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Communicating and Collaborating with Other Professionals and Families Sped 518: Survey of the Exceptional Learner Fall 2011 Portland State University.

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Presentation on theme: "Communicating and Collaborating with Other Professionals and Families Sped 518: Survey of the Exceptional Learner Fall 2011 Portland State University."— Presentation transcript:

1 Communicating and Collaborating with Other Professionals and Families Sped 518: Survey of the Exceptional Learner Fall 2011 Portland State University

2 Teaching Students Who are Exceptional, Diverse, and At Risk in the General Education Classroom, 5e Vaughn, Bos, & Schumm - ISBN © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 3-2 Agenda Break up into groups of three. Review what you learned about the students in your class from doing the class profile. How did this knowledge change your practice? Presentation on Co-Teaching Discussion on Autism Video What You Can Do in the Classroom

3 Teaching Students Who are Exceptional, Diverse, and At Risk in the General Education Classroom, 5e Vaughn, Bos, & Schumm - ISBN © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 3-3 "Fairness is not giving everyone the same thing. Fairness is giving each person what they need to succeed."

4 Teaching Students Who are Exceptional, Diverse, and At Risk in the General Education Classroom, 5e Vaughn, Bos, & Schumm - ISBN © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 3-4 Background General educators are more receptive to change when they have background knowledge and a chance to participate in the decisions rather than being given a special education mandate to follow. Steele, Bell, & George, 2005

5 Teaching Students Who are Exceptional, Diverse, and At Risk in the General Education Classroom, 5e Vaughn, Bos, & Schumm - ISBN © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 3-5 Background (cont.) Special educators have developed a tendency to “own” students on individualized education plans (IEPs), which decreases the “voice” and participation of classroom teachers in collaborative problem solving. Steele, Bell, & George, 2005

6 Teaching Students Who are Exceptional, Diverse, and At Risk in the General Education Classroom, 5e Vaughn, Bos, & Schumm - ISBN © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 3-6 Collaborating with Other Professionals Consultation “a voluntary process in which one professional assists another to address a problem concerning a third party” (Friend and Cook, 2007) Collaboration “Interpersonal collaboration is a style for direct interaction between at least two coequal parties voluntarily engaged in shared decision making as they work toward a common goal” (Friend and Cook, 2007) Co-teaching “two or more professionals jointly delivering instruction to a diverse, or blended, group of students in a single physical space” (Friend and Cook, 2007)

7 Teaching Students Who are Exceptional, Diverse, and At Risk in the General Education Classroom, 5e Vaughn, Bos, & Schumm - ISBN © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 3-7 Five Step Procedure for Peer Collaboration 1. Initiation or facilitation 2. Clarifying questions 3. Summarization 4. Interventions and predictions 5. Evaluation

8 Teaching Students Who are Exceptional, Diverse, and At Risk in the General Education Classroom, 5e Vaughn, Bos, & Schumm - ISBN © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 3-8 Ways to Resolve the Need for Resources Needed for Collaboration Administrators designate a common time for collaborating professionals School boards pay professionals for one extra time period each week to collaborate or meet with parents School districts provide early dismissal for students one day a week so team members have a common planning time Teachers schedule brief focused planning periods with one another

9 Teaching Students Who are Exceptional, Diverse, and At Risk in the General Education Classroom, 5e Vaughn, Bos, & Schumm - ISBN © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 3-9 Collaboration Issues and Dilemmas Concerns about co-teaching Student ownership Individual versus class focus Content versus accommodation Real world versus student’s world

10 Teaching Students Who are Exceptional, Diverse, and At Risk in the General Education Classroom, 5e Vaughn, Bos, & Schumm - ISBN © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Where to Begin: Building Bridges Walking across the bridge, leaving the familiar ground of working alone, is the first act of collaboration. All parties are in neutral territory, with the security of knowing they can return to land better, stronger, and changed. And perhaps they will return to the same side of the bridge even though they started from opposite sides. Steele, Bell, & George, 2005

11 Teaching Students Who are Exceptional, Diverse, and At Risk in the General Education Classroom, 5e Vaughn, Bos, & Schumm - ISBN © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Collaboration Won’t Just Happen Deliberate Structured Systematic Ongoing Steele, Bell, & George, 2005

