Applied ProblemsRequires comprehending the nature of a problem, identifying relevant information, performing calculations, and stating solutionNo reading is required
12WJ III NU Tests of Achievement 15. If Maria ate one of these suckers, how many suckers would be left?_______________________________30. Jay’s car holds fifteen gallons of gas. Yoshi’s car holds ten gallons of gas and Ellen’s car holds twenty gallons of gas. How many more gallons does Jay’s car hold than Yoshi’s car?Jay: gallons Yoshi: 10 gallons Ellen: 20 gallons
13WJ III NU Tests of Achievement Test 18: Quantitative ConceptsRequires applying mathematical concepts and analyzing numerical relationships (use Subject Response Booklet)Broken into two subtestsEach item in 18B: Number Series has a 1-minute time limit
14WJ III NU Tests of Achievement 18A: Concepts33. What number is this?6. Point to the largest star. Now point to the smallest star.
15WJ III NU Tests of Achievement 18B: Number Series1 2 3 ___8 6 4 ______1.10.20.
17ACH 8 Writing FluencyRequires formulating and writing simple sentences rapidly (uses SRB)Begin with Item 1/End with 7-minute time limitDiscontinue if subject has “0” on Samples B-DAny stimulus words may be read upon request3 stimulus words may not be changed in any wayNOTES:No major changes from WJ-R.Median Reliabilities:Adult .92Broad AbilityReading-Writing (Grw)Narrow AbilityWriting SpeedClustersBroad Written Language Written Expression Academic Fluency Total Achievement
18Writing Fluency - Samples A & B I am going to ask you to write short sentences about some pictures.A. Look at this picture and the words “good,” “cake,” and “is.” A short sentence that tells about the picture and uses these words is “The cake is good.”B. Now look at this picture and the words “pig,” “fat,” and “is.” Use these three words and any other words you need to write a short sentence about the picture. You may put the words in any order.Go ahead and do Sample Items C and D.A. good cake isB. pig fat isNOTES:
19Writing Fluency - Examiner Tips Score as incorrect any items skipped.Do not penalize for spelling, punctuation, or capitalization errors.Do not penalize for poor handwriting unless illegible.Response must be a reasonable sentence to receive credit.If the sentence is awkward but the meaning is clear, score as 1.Accept sentences with the understood subject you.Accept abbreviations or symbolsIf a word critical to the meaning is omitted, score as 0.Omission of less meaningful word is not penalized.NOTES:
20He is dropping a dime in the bank. Writing Fluency - Scoring Items 25-28He is dropping a dime in the bank.The light is shining from thewindow.They are running the race again.NOTES:Scoring examples.Item 25: 1Item 26: (did not use the word “in”)Item 27: (changed “ran” to “running”)Item 28: 1I want to use the toy truck.
21ACH 11 Writing SamplesRequires writing sentences in response to a series of demands that increase in difficulty (uses SRB)Use Suggested Starting PointsAdminister Block of ItemsAdminister additional block of items if score falls in shaded area of scoring tableNOTES:No major changes from WJ-R. Same number of items, but organized into fewer blocks (5 blocks of items vs. 6 blocks).Median Reliabilities:Adult .91Broad AbilityReading-Writing (Grw)Narrow AbilityWriting AbilityClustersBroad Written Language Written Expression Academic Applications Total Achievement
221.5 not clearly a 2, but better than a 1 point Writing SamplesScoring Responses2 superior response1.5 not clearly a 2, but better than a 1 point1 standard response.5 not clearly a 1, but better than a 00 inadequate or illegibleBlock of Items1 to 61 to 127 to 1813 to 2419 to 30NOTES:Examiner TipsUse Scoring Guide in Appendix B of Examiner Manual.Items may be scored 2, 1.5, 1, .5, or 0 even if no example is shown in Scoring Guide.Score is based on one block even if additional blocks were administered.
23Writing Samples1. This says, “My name is________.” Write your name here.7. This woman is a queen. Write a sentence that tells what this man is.13. Write one good sentence that tells what is happening in this picture and what could happen next.19. Write one sentence about a boy finding a lost dog. Include the words “who found the” in the middle of your sentence.30. Write a good sentence using the words “despite her anger.”NOTES:Illustrates range of items.This test can be given to a small group (2-3) if examiner determines it will not effect the performance of any of the subjects.Examiner TipsDo not penalize for punctuation, capitalization, spelling, or usage errors except when indicated otherwise.Words may be read upon request.Do not spell any words for subject.