12 Teaching Students Who are Exceptional, Diverse, and At Risk in the General Education Classroom, 5e Vaughn, Bos, & Schumm - ISBN © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Why Won’t it Just Happen? General educators begin with the curriculum first and use assessment to determine what was learned. Special educators begin with assessment first and design instruction to repair gaps in learning. No wonder we are talking different languages. Steele, Bell, & George, 2005

13 Teaching Students Who are Exceptional, Diverse, and At Risk in the General Education Classroom, 5e Vaughn, Bos, & Schumm - ISBN © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Limitations and Potential Drawbacks Co-teaching is not easy to maintain in schools. There may not be enough special educators for a co-teaching program. Co-taught classrooms may be disproportionally filled with students with disabilities. Special educators can function more as a teaching assistant than as a co-educator. Friend & Cook, 2003

14 Effective Co-Planning

15 Teaching Students Who are Exceptional, Diverse, and At Risk in the General Education Classroom, 5e Vaughn, Bos, & Schumm - ISBN © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved VIDEO: Co-Planning wz8g8t4

16 Teaching Students Who are Exceptional, Diverse, and At Risk in the General Education Classroom, 5e Vaughn, Bos, & Schumm - ISBN © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Pre-Planning Co-teaching requires thoughtful planning time. Administrative support is essential. Here is where the alignment of special and general education occurs Make this time as focused as possible Take turns taking the lead in planning and facilitating Murawski & Dieker, 2004; Dieker, 2002

17 Teaching Students Who are Exceptional, Diverse, and At Risk in the General Education Classroom, 5e Vaughn, Bos, & Schumm - ISBN © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Provide Weekly Scheduling Co-Planning Time Co-teaching teams should have a minimum of one scheduling/planning period (45–60 minutes) per week. Experienced teams should spend 10 minutes to plan each lesson. Dieker, 2001; Walther-Thomas, Bryant, & Land, 1996

18 Teaching Students Who are Exceptional, Diverse, and At Risk in the General Education Classroom, 5e Vaughn, Bos, & Schumm - ISBN © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Weekly Co-Planning Effective weekly co-planning is based on regularly scheduled meetings, rather than “fitting it in.” Important to stay focused Review content in advance of meeting Walther-Thomas, Bryant, & Land, 1996

19 Teaching Students Who are Exceptional, Diverse, and At Risk in the General Education Classroom, 5e Vaughn, Bos, & Schumm - ISBN © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Weekly Co-Planning (cont.) Guide the session with the following fundamental issues: What are the content goals? Who are the learners? How can we teach most effectively? Walther-Thomas, Bryant, & Land, 1996

20 Teaching Students Who are Exceptional, Diverse, and At Risk in the General Education Classroom, 5e Vaughn, Bos, & Schumm - ISBN © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Two Stages of Classroom Co-Planning 1. Getting to know each other 2. Weekly co-planning Walther-Thomas, Bryant, & Land, 1996

21 Teaching Students Who are Exceptional, Diverse, and At Risk in the General Education Classroom, 5e Vaughn, Bos, & Schumm - ISBN © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Getting to Know Each Other Consider completing a teaching style inventory Compare how each of you prefers to structure assignments, lessons, classroom schedule, etc. Example

22 Teaching Students Who are Exceptional, Diverse, and At Risk in the General Education Classroom, 5e Vaughn, Bos, & Schumm - ISBN © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Effective Classroom-Level Planning Co-teachers should show a shared commitment and enthusiasm. Both teachers’ names should be posted on the door and in the classroom. All meetings and correspondence with families should reflect participation from both co-teachers. Skilled planners trust the professional skills of their partners. Walther-Thomas, Bryant, & Land, 1996

23 Teaching Students Who are Exceptional, Diverse, and At Risk in the General Education Classroom, 5e Vaughn, Bos, & Schumm - ISBN © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Effective Classroom-Level Planning (cont.) Effective planners design learning environments for their students and for themselves that demand active involvement. Effective co-planners create learning and teaching environments in which each person’s contributions are valued. Effective planners develop effective routines to facilitate their planning. Planning skills improve over time. Walther-Thomas, Bryant, & Land, 1996

24 Teaching Students Who are Exceptional, Diverse, and At Risk in the General Education Classroom, 5e Vaughn, Bos, & Schumm - ISBN © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Defining Co-Teaching Co-teaching occurs when two or more professionals jointly deliver substantive instruction to a diverse, or blended, group of students in a single physical space. Cook & Friend, 1995, p. 1

25 Teaching Students Who are Exceptional, Diverse, and At Risk in the General Education Classroom, 5e Vaughn, Bos, & Schumm - ISBN © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Video: Co-Teaching D-f3JNo&feature=related

26 Teaching Students Who are Exceptional, Diverse, and At Risk in the General Education Classroom, 5e Vaughn, Bos, & Schumm - ISBN © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Co-Teaching Occurs when general and special education teachers work together to coordinate curriculum and instruction to teach heterogeneous groups of students. Lesson co-teaching Co-Planning Long-range co-planning Lesson co-planning Grading Questions about grading at various grade levels General v. special education students

27 Teaching Students Who are Exceptional, Diverse, and At Risk in the General Education Classroom, 5e Vaughn, Bos, & Schumm - ISBN © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved What is Co-Teaching Two (or more) educators or other certified staff Contract to share instructional responsibility For a single group of students Primarily in a single classroom or workspace For specific content (objectives) With mutual ownership, pooled resources, and joint accountability

28 Teaching Students Who are Exceptional, Diverse, and At Risk in the General Education Classroom, 5e Vaughn, Bos, & Schumm - ISBN © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Why Co-Teach Co-teaching is one way to deliver services to students with disabilities or other special needs as part of a philosophy of inclusive practices. As a result, it shares many benefits with other inclusion strategies, including a reduction in stigma for students with special needs, an increased understanding and respect for students with special needs on the part of other students, and the development of a sense of heterogeneously-based classroom community.

29 Teaching Students Who are Exceptional, Diverse, and At Risk in the General Education Classroom, 5e Vaughn, Bos, & Schumm - ISBN © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Regular ClassSpecial Teacher One Teach / One Monitor  new students  Data Collection Present Instruction and check for understanding Circulate, observe, collect data One Teach /One Assist  Proximity control  Individual Assistance Present Instruction and check for understanding Monitor and assist students Parallel Teaching- same content  Reduce t/s ratio  Increase interactions  Divide students  Teach to different learning styles Instruct part of class and check for understanding Center Teaching  Skill practice Instruct small group Alternative Teaching-  modified lesson or assistance  Workshops Instruct large or small group Supplementary Teaching  Addressing Student Skill Deficits Manage Classroom or Instruct Small Group Manage Classroom Instruct Small Group Team Teaching  Direct Instruction  Cooperative Groups  New Content Present Instruction with a partner to the whole group Deliver instruction to whole group with a partner, take notes, create visual graphic organizer, Illustrate content, present alternative method of problem solving. 29

30 Teaching Students Who are Exceptional, Diverse, and At Risk in the General Education Classroom, 5e Vaughn, Bos, & Schumm - ISBN © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Station Teaching Divide and Concur Students rotate around stations 30

31 Teaching Students Who are Exceptional, Diverse, and At Risk in the General Education Classroom, 5e Vaughn, Bos, & Schumm - ISBN © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Station Teaching Advantages Separate responsibilities Both teachers are active and equal Low student-teacher ratio Disadvantages Noise level Lots of movement Does the order matter? Pacing

32 Teaching Students Who are Exceptional, Diverse, and At Risk in the General Education Classroom, 5e Vaughn, Bos, & Schumm - ISBN © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Parallel Teaching Joint planning Slip the class into two heterogeneous groups Diversity in both groups

33 Teaching Students Who are Exceptional, Diverse, and At Risk in the General Education Classroom, 5e Vaughn, Bos, & Schumm - ISBN © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Parallel Teaching Advantages Lower student- teacher ratio Teach in two groups and bring together for discussions Joint planning Disadvantages Joint planning Cannot be used for initial instruction Noise level Lots of movement Pacing

34 Teaching Students Who are Exceptional, Diverse, and At Risk in the General Education Classroom, 5e Vaughn, Bos, & Schumm - ISBN © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Teach, 1 Observe 1 professional instructs, 1 professional observes & collects data Roles should not be static Teachers should create systematic method for taking down observations 34

35 Teaching Students Who are Exceptional, Diverse, and At Risk in the General Education Classroom, 5e Vaughn, Bos, & Schumm - ISBN © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Teach, 1 Observe Advantages Requires little Joint Planning Time Allows both teachers to focus attention, rather than spreading selves to thin Separate Responsibilities, less conflict with teaching style Disadvantages If used exclusively, can lead to one teacher being seen as the “assistant”