24Bothe the lamp & the sun are sorsus of lite. Writing Samples - Scoring ItemsHe can’t see ware to sit.Add eggs.NOTES:Scoring examples:13. Number thirteen. Write one good sentence that tells what is happening in this picture and what could happen next.Response: He can’t see where to sit. (Score is 1 point)14. Number fourteen. The second sentence is missing from this recipe. Write a sentence that will fit.Response: Add eggs. (Score is 1 point)15. Number fifteen. Write a good sentence that tells how these two things are alike.Response: They are both sources of light. (Score is 2)This illustrates that misspellings do not lower the rating.Accept & for “and.”Bothe the lamp & the sun are sorsus of lite.
25I like to snowbored, skee, and play video games. Writing Samples - Scoring Items 16-18I like to snowbored, skee, and play video games.It’s riskee to dive into a pool of unnoan depth becuz you mite misjuge your dive and, konsukwently, brake your nek.He gets aretainer but it’s not the thing you put in yourmouth.NOTES:Scoring examples:Item 16: Write one sentence that tells three things you would like to do on a vacation. Remember, three things. (Note: This item is partially scored for punctuation.)See response above. Score: 1 pointItem 17: Write a good sentence that tells why it is dangerous to dive into a pool when you do not know how deep it is.See response above. Score: 2 points(Spelling does not detract from score. Item must be readable.)Item 18: The second sentence is missing from this paragraph. Write a good sentence that will fit.Examiner TipsDo not ask subject to read response for purpose of scoring.Response must be legible enough to be read by adult without knowledge of item content.
26Writing Samples - Examiner Tips Severe grammatical or usage errors - reduce score by 1 point (omission of critical words, extremely awkward sentences)Multiple Sentences - Select and score the one sentence that most closely meets tasks demands.Inappropriate Content - Responses that have little to do with the requested task are scored as 0.Misinterpretation of Picture - Ignore and score response according to item criteria.Two Raters - Two independent raters score items and resolve any score differences of more than 1 point. Average the two scores to obtain final number correct.Round scores - ending in .5 to nearest even number (15.5 = 16, 16.5=16)NOTES:
273. Find 22 in column for Items 1-12 4. See Note 2 Adjusted Item Blocks212222222618.104.22.16821. Began with Items 1-122. Number of Points = 223. Find 22 in column for Items 1-124. See Note 25. Administer Items 13-186. Base score on Items 7-1822NOTES:
29NewACH 3 Story RecallRequires listening to stories and recalling elementsUse Suggested Starting PointsFollow Continuation InstructionsDo not repeat or replay any storiesNOTES:New to WJ III.Subject listens to a story from the audio recording and then recall as many details as possible. The stories become increasingly complex.Median Reliabilities:Adult .89Broad AbilityComprehension-Knowledge (Gc)Narrow AbilitiesLanguage Development Listening AbilityClustersOral Language-STD Oral Language-EXT Oral Expression
30Pause the audio recording after each story so the subject can respond. Story Recall - Examiner TipsPause the audio recording after each story so the subject can respond.In the Test Record, place a check mark over each element recalled (elements are separated by slash marks /)Elements that are bold must be recalled exactly. Other elements can be synonyms or paraphrased.If necessary, stories can be presented orally.If Test 12 Story Recall-Delayed will be administered, do not tell subject that stories may need to be recalled later.NOTES:Oral presentation is possible if subject is not responsive to audio recording (e.g., very young, low functioning).
31She catches butterflies. (1) Julie catches butterflies. (2) Story Recall - Story 1Julie / likes to catch butterflies./ Then she lets them go./She catches butterflies (1)Julie catches butterflies (2)Julie likes catching butterflies. She lets them go (3)Sample Responses Points PossibleNOTES:Continuation RulesIf subject has 3 or fewer points on Stories 1 and 2, testing may be discontinued.If subject has 4 or more points on Stories 1 and 2, administer Stories 3 and 4 unless already administered.