36 Teaching Students Who are Exceptional, Diverse, and At Risk in the General Education Classroom, 5e Vaughn, Bos, & Schumm - ISBN © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Alternative Teaching Small Group of students receive separate instruction Teachers’ roles should not be static Small Group membership and composition should be fluid

37 Teaching Students Who are Exceptional, Diverse, and At Risk in the General Education Classroom, 5e Vaughn, Bos, & Schumm - ISBN © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Alternative Teaching Advantages Students can receive highly intensive instruction within general education classroom Students have opportunity for more small group/1:1 interaction with teachers Allows for peer modeling – having positive class models work alongside of students with behavior disorders Disadvantages Students with disabilities may be stigmatized because of being frequently pulled into small group If students are given opportunity to come to back table for assistance, many students in need of assistance may not come for fear of being embarrassed

38 Teaching Students Who are Exceptional, Diverse, and At Risk in the General Education Classroom, 5e Vaughn, Bos, & Schumm - ISBN © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Teaming Both teachers are responsible for planning and share in the instruction of all students.

39 Teaching Students Who are Exceptional, Diverse, and At Risk in the General Education Classroom, 5e Vaughn, Bos, & Schumm - ISBN © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Teaming Advantages Both educators have equal status. Teachers can play off of each other (role play, trade ideas during instruction, one can speak while the other models.) Results in a synergy that enhances students participation (and also invigorates professionals) Disadvantages Requires a great level of trust and commitment Requires a lot of planning Teaching styles must mesh (if teachers differ in their use of humor, pacing or instructional format the “flow” of the lesson in often unsuccessful.)

40 Teaching Students Who are Exceptional, Diverse, and At Risk in the General Education Classroom, 5e Vaughn, Bos, & Schumm - ISBN © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved One Teaching, One Assisting One teacher teaches while the other supports in instructional process 40

41 Teaching Students Who are Exceptional, Diverse, and At Risk in the General Education Classroom, 5e Vaughn, Bos, & Schumm - ISBN © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved One Teaching, One Assisting Advantages Requires little joint planning Gives a role to special services provider if they do not feel competent in the subject area Disadvantages Sometimes becomes the sole or primary co-teaching approach when planning time is scarce. Teacher probably takes the lead role and the special services provider becomes the assistant (special services- denied an active teaching role, undermines credibility) Assisting teacher can become a distraction (both visually- walking around and auditory- whispering) Risk of students becoming dependent learners

42 Teaching Students Who are Exceptional, Diverse, and At Risk in the General Education Classroom, 5e Vaughn, Bos, & Schumm - ISBN © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Co-Teaching Advantages Lower teacher – student ratio Classroom of diverse learners Teachers can respond effectively to varied needs of students Another professional can provide different viewpoints and more ideas for instruction. Teachers can be motivational for one another. Co-teaching can positively affect the general educator’s instructional behavior.

43 Teaching Students Who are Exceptional, Diverse, and At Risk in the General Education Classroom, 5e Vaughn, Bos, & Schumm - ISBN © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Barriers/Disadvantages to Success Lack of administrative support Lack of shared planning time Need for in-service training Personality matches – the relationship between co-teachers is critical to success. Misguided perceptions and / or lack of communication Poorly defined roles / unclear expectations Dividing the class based on SPED and non-SPED students

44 Scheduling Co-Teaching

45 Teaching Students Who are Exceptional, Diverse, and At Risk in the General Education Classroom, 5e Vaughn, Bos, & Schumm - ISBN © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Collaborative Scheduling Collaborative Scheduling A Collaborative Scheduling B Collaborative Scheduling C Walsh & Jones, 2004

46 Teaching Students Who are Exceptional, Diverse, and At Risk in the General Education Classroom, 5e Vaughn, Bos, & Schumm - ISBN © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Collaborative Scheduling A Special educator divides teaching time between two different classes in the same day. Walsh & Jones, 2004

47 Teaching Students Who are Exceptional, Diverse, and At Risk in the General Education Classroom, 5e Vaughn, Bos, & Schumm - ISBN © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Advantages of Collaborative Scheduling A Enables students with disabilities to access a broader range of general education classrooms, including AP and honors Ensures the availability of direct support from a special educator for critical parts of the instructional programs Improved ratio of students with disabilities to students without disabilities Walsh & Jones, 2004

48 Teaching Students Who are Exceptional, Diverse, and At Risk in the General Education Classroom, 5e Vaughn, Bos, & Schumm - ISBN © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Challenges of Collaborative Scheduling A Requires effective consulting skills on the part of the special educator Larger danger that the special educator will not be seen as an equal partner to the general educator Could possibly disrupt the class routine Walsh & Jones, 2004

49 Teaching Students Who are Exceptional, Diverse, and At Risk in the General Education Classroom, 5e Vaughn, Bos, & Schumm - ISBN © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Collaborative Scheduling B The special educator divides time between two different classes. The involvement of the special educator varies by days of the week, not within classes in the same day. Walsh & Jones, 2004

50 Teaching Students Who are Exceptional, Diverse, and At Risk in the General Education Classroom, 5e Vaughn, Bos, & Schumm - ISBN © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Advantages of Collaborative Scheduling B Advantages are similar to Collaborative Scheduling A. Co-teachers report an ability to implement a full range of co-teaching models because of the planned involvement of both teachers in complete classes on certain days of the week. Walsh & Jones, 2004

51 Teaching Students Who are Exceptional, Diverse, and At Risk in the General Education Classroom, 5e Vaughn, Bos, & Schumm - ISBN © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Challenges of Collaborative Scheduling B Challenges are similar to Collaborative Scheduling A. Teachers need to be cognizant of the presence of two teachers on only certain days of the week. Students with specific support and accommodation requirements have to be well aligned to the schedule. Walsh & Jones, 2004

52 Teaching Students Who are Exceptional, Diverse, and At Risk in the General Education Classroom, 5e Vaughn, Bos, & Schumm - ISBN © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Challenges of Collaborative Scheduling B (cont.) Requires general educator to be able to implement IEP requirements in the absence of the special educator Special educator burnout is an issue because of the greater demand of knowledge of the general education curriculum. Requires supervisory judgment regarding which teachers can effectively plan and implement this model Walsh & Jones, 2004

53 Teaching Students Who are Exceptional, Diverse, and At Risk in the General Education Classroom, 5e Vaughn, Bos, & Schumm - ISBN © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Collaborative Scheduling C The special educator serves as a resource to the interdisciplinary team. His/her schedule is established weekly on the basis of instructional activities. Requires the greatest amount of flexibility and planning by an interdisciplinary team of teachers Walsh & Jones, 2004

54 Teaching Students Who are Exceptional, Diverse, and At Risk in the General Education Classroom, 5e Vaughn, Bos, & Schumm - ISBN © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Advantages of Collaborative Scheduling C Special educator is present when needed most for instructional support. Instructional need dictates the cooperative teaching role, not the calendar or time of day. Most responsive to students’ needs and schedules. Walsh & Jones, 2004

55 Teaching Students Who are Exceptional, Diverse, and At Risk in the General Education Classroom, 5e Vaughn, Bos, & Schumm - ISBN © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Challenges of Collaborative Scheduling C Requires the highest degree of planning and buy-in by a team of teachers Walsh & Jones, 2004

56 Co-Teaching Scenarios

57 Teaching Students Who are Exceptional, Diverse, and At Risk in the General Education Classroom, 5e Vaughn, Bos, & Schumm - ISBN © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Activity Directions Each group will read and discuss their scenario. Be prepared to report back to the group with a summary of the scenario, including: Comments about pros and cons Personal insight into why the example was a positive or negative experience for the co-teachers

58 Upper Elementary and Middle School Earth Science

59 Teaching Students Who are Exceptional, Diverse, and At Risk in the General Education Classroom, 5e Vaughn, Bos, & Schumm - ISBN © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Working Relationships Elementary team volunteered; middle school team was assigned. Both teams were upbeat and able to interject appropriately during the lesson and displayed mutual respect. Both teams indicated a genuine trust and respect for their partners. Mastropieri et al., 2005

60 Teaching Students Who are Exceptional, Diverse, and At Risk in the General Education Classroom, 5e Vaughn, Bos, & Schumm - ISBN © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Strengths as Motivators Both teachers on both teams claimed ownership for all of the students who were enrolled. Teachers emphasized importance of enthusiastic teaching while maintaining effective behavior management. Mastropieri et al., 2005