32Story Recall - Story 2Mary / has a dog./ He loves to ride / in the car,/ but he hates to take a bath./Score these responses: (5 points possible)He doesn’t like taking baths.Mary’s dog loves to ride in the car.Her dog hates baths but he loves riding in the car.NOTES:Scoring of first example.He doesn’t like taking baths. ( Score is 1)*(one element)Mary’s dog loves to ride in the car. (Score is 4)* * * *(4 elements)Her dog hates baths but he loves riding in the car. (Score is 4)* * * *
33birthday./ He wanted to put them on his bedroom / ceiling./ Story Recall - Story 5Rick / got some glow-in-the-dark/ stars / for his sixthbirthday./ He wanted to put them on his bedroom / ceiling./He wanted to put them in his bedroom (1)Rick got some glowing stars for his birthday (2)He put some glow-in-the-dark stars on his bedroom ceiling (4)Sample Responses Points PossibleNOTES:Continuation RulesIf subject has 8 or fewer points on Stories 5 and 6, administer Stories 3 and 4 unless already administered.If subject has 9 or more points on Stories 5 and 6, administer Stories 7 and 8 unless already administered.
34Story Recall - Story 6The dinosaur / at the museum/ was over 20 feet / tall./ Many people came to see it. / Some small / children / were scared./ They thought it was real./Score these responses: (9 points possible)They were afraid of the dinosaur.At the museum there was a 20 foot tall dinosaur. The little kids were scared. They thought it was real.NOTES:Scoring of examples.They were afraid of the dinosaur. (Score is 2 points)* *(2 elements)* * * *At the museum there was a 20 foot tall dinosaur.The little kids were scared. They thought it was real. (Score is 8 points)* * * *(8 elements)
35Story Recall - Story 6The dinosaur / at the museum/ was over 20 feet / tall./ Many people came to see it. / Some small / children / were scared./ They thought it was real./Score these responses: (9 points possible)They were afraid of the dinosaur.At the museum there was a 20 foot tall dinosaur. The little kids were scared. They thought it was real.NOTES:Scoring of examples.They were afraid of the dinosaur. (Score is 2 points)* *(2 elements)* * * *At the museum there was a 20 foot tall dinosaur.The little kids were scared. They thought it was real. (Score is 8 points)* * * *(8 elements)
36Place check mark over each element recalled correctly. Enter Date & Time.Place check mark over each element recalled correctly.Bold words must be recalled exactly.2353 or fewer points: Discontinue testing.4 or more points: Administer Stories 3 and 4.Follow Continuation Instructions.NOTES:Recording the date & time is especially important if Test 12: Story Recall-Delayed is to be administered. Best to record it at all times because a decision may be made later to administer Test 12.Continuation Instructions tell examiner when to discontinue, when to test further, or when to administer easier items.In this example, the instructions for Stories 1-2 are:3 or fewer points, discontinue testing.4 or more points, administer Stories 3 & 4.Record points for each story and each set of stories.
37ACH 14 Picture Vocabulary Requires naming pictures (familiar to less familiar)Use Suggested Starting PointsBasal/Ceiling Rules: 6 lowest correct/6 highest incorrectPoint to picture or part of picture as directedTest by complete pagesNOTES:No major changes from WJ-R. (moved from COG to ACH)Items range from receptive, pointing tasks to orally naming pictured objects.Word-finding difficulties may impact performance. (retrieval)Median Reliabilities:Adult .90Broad AbilityComprehension-Knowledge (Gc)Narrow AbilitiesLanguage Development Lexical KnowledgeClustersOral Language-Extended Oral Expression
381. Run your finger across item and say: Put your finger on the flower. Picture Vocabulary1. Run your finger across item and say: Put your finger on the flower.NOTE:Receptive itemItem 1: points to flower
392. Point to picture and say: What is this? Picture Vocabulary2. Point to picture and say: What is this?19. Point to picture and say: What are these called?NOTE:Expressive itemsItem 2: ballItem 19: binoculars
4040. Point to picture and say: What is this called? Picture Vocabulary40. Point to picture and say: What is this called?Query: eye glass, lens Tell me another word.NOTES:Expressive itemIllustrates need to point to “exact” part of picture.Illustrates “query.”Item 40: monocleExaminer TipsPoint to the picture or picture part as directed.Complete any queries listed in Test book.Record errors for further analysis.