61 Teaching Students Who are Exceptional, Diverse, and At Risk in the General Education Classroom, 5e Vaughn, Bos, & Schumm - ISBN © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Time Allocated for Co-Planning Elementary team did not have time allocated for co-planning: Met before/after school and at lunch Because they enjoyed each other’s company, lack of scheduled co-planning time did not appear to be a barrier to effective instruction. Mentioned that it would have been easier if the administration had allowed them time for co-planning Mastropieri et al., 2005

62 Teaching Students Who are Exceptional, Diverse, and At Risk in the General Education Classroom, 5e Vaughn, Bos, & Schumm - ISBN © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Time Allocated for Co-Planning (cont.) Seventh-grade team had a common free period for planning during which time they could: Review where they were in the content Determine what needed to be covered and by when Develop optimal ways to present information and complete activities Mastropieri et al., 2005

63 Teaching Students Who are Exceptional, Diverse, and At Risk in the General Education Classroom, 5e Vaughn, Bos, & Schumm - ISBN © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Appropriate Curriculum Both teams used a hands-on, activity-based approach to instruction: Made content more concrete Lessened the language and literacy demands of tasks Mastropieri et al., 2005

64 Teaching Students Who are Exceptional, Diverse, and At Risk in the General Education Classroom, 5e Vaughn, Bos, & Schumm - ISBN © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Appropriate Curriculum (cont.) Activity-based instruction lends itself very well to co-teaching: Teachers can share more equitably in instruction. In fact, teachers appear to be more likely to share instruction in a hands-on approach. Mastropieri et al., 2005

65 Teaching Students Who are Exceptional, Diverse, and At Risk in the General Education Classroom, 5e Vaughn, Bos, & Schumm - ISBN © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Effective Instructional Skills Both teams used effective instructional skills: Framework of daily review, presentation of new information, guided and independent practice activities, and formative review Effective classroom management, including good behavior as a prerequisite for participation in activities, such reinforcers as positive comments, and tangibles Mastropieri et al., 2005

66 Teaching Students Who are Exceptional, Diverse, and At Risk in the General Education Classroom, 5e Vaughn, Bos, & Schumm - ISBN © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Disability-Specific Teaching Adaptations Both teams planned for individual student performance within the unit and how to handle individual differences: Reduced language and literacy requirements Special educator worked with students who required adaptations. Mastropieri et al., 2005

67 Teaching Students Who are Exceptional, Diverse, and At Risk in the General Education Classroom, 5e Vaughn, Bos, & Schumm - ISBN © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Disability-Specific Teaching Adaptations (cont.) Seventh-grade team used PowerPoint presentations for supplemental review. Special educator adapted tests by reducing amount of written language in questions. Mastropieri et al., 2005

68 Teaching Students Who are Exceptional, Diverse, and At Risk in the General Education Classroom, 5e Vaughn, Bos, & Schumm - ISBN © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Expertise in the Content Area In fourth grade, both teachers deferred to each other during instruction so all students would benefit: Teachers frequently exchanged roles as presenters. Mastropieri et al., 2005

69 Teaching Students Who are Exceptional, Diverse, and At Risk in the General Education Classroom, 5e Vaughn, Bos, & Schumm - ISBN © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Expertise in the Content Area (cont.) In seventh grade, the division between the content and the adaptation experts was more pronounced: General educator appeared to have an advantage over the special educator with respect to content knowledge. Special educator viewed this as an advantage (i.e., giving him/her an opportunity to learn the curriculum). During lessons, special educator more frequently assumed the role of assisting individuals and small groups than the general educator. Mastropieri et al., 2005

70 Middle School Social Studies

71 Teaching Students Who are Exceptional, Diverse, and At Risk in the General Education Classroom, 5e Vaughn, Bos, & Schumm - ISBN © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Co-Planning Both teachers had allocated planning time; however, this was also their individual planning time. One period per week was allocated for co-planning. Planned for: Curriculum issues (in general), scheduling for curriculum sequence, and types of assignments and activities Ways to divide the teaching responsibilities Mastropieri et al., 2005

72 Teaching Students Who are Exceptional, Diverse, and At Risk in the General Education Classroom, 5e Vaughn, Bos, & Schumm - ISBN © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Co-Planning (cont.) Lack of planning was an obstacle to co-teaching Resulted in lessons that were too advanced for all students Left one of the team members feeling trapped in an unworkable situation As tensions mounted, teachers began to split the class into two small groups and moved them into separate rooms for many of the activities. Mastropieri et al., 2005

73 Teaching Students Who are Exceptional, Diverse, and At Risk in the General Education Classroom, 5e Vaughn, Bos, & Schumm - ISBN © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Teaching Styles Each teacher had a distinct style of instruction: One teacher was very relaxed and casual; the other was more structured and formal. In the beginning, these styles seemed to complement each other. Students appeared to adapt to the differences in styles and expectations. As the year progressed, the extreme styles contributed to the deterioration of the team. Mastropieri et al., 2005

74 Teaching Students Who are Exceptional, Diverse, and At Risk in the General Education Classroom, 5e Vaughn, Bos, & Schumm - ISBN © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Behavior and Classroom Management Little structure was in place in the beginning. No specific class behavior rules were posted. Teachers implied that schoolwide behavior policies were the expectations for the class. The loosely structured classroom behavior structure suited one teacher but not the other. This was a contributing factor to the eroding of the team—the final straw. Mastropieri et al., 2005

75 Working with Families

76 Teaching Students Who are Exceptional, Diverse, and At Risk in the General Education Classroom, 5e Vaughn, Bos, & Schumm - ISBN © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Working with Parents Parents Rights in the Educational Decision-Making Process Parents should be notified and their permission obtained before identification, evaluation, and placement of child Parents may request an evaluation when they think child needs special education or related services Parents may request an independent evaluation at public expense when they disagree with the school evaluation Parent may request a reevaluation when they think their child’s placement is no longer appropriate Parents may request their child to be tested in his or her primary language Parents may participate in development of the an IEP or IFSP Parents may request a due process hearing to resolve differences Parents should be informed of child’s progress at least as often as parents of children without disabilities

77 Teaching Students Who are Exceptional, Diverse, and At Risk in the General Education Classroom, 5e Vaughn, Bos, & Schumm - ISBN © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Family Collaboration Two forces contributing to increased engagement of parents and family Increased parent advocacy Research on the impact of family involvement Over representation of minorities Home-school communication is a two-way street

78 Teaching Students Who are Exceptional, Diverse, and At Risk in the General Education Classroom, 5e Vaughn, Bos, & Schumm - ISBN © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Six Factors of Successful Partnerships Communication Commitment Equality Skills Trust Respect

79 Teaching Students Who are Exceptional, Diverse, and At Risk in the General Education Classroom, 5e Vaughn, Bos, & Schumm - ISBN © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Family Adjustment: Five Categories of Needs of Families Information exchange Consumer and advocacy information Home/community program implementation Counseling, therapy, and consultation Parent-coordinated service programs

80 Teaching Students Who are Exceptional, Diverse, and At Risk in the General Education Classroom, 5e Vaughn, Bos, & Schumm - ISBN © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Planned Conferences: Preparation Review the student’s materials, grades, and work progress Meet with and learn the perspectives of other professionals who work with student Review the student’s folder, portfolio, and previous assessment information Obtain samples of student’s most recent work Make an outline of topics to discuss

81 Teaching Students Who are Exceptional, Diverse, and At Risk in the General Education Classroom, 5e Vaughn, Bos, & Schumm - ISBN © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Parent Conference Considerations Considerations: Welcome parents and make them feel comfortable Review the outline and ask parents for other items to discuss Begin and end with positives about the child Try not to use technical language that would intimidate or insult parent Communicate any concerns in straightforward and sensitive manner Solicit parent reactions and recommendations to address concerns Summarize any decisions or plan made at the end of the conference Set a target date for follow-up

82 Teaching Students Who are Exceptional, Diverse, and At Risk in the General Education Classroom, 5e Vaughn, Bos, & Schumm - ISBN © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Unplanned Conferences Avoid temptation to resolve complex issues in an impromptu meeting Arrange a time to discuss parent’s concerns in a more appropriate setting

83 Teaching Students Who are Exceptional, Diverse, and At Risk in the General Education Classroom, 5e Vaughn, Bos, & Schumm - ISBN © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved School-to-Home Communication Beginning of year letter or bulletin “Good News” notes Student-written learning logs Weekly and monthly calendars Newsletters Phone calls Face-to-face conferences Websites Classroom web pages Parent interviews or surveys


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